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CAT. NO. 23231 







978.6 K'tONTAMA 
I'bntajia, Historical 

society 

Contributions 



cop. 1 
vol, X 



STATE LIBRARY COMMISSION 

SOUTH AVE. & MIDDLESEX 

MISSOULA, MONTANA 












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CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE 

Historical Society of 
Montana 



VOLUME TEN 
1940 



THE FORT BENTON JOURNAL. 1854-1856. 



AND 



THE FORT SARPY JOURNAL. 1855-1856. 



«AEGELE PRINTING CO , HELENA. MONT. 



Contents 



Pages 

Officers of the Historical Society of Montana vii 

Foreword ix-xi 

Fort Benton Journal, 1854-1856 1- 99 

Fort Sarpy Journal, 1855-1856 100-187 

Appendices - 189-236 

Notes and References 237-305 

Bibliography 307-310 

Index 311-327 



V 



lustrations 



Blackfoot Council, October, 1855 Frontispiece 

Alexander Culbertson Facing page 4 

Mrs. Alexander Culbertson Facing page 8 

Hugh Munro Facing page 20 

Buffalo Press Facing page 28 

James Bird Facing page 36 

Colonel Alfred Cumming Facing page 42 

Fort Benton and Fort Campbell Facing page 46 

Star Robe Facing page 54 

The Rider Facing page 60 

Low Horn Facing page 66 

Lame Bull Facing page 98 

Fort Union Facing page 106 

Edwin T. Denig Facing page 110 

Rotten Tail Facing page 114 

Four Rivers Facing page 120 

Fool Bear Facing page 136 

Charles Mercier Facing page 194 



Officers 



OF THE 



Historical Society of 
Montana 

1938-1940 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

MRS. JOSEPHINE I. HEPNER, President 

O. F. GODDARD, Vice-President 

MRS. FAIRIE L. EVANS GEORGE R. METLEN 

JOHN B. PITCH, Secretary and Librarian 

MRS. ANNE McDonnell, Assistant Librarian 



FOREWORD 



THE PUBLICATION of the two Journals offered by the 
Historical Society of Montana in this volume is a matter 
that should have been done some years ago, but it has not been 
an easy work to prevail upon our various Legislative Assemblies 
to furnish funds for many of the Library's proposed activities. 
The original manuscripts have been in the possession of the 
Historical Society for a period longer than we care to set forth, 
but so many demands are made by the various State Depart- 
ments upon each succeeding Legislature that the Historical 
Library must make its battle for appropriations just as the 
others ; too often without success. The Assembly of 1939, how- 
ever, saw fit to set apart an appropriation sufficient for this 
publication. We present it to the other libraries and the public 
in general with some confidence that we may in some place or 
other in the Appendices have unearthed from the uncertain debris 
of historical data something new and of interest to our readers. 
The journals themselves offer illuminating testimony as to 
the way of life in the fur trading posts during the declining days 
of that adventurous and picturesque business. The general con- 
dition and operation of the trading posts throughout all the 
years amid the Indian tribes of the Upper Missouri are matters 
of intimate knowledge to students of Western history. Yet it 
seems that no other Journals we have read have brought us into 
a closer personal — one might say, homelike — touch than do the 
Fort Benton and Fort Sarpy Journals. From them we get a 
convincing statement of the business operations of the posts ; 
we learn much of the character, courage and capacity of each 
of the men in charge; we delve deeply into the jealousies, strife 
and dickerings amongst the employes ; and we look with some 
regret upon the social degradation attaching to some of these 
men and learn that environment had its sinister influences upon 
the lives of many of these unfortunates. On the other hand, we 
are sure that the warp and woof of the fabric of some of these 
did not have within its weave the silken thread of self-respect ; 
they fell into surroundings where they fitted well. 



We do not pretend to offer you anything new as to such emi- 
nent fur traders as McKenzie, Culbertson, Dawson and some of 
the others, but we have worked untiringly to secure as much 
information as might be had concerning the men who worked 
in the minor fields of endeavor. Most of these men worked for 
what would be considered nowadays as starvation wages. They 
met the hazards of life amongst a savage people with unsur- 
passed courage ; the destructive hardships of the rigors of a 
northern climate did not daunt them, nor did the lack of proper 
food, housing or practically all of the so-called comforts of civi- 
lization cause them to retreat. These hired men of the fur 
brigades, men who trapped the streams of parching plains and 
the farthest recesses of unknown hills were the true pioneers of 
the mighty West. It has been our endeavor to find something 
new as to some of the lowly ones mentioned in these Journals 
that they may not go farther into the list of the unremembered. 

It has ever been the story of men moving in masses that a few 
of the leaders are made famous by the success attained or in- 
famous through its failure. The fur brigades had men who 
were only hunters and trappers but who had ample abilities to 
be successful leaders. Our task, however, has been to secure 
as much accurate information concerning all of them, great or 
lowly, as might be accomplished and to identify the various 
well-nigh forgotten geographical locations. 

The success of this work is practically all due to the skillful, 
resolute and untiring efforts of Mrs. Anne McDonnell, our 
assistant librarian, generously fitted by nature and training for 
just such an undertaking. A learned student of the history of 
the great Northwest, always eager to enter upon further re- 
search in the soil of this rich historical field, Mrs. McDonnell 
here gives us refreshing evidence that she had a fine first-hand 
knowledge of much of the story embraced within these two 
Journals ; and to this she has added the logical skill of a genuine 
tactician in such work. 

It would be impossible for the most subtle and learned his- 
torian to add much new information to the misty history of a 
hundred years ago in this region, where but few records were 
kept, without the aid of all other historians who have stored 
something of the story of those times. For such assistance Mrs. 



McDonnell was aided by the library staffs of tlu- Minnesota 
Historical Society, the Missouri Historical Society of St. Louis 
and St. Louis University. Not only did these institutions respond 
generously to her every request, but she desires — and the writer 
joins her in this — to particularly remember the personal assist- 
ance of Miss Grace L. Nute of the Minnesota Historical Society 
and Miss Stella M. Drumm of the Missouri Historical Society. 
Also, acknowledgment is due to the following persons, namely 
Ernest E. East, Peoria, Illinois ; Howard B. Lott, Buffalo, 
Wyoming; James VV. Schultz, Eli Gardipee, Richard Sandoval, 
Mountain Chief, all of Browning, Montana; J. Larpenteur Long, 
Oswego. Montana ; Harry Stanford, Kalispell, Montana ; Clyde 
McLemore, Helena, Montana ; R. A. Culbertson, Fort Benton, 
Montana, all of whom helped her readily and without stint. 

For all of this, and to all of these, the Historical Society of 
Montana, its Librarian and Mrs. Anne McDonnell, in particular, 
tender sincere thanks. 

Our goal has been to give to you information of the men foimd 
in the rank and file of the fur trade. Word of their origin, their 
service, and their lives to the end, if possible, is almost as obscure 
as were the regions where they labored when fur laden macki- 
naws, keel-boats and pirogues streamed down the great river 
each season to build St. Louis into the world's greatest fur trade 
center. We trust the effort has not been in vain. 

For Mrs. Anne McDonnell and all of us. 

Sincerely, 

JOHN B. RITCH, Librarian. 



FORT BENTON TOURNAL 



September 1854. 



Thurs. 28 — About noon much to the delight of all in the Forf^, 
Mr. Culbertson^, Lady^, and three men arrived from 
Fort Union^, — Received him with a proper salute. 
Hunter^ and man got back w^ith the meat of two deer. 
Game very scarce — 1290 Dobbies^ today — 1- loads 
wood. — 

Fri. 29 — Mr. Culbertson gave men a feast and in the evening 
a Ball at which two only of the number made a sorry 
display of their reasons — 

Sat. 30 — Little or no work doing, and the effects of intemper- 
ance a little noticeable in the faces of the afore alluded 
to two worthies. Slight rain and the Dobbies at a 
stand still. 

October, 1854 

Sun. 1 — Throughout the day Bercrir'^ and men arrived with 
his trade from Flat Head country — and with him 
came a white man^ with a little money to trade. 

Mon. 2 — Busy today putting up another equipment to send to 
Flat Heads and traded the man's gold that arrived 
yesterday $160 only in all. We hear the Flat Heads 
have still a good lot of Beaver and some gold, and in 
the morning shall send there the equipment put up 
today. — 

Tues. 3. — Started our intended expedition to Flat Head coun- 
try which we hope will turn out as satisfactory in all 
respects as our last. — Had all our horses brought in 
and overhauled found a few missing, changed their 
place for the present on a/ct of the grass. Made 
some changes with our Coal makers^ which we hope 
will prove beneficial to us all — Very cold frosty 
morning, but fine warm day, all that could be wanted 
for Dobbie making — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



October 1854 



Wed. A — Sent after some lost horses and found six of them, 
but four are still missing' Fixed up a little at Gov- 
ernment goods but was interrupted by the arrival of 
George Weipert^'' w^ith two Waggon loads of meat 
after Avhich he has been started some 20 days 

Thur. 5 — Reco\-ere(l one of our horses and one belonging to 
another party. War party that arrived here yester- 
day started today and in the evening another arrived. 
Cold disagreeable day. — 

Fri. 6 — Sent all our horses on hand further down the river 
on other side, to where there is better grass, under 
charge of Mr. Rose'^ with two men — Exceedingly 
disagreeable day from rain Ind unable to work at 
Dobbies but did a little other outdoor and indoor 
work. — 

Sat. 7 — Another day of rain and still unable to do any out- 
door job. Fixed up all our stores. 

Sun. 8 — The same weather only a degree more disagreeable 
the rain having turned into Snow — Towards evening 
it cleared up a little and we took a walk to top of our 
Three Butes^- from where we discovered the Moun- 
tains to be white with Snow. — 

Hon. 9 — Hard frost throughout the past night but a clear 
morning and towards noon warm enough for us 
again to commence to our Dobbies. Started 9 men 
with 4 double yoke Ox Waggons to Mountain^'^ for 
80 Logs or so for boat building purposes. In the 
evs a few Gros Ventres'"* arrived to war. — 

Tues. 10 — Again it has turned cold with slight rain early men 
commenced Dobbie making but had to disist on ac- 
count of cold. Riva (Rivet) ^'^ returned from a 40 
days Beaver hunt or so. One of our moimtain men 
also came back in search of his Oxen which arrived 
a short time before him. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 3 

October 1854 

Wed. 11 — Another most disagreeable day and nothing earthly 
doing. Dull times indeed and the more annoying that 
we have so much to do. Started man back with his 
Oxen to join those for the mountains and sent another 
man with him. — 

Thurs. 12 — Clear but very cold. Started Dobbie makers to work 
but they had to give it up from the cold. Another 
war party arrived and one departed. 

Fri. 13 — Again clear and considerably warmer Had Dobbie 
makers make up their mud into bricks and bring in 
all their tools as we have to stop making any more 
from the lateness of the season and are anxious to get 
what we have made put on our building. — 

Sat. 14 — Started all hands to building our Kitchen Beautiful 
warm day. In the afternoon 3 Waggons having 16 
logs arrived from the Mountains. A Pagan and Wife 
arrived with a horse a Robe and a little meat, — 
traded it — and immediately cleared out. Horse 
guard^*^ arrived and reports one horse stolen. — 

Sun. 15 — Another fine day. Nothing doing, and though so far 
from civilization still the day bears more the impress 
of Sunday that we have frequently felt it there. — 

Men. 16 — Continuation of same weather. One and all in one 
way or another working at Kitchen — A war party 
arrived with some 17 stolen horses — Our hunter also 
arrived with three small horse loads for us, and as 
many big ones for himself 

Tues. 17 — Same weather — Got on well with our Kitchen — In 
the evening our Flat Head trader and men arrived 
with 17 Horses he had traded and some few other 
things ; but in all he has made but a very poor trade 
from appearances but he has arrived too late for us 
to balance. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



October 1854 



Wed. 18 — Started Revia (Rivet) with 2 Waggons etc. and 
a small equipment to Milk River there to build 
new houses and trade for the winter with the Gros 
Ventres — Check and balanced our Flat Head a/c 
and find it makes a very poor show indeed. Getting 
along with Kitchen pretty well. Two Waggons ar- 
rived from Mountains with 12 logs and driver of one 
of the other Waggons arrived with his Thumb shot 
oflf.— 

Thurs. 19 — One of our mountain men having broken the Tog 
(Tongue) of his Waggon detained them all day here, 
repaired the old one and made a new one also. Had 
Fort and stores swept out some Dobbies piled up 
and proceeded on as usual with our Kitchen. — 

Fri. 20 — .Started men back to Mountains and with them one 
to take the place of wounded man and another to 
assist in making shingles chopping etc. Sent also 
some shingle tools as we want some 10000 shingles 
to cover our new Kitchen. Partitioned off part of 
our store for a harness house — And fixed up stores 
a little getting these matters rapidly into a better 
order under Mr. Culbertsons judicious management. 
Continuance of warm pleasant weather. — 

• , Sat. 21 — Our hunters got back with a little meat, but have 
lost one of the Companys Mules and a private horse. 
Getting on well with our Kitchen — Threatening 
rain all day. 

Sun. 22 — Nothing doing. Sent after lost Mule War party of 
13 arrived all mounted on the Companys horses, 
which they merely took however to cross the river 
with and cast them loose when that purpose was 
served. — 

Men. 23 — Again at work at Kitchen — Mr. Tevis^" and Cadot^* 
arrived from mountains and say our Waggons will 
(be) here in the morning. — 




ALEXANDER CULBERTSON IN 1855 

Reproduced throug'h the courtesy of Houghton, Mifflin Company. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 5 

October 1854 

Tues. 24 — Our Waggons arrived, two having 12 logs and the 
third unloaded and Wheel broken by the same man 
that broke the last Attempting to rig it up by sub- 
stituting an odd Wheel we have, having now no 
wood to repair the broken one. Building away as 
usual but our Sawyers have to stop from one of 
them getting sick and we fear this will delay us 
some. 

Wed. 25 — Cold disagreeable day and rain all the time. Unable 
to do any out door work No news. 

Thurs. 26 — Better weather. Men started back to Mountains with 
their three Waggons and we trust they will have 
better luck this time than heretofore. Men also busy 
again at Kitchen. 

Fri. 27 — Same weather. Working away at Kitchen Today 
Mr. Culbertson started in his carriage with three 
men on horseback for horses on Milk River. We 
anticipate he will be absent some 10 days. — 

Sat. 28 — Finished the upper square of our Kitchen and put 
on plates, and now our builders has to await for the 
Saw3^ers getting out joists preparatory to finishing 
the gable ends. Very windy and boisterous and in 
consequence our Sawyers unable to work. In the 
afternoon Bercier arrived with an express from Mr. 
Culbertson that our Wagns were on the way, would 
possibly be here tomorrow and to send out more 
goods. Put up what we think sufficient — Started 
three Ox Carts to the Teton for firewood but one 
unfortunately got unmanageable and smashed the 
Cart. Wagns arrived from Mountains with 18 logs. 

Sun. 29 — Started 3 Ox Carts with goods to Mr. Culbertson 

Our Waggons arrived with a lot fine fat meat— Very 
acceptable. — 

Men. 30 — Started two Wagns back to Mountains having to 
retain one here to haul fire wood. Sent also six men 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



October 1854 



to timber now lying above and had 18 logs rafted 
down, and pulled ashore. Checkes (d) Plettries 
(Peltries) and weighed meat received try (by) Wag- 
gons yesterday and fixed up stores. Hauled two loads 
Firewood, two Saws going — everything brisk. — Got 
in our broken Cart from Teton. 

Tues. 31 — Again had 21 of our logs rafted down which were 
like to go too far for our purpose but getting the 
men to take water we got them stopped and landed 
a little below the Fort. A war party arrived with 
26 stolen horses, and another arrived going out. Two 
Saws at work grinding Meal — making pans, and 
everything pretty satisfactory. — 

November 1854 

Wed. 1 — Started men again to bring down some more logs 
and they dragged the remainder to river's edge but 
on account of the wind were unable to raft them 
down. Wind also stopped our Sawyers. Put up 
Gable and joists to Kitchen and we trust tomorrow 
to be able to continue our daubbie work and shortly 
to finish it. Waggons arrived from Mountains with 
12 logs and shortly afterwards PauP^ arrived on 
horseback Hauled load firewood and some Char- 
coal. — 

Thurs. 2 — Commenced to our Kitchen once more and got on 
slowly with it — About noon Mr. Culbertson arrived 
from the Gros Ventres all well Started men back to 
Mountains. 

Fri. 3 — Got on well with our Kitchen and hope to finish the 
dobbie part of that building tomorrow. Mr. Culbert- 
sons B in Law — Little Dog^® — and a number of other 
principle men arrived on a visit. Got from them 2 
Mules and 4 horses. — 

Sat. 4 — Fine pleasant weather, at length finished the dobbie 
work of our two story Kitchen and now all our fears 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



November 1854 



al)out this building are ended as the Carpenter work- 
can go along smoothly at any time — Traded a little 
meat and a few Robes from the Indians that arrived 
yesterday also a few more came today from whom 
got some more horses and a little more meat. 10 
logs from Mts. 

Sun. 5 — Again busy with Indians. Started two Waggons to 
Pagan Camp and one to Bloody^^ Indians with a 
meat equipment and a very few goods to trade a 
stray Robe or two. Most of the Indians left. 

Men. 6 — Started men back to Mountains. Put up Pickets 
round our Kitchen so as to protect our Fort in 
Winter. Used up all our Plank in roofing Kitchen 
which was not quite enough for half of it. Making 
as much haste as we can in these times to get out 
more but can now only keep one saw going and that 
very slowly. — 

Tues. 7 — Today Mrs. Culbertson started with Carriage 4 Mules 
and 2 Men for Camp. Put up a small equipment for 
Blood Ind. Camp, to go in the morning — Finished 
Picketing in our Kitchen. — 

Wed. 8 — Started expedition to Camp under charge Hugh 
Munroe-2 — with 2 Waggons and three men — Fort 
getting pretty much deserted in these times. 

Thurs. 9 — Men arrived from Mounts, with 5 logs and 12 Bdls 
containing 3600 Shingles — The Little Gray Head^^ 
arrived wanting a trader for his Camp, and in the 
evening Bercier arrived alone wanting more goods 
for Gros V camp. 

Fri. 10 — Heavy fall of Snow — Men started back to Moun- 
tains — Started also Mr. Burd--* with 2 Wagns. and 
some goods to Little Gray Heads Camp, and in the 
afternoon — started Bercier with one 4 Mule Wagn. 
containing a fine equipment for Gros Ventres 
Camp. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



November 1854 



Sat. 11 — Today we have neither had arrivals nor departures 
Put our Stores in order — Hauled a load of fire wood 
and also crossed over our Shingles in the Yanb 

Sun. 12 — About 3 P. M. Mrs. Culbertson and party arrived 
and shortly afterwards Baptiste^^ with his one Wag- 
gon lightly loaded with meat and some 40 Robes 
etc. — He brings back most of his goods however 
and we think has made a fine little trade but we will 
better tell in the morning on balancing his a/c — 

Men. 13 — Early another Wagn. arrived, from Michel^^ with 
830 lbs. Dry Meat, Put up another equipment to send 
to Michels Camp in the morning, and fixed up many 
other things about the Fort. 

Tues. 14 — Our Men arrived bag and baggage from the Moun- 
tains bringing 6 logs two of which they brought into 
the Fort and the others they left on other side, 11 
Bdl Shingles and some 15 blocks to make more of — 
All right. Started Wagn. with goods to Michel, also 
put up and sent by same Wagn. a small equipment 
for M, C's B in L to trade with in another Camp 

Wed. 15 — Rested men from mountains. Hauled 2 loads Coal 
and 1 load fire wood getting on rapidly with shingling 
Kitchen, Made a fine little pig pen and Chicken 
Coop one of our Sows having litered. — 

Thurs, 16— Sent and had 26 of our logs rafted down and hauled 
out of water. Wrote letters to Fort Union intending 
to send a band of horses there in the morning. — 

Fri. 17 — Early started Cadot with 31 horses to Fort Union. 
Sent with him two men. Sent after the balance of 
our logs and had tliem rafted down 26, making in 
all 91 logs at this time from Mounts. — A few 
traders arrived in the evs. with a few Robes 

Sat. 18 — Men fixing road to haul our Boats out of River — 
Late last evening our Indian arrived with our three 
Oxen which we had expected with our Carts from the 




NATAWISTA IKSANA (Airs. Alexander Culbertson) 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



November 1854 



Gros Ventres some days since but which he found in 
the Prarie and they must have strayed off. Sent 
two men with them back who returned in the eve- 
ning- having met Wagn. and Cart with each two 
Mules on their way in close — They sent on two of 
the Oxen to fetch the remaining Carts. M Cham- 
pagne also arrived very late and states his Waggon 
will be in in the morning. — 

Sun. 19 — Waggon and Cart arrived loaded with Meat from 
the Gros Ventres, Michels two Waggons arrived 
loaded with 209 Robes, etc. etc. and Munro with 
his two Waggons arrived loaded with Meat and 
Robes so that notwithstanding the day this has been 
one of the busiest we have ever passed in the Coun- 
try. Put up two equipments to start in the morning, 
one with Michel to his Camp and another to the 
Gros Ventres. — 

Men. 20 — Started two double yoke Ox Waggons to the Gros 
Ventres and one Mule (4) Waggon,— also 1 4 horse 
Waggon with Michel to the Pagans. Busy writing 
and balancing a/cts fixing up Stores etc.— Hauled 
our two Boats out on Bank high and dry. — 

Tues. 21— Started men splitting up blocks they brought from 
the Mountains into shingles, — Mr. Burds Wagn. ar- 
rived today with balance of his trade and goods. 
Put up a fine large equipment to send to Hamils^^* 
Houses under charge of Mr. Rose. — 

Wed. 22 — Early started Mr. Rose with Mr. Monroe and 4 men 
with equipment put up yesterday and immediately 
afterwards Mr. Culbertson and Mr. Tevis started on 
a visit to the Gros Ventres. Very windy but very 
mild. — 

Thurs. 23 — Lonesome times nothing at all doing in the way of 
trade, nor have we any arrivals of any kind — Ex- 
ceedingly windy morning but calms a little at noon 



10 FORT BEXTOX JOl'RXAL 

November 1854 

so as to let us saw a little. Other men hauling our 
logs into Fort and pileing (piling) them away. — 

Fri. 24 — Raining and snowing and altogether very disagree- 
able. Sent after 2 loads fire wood and another Wagn. 
to haul wood for fireburner. — 

Sat. 25 — Clear but cold. Got on well with all the work of the 
Fort — Hauled balance of our logs, etc. etc. A trader 
— the white Calf-^ arrived with some five Robes. — 

Sun. 26 — Late last night Baptiste arrived with a letter from 
M Champaigne in want of more goods, and states 
his Wagn. is on the way in with 200 Robes. Put up 
an assortment in consequence to fill this order in the 
morning. Windy and cold. The Crows Flag arrived 
with some 9 Robes for trade. — 

Men. 27 — Again late last night Perry^^ arrived from G Vs 
express, but having lost his way was behind two days 
He came for three Wagns. to move Revais his 
Inds having all left him. Started Panton with a 
Wagn. to Michel! containing the goods put up yes- 
terday. Also started 1 Ox Wagn. and 2 horse do. 
to the Gros Ventres in conformity with express 
reed, yesterday but scarcely were they started when 
Mr. Culbertson arrived. 

Tues. 28 — Put up a small equipment to send to Blkfoot Camp 
per Baptiste — Arrived three W'agns, and two Carts 
from Gros Ventres with 619 Robes 2300 lbs. Meat 
etc. etc. also one Wagn. from M Champaigne with 
200 Robes and a few other things — Pretty Busy — 

Wed. 29 — Started Baptiste with one Waggon and small equip- 
ment put up yesterday. Started also an Ox Wagn. 
to M Champaigne as we hear he has about another 
load for one. 

Thurs. 30 — Again put up anotlier eciuipment to .send to another 
Camp in the morning. Some few traders arrived 
from whom got a few Robes. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 11 

December 1854 

Fri, 1 — Early Mr. Culbertson started with family on a visit 
to Blood Inds. Started also Mr. Burd with 2 Carts 
and equipment put up yesterday, but shortly after- 
wards he returned having- met some Inds. who in- 
formed him the Camp he was going- to had moved 
up to Mr. Rose. A few traders arrived and three 
War parties. Fort crowded. — Late our long looked 
for Express arrived from St. Louis. 

Sat, 2 — Indians all cleared out — No new arrivals, quite quiet 
and able to do a little writing — Yesterday was very 
windy having blown down our pickets — and today 
is also a little too windy for us and very cold 

Sun. 3 — Early Ox Wagns. arrived from M Champ (Cham- 
paigne) having 366 Robes etc. etc. and shortly after- 
wards a few Inds. arrived with some 40 Robes to 
trade, but they will await Mr. Culbertsons com- 
ming — 

Mon. 4 — Two War parties arrived and these with what came 
yesterday crowd us a little — No Word of Mr. Cul- 
bertson — Ice begins to run pretty briskly — 

Tues. 5 — Warriors all started — Our Ox Wagn. arrived from 
Gros Ventres with 52 Robes Ind. awaiting Mr. Cul- 
bertsons arrival becoming very impatient — 

Wed. 6 — Started two Ox carts with some goods to M. Cham- 
paigne as we are afraid to delay any longer waiting 
for Mr. C. who has not turned up today either — 
Started another saw today but from wind unable to 
work at ornamental work of kitchen. Hauled two 
loads fire wood 

Thurs. 7 — All the work of our Fort progressing nicely. Late 
last evening an Express arrived from Mr. Culbert- 
son for three Mules, as his horses were stolen by 
some party or another — and today sent him that 
number with two men also a few goods asked for 



12 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

December 1854 

Fri. 8 — In the evening Mr. Culbertson and party arrived 
along with some 5 or 6 Indians — Finished roofing 
and all outer work to Kitchen and began with floor- 
ing.— 

Sat. 9 — Traded with a good many Indians and three started 
back home Two Carts arrived from M Champaigne 
with 191 Robes etc Very busy today and having 
slept but little the past night very glad it has come 
to a close 

Sun. 10 — Another busy day trading and giving — got a good 
many loafers however off our hands. Put up an 
equipment to sent to Rose and another to Michell in 

the morning. 

Men. 11 — Started two Ox Waggons to Mr. Rose and two Ox 
Carts to Michell. In the afternoon a Wagn. arrived 
from Michel with 200 Robes and a little later another 
Express from Revais wanting two additional Wagns 
to move him along with the Gros Ventres again. 
Put up some few goods for Revais. — 

Tues. 12 — Started two Wagns. to Revais — Traded some 18 
Robes from an opposition Indian that arrived yes- 
terday. No arrivals today further than one return 
War party, so got all our writing up to date. — 

Wed. 13 — Started one Wagn. back to Michel but this time 
with no goods as we hear his Inds. are about out of 
Robes and he only remains to wind up. 

Thurs. 14 — A Waggon arrived from Rose today and one from 
Baptiste having together 428 Robes etc. finished 
flooring our Kitchen Dinning Room. — 

Fri. 15 — Nothing stirring. Weather very mild in these times, 
the River runs pure and as free from Ice as in 
Summer and today after Sun set our Ther. stood 
at 54°. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 13 



December 1854 



Sat. 16 — Mr. Culbertsons B in L started and took with him a 
few goods for trade — An Indian "Spotted Cow" ar- 
rived with some Robes for trade also a large party 
going to War and another coming from it — Thus it 
ever is with these dogs. 

Sun. 17 — Busy trading. In the afternoon Cadot arrived from 
F. Union with men who left here with horses 17th 
ulto. He brings no letters, as Mr. Clark^*' accompa- 
nied him so far as Milk River and will be here 
probably in the morning. — 

M Champaigne arrived having wound up his trade 
with Pagans for the present. 

Men. 18 — Waggon and Cart arrived from Michels with balance 
of his trade 233 Robes. Shortly afterwards Mr. Clark 
arrived and in the evening B Champaigne arrived 
stating a Wagn. and Cart will be here tomorrow from 
Mr. Rose — 

Tues. 19 — Wagn. and Cart arrived from Rose with some 240 
Robes etc. etc. Put up an equipment to send to him 
in the morning also one for Baptiste to start with 
for Blood Ind Camp. Our two Wagns. dispatched 
12th inst. for Revais returned today having been 
wandering about in the prarie ever since with- 
out finding their destination. 

Wed. 20 — Started Baptiste with 1 Wagn. containing the two 
equipments put up yesterday. Some traders arrived — 

Thurs. 21 — Put up an equipment for Pagan Camp and started 
M Champaigne therewith in an Ox Cart — Finished 
trading with those of yesterday — 

Fri. 22 — Two traders arrived with some 23 Robes. Fixing 
up Mr. Clark's things for him to start immediately 
for F. Union. Very mild weather. — 

Sat. 23 — Early Mr. Clark and three men started with a band 
of 36 Horses for Fort Union Traded with our friends 



14 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



December 1854 



of yesterday and in the evening the Little Dog ar- 
rived with a few more Robes. — 

Sun. 24 — Early a man at long last arrived from our Gros 
Ventres traders in quest of goods and God knows 
what. Put up a large equipment to send there on 
Tuesday, tomorrow being Xmas Late in the evening 
Mr. Rose arrived from his Camp stating his Wagn. 
will be here in the morning. 

Men. 25 — Put up a fine equipment to start with Mr. Rose in 
the morning — His Wagn. has not yet turned up how- 
ever. In the evening went to a little jolification not 
only on a/c of the Season but because also Mr. Cul- 
bertson intends taking his departure for F. Union 
in the morning 

Tues. 26 — Early Mr. Culbertson and family also Mr. Tevis 
started for F. Union — Started 1 Ox Wagn. and 1 
Ox Cart with Equipment to Gros Ventres Mr. Rose's 
driver arrived stating his Oxen had given out so 
sent another man with an additional yoke and 
towards evening all got back safely. Mr. Rose started 
with Mr. Culbertson to accompany him so far as the 
Marias. 

Wed. 27 — Early Mr. Rose returned and immediately started 
him with 3 Horse Wagns. containing Equipment put 
up 25th inst. Hauled two loads fire wood. 

Thurs. 28 — Very boisterous and disagreeable day Hauled 2 
loads wood. Fort looks very empty in these times. 
Three Gros Ventres arrived from War but count 
no coup — 

Fri. 29 — Wind throughout the past night so very strong as 
to alarm a good many of us. Even our solid Dobbie 
walls shook under it, and the whole of the pickets on 
the S W side were blown down. Put these up again 
but the wind still continues so strong as to prevent 
our other out door work. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 15 

December 1854 

Sat. 30 — Calm but very cold, Ther. in the morning- 5 below 
zero — A party of Pagans with some few Robes and 
meat arrived to trade. Hauled 2 loads firewood and 
saws going well. 

Sun. 31 — Traded with our Pagan friends when a party of 5 
Blackfeet arrived with a good many robes for trade, 
the same number also went to the opposition house''^. 
They however put oflF their trade until morning. — 

January 1855. 

Men. 1 — Traded with our Blackfeet^- and two others of their 
party brought down their Robes from other Fort and 
traded here. Very cold and considerable snow fell. 
Gave all hands in the fort a small feast. 

Tues. 2 — More snow fell throughout the night and Ther. at 
10° below zero and on this we have not a stick of 
firewood in the Fort — Late to recover our Oxen and 
it was dark before we got any wood home. Our 
Blackfeet also keep hanging on and begging much 
to our annoyance. — 

Wed. 3 — Still more snow and more cold. A man sent by M. 
Champaigne was found by the Inds. this morning 
nearly dead had him brought to the Fort and found 
him only a very little frozen on the hands and one 
arm — Champaigne wants a Wagn. to fetch him home 
his Ox having nearly given out the trip being too far 
without wood to risk it — Shortly afterwards Cadot 
arrived from Milk River with letters from Mr. Cul- 
bertson & Revais. 

Thurs. A — Started a Wagn. to Champaigne. Very cold and 
Snow very deep. — 

Fri. 5 — In the afternoon our Wagn. returned having been 
unable to get along on a/c of the Snow. Ther. in the 
morning 26^ below zero. 



16 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

Sat. 6— Again started two men and 4 horses to Michels 
assistance, but this time we send no Wagn. as per- 
haps they can get better on with the Cart they have. 
In the afternoon Mr. Wray^^ arrived badly frozen 
from the Gros Ventres He reports he has left one 
Wagn. loaded with meat at Box Elder Creek^^ horses 
given out, in charge one man, plenty timber, and 
that he has left another loaded with Robes, 6 miles 
on the other side Marias driver nearly frozen to death 
and no timber near. Immediately sent Cadot and 
one Ox driver to the assistance of nearest Wagn. 

Sun. 7 — In the afternoon men arrived from Wagn. on the 
Marias and bring the driver thereof very badly 
frozen in left foot, we think he will loose it — Men 
could not find the Oxen and abandoned Wagn. Robes 
and all to the mercy of the passing Ind. This is most 
damnable. — 

Men. 8 — Before daylight started Cadot on horseback to take 
charge of the Companys property on Marias and 
shortly afterwards started two other men with two 
other Yoke of Oxen to haul it to the Fort and to 
hunt for lost Oxen. — 

Tues. 9 — A few lousey Pagans from Little Robes^^ band ar- 
rived with a horse and a Robe or two to trade and 
shortly afterwards Cadot arrived with the good news 
of having found the Oxen and that they and the 
Wagn. would be here towards evg. but in this latter 
party our hopes were only raised to be blasted — 
The Oxen and men arrived but the Wagn. remains 
upset at the Teton, and thus again is this valuable 
lot abandoned to Wolves and Inds. 

Wed. 10 — Before daylight started men and Oxen after upset 
Wagn. and about noon we at long last got it safe in 
Fort. By it we received 251 Robes but cannot say 
wether any have been stolen or not until other Wagn. 
is brought in as Mr. Wrays a/c comprises both loads. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAl> 17 

January 1855. 

In the evg. M Champai.e:ne also arrived and says his 
Cart will probably be here in the morning. 

Thurs. 11 — Started an Ox Wagn. to Revais with a few goods, 
and at sametime 2 Yoke of Oxen to fetch in the 
remaining Wagn. on the way. At 10 A M Michels 
Cart arrived and by it received 96 Robes etc. Late 
in the evening much to our surprise the man left by 
Wray in charge of Revais Wagn. arrived having 
abandoned it also and its fate is even more uncertain 
than the last brought in as a party of opposition 
people have since passed on to the Gros Ventres — 
Such men, Such actings ! 

Fri. 12 — Started a man on horseback to take the place of the 
helpless wretch that arrived yesterday Two Pagans 
arrived with as many Robes traded and put out. A 
little Snow fell throughout the past night — Much 
milder than several days ago. Nine sick men, or 
frozen, about the Fort. — 

Sat. 13 — Man who abandoned wagns seemingly brought the 
horses so far as the Marias when they give out he 
says and as a matter of course abandoned — Sent him 
with another man to hunt them up but they did not 
find them. Cadot killed three deer yesterday on Teton 
which he today went after and brought in. 

Sun. 14 — No news. Had our horses brought up to opposite 
side intending to move them tomorrow as where they 
were they strayed too much, and one of them a mare 
belonging to Mr. Culbertson is missing. A Blood 
Ind war party arrived going to war. — 

Men. 15 — Sent three men on Teton to cut knees^^ for a large 
y2 Keel37 ^ Mackwss goat we intend building- 
Hauled one load fire wood and one load coal — Sent 
Cadot after lost horses but he returned late without 
having found them. He brought with him the meat 
of one deer he had killed — War party started, not 



18 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

however without a good deal of grumbling and some 
threats on act. of the scarcity of provisions in these 
diggings.— 

Tues. 16— Sent an Indian to Little Robe Camp to see if these 
Indians had not picked up our horses, but he shortly 
returned stating he had met with a party of Crows^^^ 
on Marias who shot at him, and sure enough he had 
a wound in his thigh but it looks very much as if 
he had done it himself — Three Wagns. arrived from 
Rose bringing us 596 Robes. Men again went after 
Knees and today hauled one load of them and one 
load fire wood. 

Wed. 17 — At long last our waylaid Wagn. from Gros Ventres 
arrived rifled of its contents. We find on this trip 
we have lost as per bill rendered us "1000 lbs. Meat" 
75 Tongues=^9 7 \Yolf Skins 28 Robes and a few 
other things — So much for inificient men. Hauled 
one more load knees and a load of fire wood. — 

Thurs. 18 — As we are now unable to cross horses to band on 
other side sent those on this side 12 in all to Teton 
with two men. Wagn. from Gros Ventres yesterday 
brought one horse and a mule which they left on 
the Teton but on sending for them this morning 
and after a whole days hunt, they were nowhere to 
be found and we suppose a war party that passed 
that way yesterday must have picked them up. This 
is just a little bit more carelessness of these d — 
foolish men — Hauled the balance of knees to Fort 
today and one load firewood. — 

Fri. 19 — Sent Cadot on Teton to hunt and to look for lost 
Mule and Horse, he killed one Deer but did not find 
the Mule or Horse. Hauled 2 loads firewood and 
our horse guard on Teton also brot us a Cart load. 
Cold and threatning Snow — 

Sat. 20 — Considerable snow fell throughout the past night and 
again our River has closed up in Front of Fort. Cows 



FORT BENTON JOITRNAL 19 

January 1855. 

missing today. Two Wagn. load and one Cart load 
fire wood. 

Sun. 21 — Some more snow fell throughout the night and morn- 
ing. Recovered our lost Cows in the afternoon Mr. 
Burds family and one or two others who have been 
out hunting for the past 15 days or so arrived with 
all plenty meat. Report Pagans camped on Milk 
River at Revais houses with all plenty meat. Ice 
strong enough to cross horses opposite the Fort. 

Men. 22 — Put up a few articles to send in the morning to Pagan 
Camp on Milk River to trade meat with. In the after- 
noon B Champaigne arrived and says Mr. Rose with 
his Wagn. will Camp tonight on Teton — hauled two 
loads firewood. — 

Tues. 23 — Started Cadot and two men with equipment put up 
yesterday. Sent also six horses to help Mr. Rose 
along but he has not yet arrived. Very bad travelling 
in these times as it now thaws and the prarie is one 
entire lake. Hauled 2 Wagn. and 1 Cart load fire 
wood. — 

Wed. 24 — No Rose not even a leaf yet, and we cannot con- 
jecture what is keeping him. Hauled 2 Wagn. load 
firewood. Our two saws at work sawing a little all 
the time. — 

Thurs. 25 — Late last night Mr. Rose's Wagn. arrived all safe 
and this morning he and Monroe with their families 
cast up. Counted Robes 125 in all. Traded 53 Robes 
from 3 Indians. Two loads fire wood. 

Fri. 26 — Ice opposite moved ofif but the river soon got choaked 
up and water commenced rising rapidly — A lucky 
thing for us to have our boats high and dry. 2 loads 
wood. 

Sat. 27 — Started M. Champaigne to Pagan Camp on Milk 
River with a fine large equipment and we trust he 



20 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

will have good luck in his trade — Indians all cleared 
out. Not a bite of meat now in the Fort and what 
can be keeping- our Wagns. at Revais is more than 
we can divine. — 

Sun. 28 — In the morning a man arrived from Michel and 
states they are unable to cross the Teton and in try- 
ing to do so they lost the lead bars to one of the 
Wagns. — Gave him another set and started him 
back. — 

Men. 29 — Put up a fine equipment to send to Blood Indian 
Camp in a few days. Hauled two loads fire wood — 
In the Evening M Champaigne returned from his 
Wagns. half dead if groaning and grunting could 
make him so. What a miserable set of beings we live 
amongst here — All sick or pretending to be so about 
the Fort men women and children. Fine pleasant 
day River open and free of running ice and flocks of 
Geese and Ducks seen flying past. — 

Tues. 30 — Started Mr. Burd to take the place of M Champaigne. 
Hauled 2 loads fire wood. 

Wed. 31 — A messenger arrived from Mr. Burd to see what 
was to be done as the Marias was too much flooded 
to cross it. Also a messenger arrived from a Wagn. 
on other side Marias from Revais also to see 
what was to be done. Sent both back immediately 
silly fools to do the best they could to get across as 
speedily as possible. Sickness prevents our starting 
Blood Ind Equip. 

February 1855 

Thurs. 1 — Tiresome times all sick Hauled two loads fire 
wood. 

Fri. 2 — Another Express arrived from Revais in quest of 
provisions for trade, and in the afternoon our Wagn. 
from other side Marias arrived and the men with it 







^.HI**^ 



J^" 



HUGH All'XRO 
From Rising Wolf by J. W. Scluiltz. I'ublislied by Houghton, Mifflin 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 21 

February 1855. 

tell us Mr. Burd and VVagn. has also crossed. Re- 
ceived from Revais 106 Robes. — 

Sat. 3 — Started Mr. Rose with a large Equip and 3 Wagns. 
to trade with Blood Inds. and Blackfeet and also 
started a Wagn. with a supply of provisions to Gros 
Ventres and with it B. Champaigne. Hauled one 
load fire wood. — 

Sun. A — A sick Ind : who started with Mr. Rose yesterday 
returned today. Very mild with slight rain. — 

Men. 5 — Dull times and very mild. Our black spotted Cow 
gave us a calf last night. In the evg. a party arrived 
from war with a number of horses. — 

Tues. 6 — Another war party arrived, and all of them crossed 
their horses today to this side. An Indian arrived 
from Baptiste with a found horse and states he has 
been a good deal delayed by his oxen straying, but 
that they are all found and still going ahead. Hauled 
one wagn. load wood. — 

Wed. 7 — Warriors all left. Fine pleasant day Nothing how- 
ever stirring which renders our life here tiresome 
indeed. Commenced sawing bottom for a new Boat 
^ Keel y2 Mackinaw 

Thurs. 8 — Same weather and almost the same incidents A 
party of Blood Indians arrived from war with 24 
horses. 

Fri. 9 — And still the same. Warriors started with their 
horses. No loafing in these times there being nothing 
for whites or Inds to eat. — 

Sat. 10 — Slight snow in the morning which turned to rain and 
finally cleared off towards noon. In the Evg. Cadot 
arrived with two Wagns. loaded with meat. Most 
acceptable in these times of starvation. 

Sun. 11 — Nothing of moment occurring. Fine pleasant day. 



22 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

February 1855. 

Mon. 12 — Again started Cadot to Pagan Camp with two 
Wagns. in hopes of getting another supply of meat. 
Hauled one load of Coal Warm pleasant day 

Tues. 13 — Same pleasant quiet times. Warm and Geese flying 
past 

WeA 14 — The "Big Feather"**' an Indian that has long been 
sick in the fort started for Camp nearly recovered 
and by him sent Mr Monroe also recovered to Mr. 
Rose's assistance. Opposition'*^ started one Waggon 
to Gros Ventres and two arrived from Pagan Camp 
without loads however — Hurra for us. — 

Thurs. 15 — Nothing new stirring. An Indian solitary and alone 
arrived from war with three horses. Windy and 
disagreeable. — 

Fri. 16— Fine pleasant day — Nothing of moment stirring — 
One load fire wood. — 

Sat. 17 — Still pleasant and same news. — 

Sun. 18 — About noon B Champaigne arrived and reports a 
Wagn. and Cart close from Revais with Robes and 
meat. Gros Ventres trade getting to a close and we 
are most thankful of it. 

Mon. 19 — Sent a man to meet our Gros Ventres Wagn. with a 
pick axe to fix the road on the hill a little which is 
in bad order. Quite a change in our weather, snow- 
ing blowing and cold. — 

Tues. 20 — A man from the opposition arrived and states that 
our Waggoner wants another Yoke of Oxen to help 
him along. Colder still and every appearance of the 
River again closeing — Hauled 1 Waggon and 2 Cart 
load fire wood. 

Wed. 21 — Sent word by the return opposition man that we 
were unable to attend to our Waggoners case and 
as we anticipated without any assistance our Wagn. 
and Cart arrived all safe with a tolerable load of 



FORT BENTOX JOURNAL 23 

February 1855. 

Robes and Meat — but too late for us to count them. 
Ther. 5 degrees below zero. 

Thurs. 22 — Rested our men and Oxen and put up an equipment 
to send to Revais in the morning. Still very cold, 
and firewood at a premium No news. — 

Fri. 23 — Unable to find our Oxen till too late to start 
Wagn. for Revais — About noon three men arrived 
from Ft. Union with three horses — Mr. Culbertson 
and party arrived there safe 25th ultimo — Bufo. 
plenty and good prospects for trade in the lower 
country, but no news lower than Ft. Union. — 

Sat. 24 — Started our Wagn. to Gros Ventres earh-. Still very 
cold — Ther. 5° below zero — Hauled one Waggon 
and 2 Cart load wood. — 

Sun. 25 — Cold as ever — River stronger than it has been this 
year. Had one Cart load wood hauled notwithstand- 
ing the day, Mr. Dawsons^^ family being very sick. — 

Men. 26 — Considerably milder and prospects of an agreeable 
change, the wind having got into the South — Hauled 
1 Wagn. and 1 Cart load wood, — Hauled also some 
wood on Teton for our last Coal pit^^ this winter. 
Crossed all our horses from other side on the Ice, 
found all right, and sent them out on Teton. — 

Tues. 27 — Fine mild day — Ice melting fast and snow all gone — 
Men occupied as yesterday — Set fire to our pit on 
Teton. 

Wed. 28 — Most unexpected sight — a Bull close back of the Fort 
being the first we have seen Killed it and thus the 
famishing thousands about the Fort got a bite. Work 
going on smoothly. — 



24 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

March 1 (1855) 

Thurs. 1 — Early Paul with the Ox Waggon arrived from Rose 
with a small load of fresh and dry meat and in the 
evening Mr. Burd also arrived with a fine Waggon 
load of meat — Pretty good prospects for future trade. 
All well with the exception of Mr. Dawsons wife*'* 
who gets feebler and feebler daily. — 

Fri. 2 — Busily engaged writing letters for below as tomor- 
row we intend starting our Express. 

Sat. 3 — Started B Champaigne with three men and twelve 
horses for Fort Union. Fixed up our stores and had 
fort swept out etc. etc. — 

Sun. A — Fine pleasant warm weather, only a little too windy. 
No news. 

Men. 5 — Put up a few goods for Pagan Camp and sent them 
per M Champaigne in an Ox Cart. Some few N. 
Blood Indians arrived with a good many Robes say 
25 or 30 Packs, every one of whom went to opposi- 
tion Fort, much to our chagrin — 

Tues. 6— Made many attempts to get some of the 25 Packs 
that went to other Fort yesterday, but thus far with- 
out success — A man arrived from Revais and 
states a waggon is on the way with 250 Robes and 
that he still has 150 Robes behind. — He wants some 
more goods. — 

Wed. 7 — Two Wagns. started from other Fort to oppose us 
at Pagan Camp. Started a Waggon to Revais 
with a few goods. Men sent on Teton to cut logs 
to lay our boat on, and also 5 logs for a small Skiflf. 

Thurs. 8 — No news. Work progressing as usual. Very pleas- 
ant day. Mr. Dawsons woman getting very low in- 
deed, 

Fri. 9 — Fine pleasant day — Without incident 

Sat. 10 — Messrs. Rose & Monroe arrived from Blood Ind 
Camp with two Wagns containing the Bain, of their 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 25 



March 1855. 



goods and 235 Robes the Inds. having all gone lower 
down Milk River and speak of coming to the Fort. 
In the evg. the Wagn. also arrived from Revais 
with 250 Robes.— 

Sun. 11 — Mr. Dawsons Wife died and was interred back of 
the Fort. 

Mon. 12 — Disagreeable cold day accompanied by Snow. Hauled 
2 Wagn. and 2 Cart load of wood. 

Tues. 13 — Had our horses moved above to Pablors (Pablois) 
Island. ^'^ Commenced straightning plank for bottom 
of new Boat. Hauled wood as yesterday. 

Wed. lA — No news. Still cold and snowing a little. Work 
progressing slowly. — 

Thurs. 15 — Very cold and Ice again running in the River. — 

Fri. 16 — A Waggon arrived from Michel with 55 Robes 132 
Togs (Buffalo tongues) and some meat. Pretty good 
prospects for a big trade where he is. — 

Sat. 17 — Put up a large equipment to send in the morning to 
Michel — still very cold. — 

Sun. 18 — Started 3 Wagns. to Michel with equipment put up 
yesterday — Cold as ever 

Mon. 19 — The "Painted Lodge" Pagan arrived with some 25 
Robes for trade — No change in our weather and 
firewood in great demand. — 

Tues. 20 — Traded with "Painted Lodge" 22 Robes in all. Still 
cold 

Wed. 21 — The Indian started back for Camp this morning. 
Commenced laying bottom of a large 80 ft. hermaph- 
rodite Keel Boat^^. Much milder. 

Thurs. 22 — Another pleasant day. A man at opposition Fort 
died and was hurried today Work at Fort pro- 
gressing smoothly. — 



26 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



March 1855. 



Fri. 23 — One of our men John Adams died early this morning 
and was decently interred by his comrades back of 
the Fort. Still at bottom of Boat. — 

Sat. 24 — Cleaned inside and around Fort Finished bottom 
of our boat and turned it over. Very warm for the 
Season. — 

Sun. 25 A party of Blood Indians arrived for trade, headed 

by Mr. Culbertsons Bro in Law, Gave them a salute 
and hoisted our flag. — Mr. Dawson very sick. 

Men. 26 — Traded with Blood Indians and got through with 
them. A Pagan arrived to call us to Camp on Marias 
to trade meat and they intend coming to Fort with 
their Robes, . etc. 

Tues. 27 — Put away Robes traded yesterday 108 in all. In- 
dians all cleared out, Put up an equipment to send 
to North Pagan Camp, at Clarks Houses'*^, where we 
hear there are 20 lodges. Commenced planking sides 
of our Boat. Revais arrived with 3 Wagns. con- 
taining 499 Robes from himself and 70 from M 
Champaigne. In the evening another man arrived 
express from M Champaigne. 

Wed. 28 — Put up some goods for Michel and started a Wagn. 
with them to him. 

Thurs. 29 — Started two Wagns. with an equipment to Clarks 
Houses, charge Revais. Fine pleasant weather. — 

Fri. 30 — Another Waggon arrived from Michel with 203 
Robes, — He seems to be doing a pretty brisk busi- 
ness. 

Sat. 31 — Started an Ox Waggon to Michel and as he does 
not ask for any more goods sent him only a little 
powder Opposition getting short of goods. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 27 

April 1855. 

Sun. 1 — Pleasant weather but notliinf^: stirring. 

Mon. 2 — Swept out Fort. A band of Indians the "Big Lakes^''" 
arrived with some 20 packs Robes for opposition 
house. 

Tues. 3 — Got a small share 74 of the Robes that arrived for 
opposition yesterday. Nearly done with our big Boat. 
Made up 5 Packs Beaver. 

Wed. A — Two Wagns. arrived from Michel with 400 Robes. 
The "Painted Lodge" also arrived with two other 
traders having some 60 Robes for trade. Made 31 
Packs Robes. 

Thurs. 5 — Started two Wagns. back to Michel with a fine load 
of goods, and we think these will be the last. Traded 
with the Painted Lodge 73 Robes in all and he put 
out. 

Fri. 6 — Some North Pagans arrived to look at our goods 
etc. etc. and shortly afterwards 3 came to trade. 
Traded with them 63 Robes.— Made up 25 Packs 
Robes. 

Sat. 7 — North Pagans, some Blackfeet & Blood Indians 
arrived and are camped on Teton so that the Fort 
is full of loafers. A small party headed by the White 
Cow against the Bank'*^ arrived from whom traded 
105 Robes on order and 73 Robes they brought — 
A wagn. also arrived from Michel with 300 Robes. 

Sun. 8 — Some Blood Inds. and Blackfeet arrived from whom 
traded 420 Robes. A slow tedious trade as we were 
at it all day. — 

Mon. 9 — Another busy day trading with these Indians 441 
Robes. — 

Tues. 10 — At it again but the trade is now about over — 170 
Robes today Revais also arrived with 246 Robes he 
traded with North Pagans at Clarks Houses — 



28 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

April 1855. 

Wed. 11 — Commenced caulking- bottom of our new Boat which 
we have put off on a/c of the Inds. and they are 
still pretty troublesome. Traded from them today 
100 Robes. Two Wagns. arrived from Michel with 
500 R— 

Thurs. 12 — Pecotte (Picotte)^'^ of the opposition started for 
below in a small skiff. Indians still around us beg- 
ging and trading a little — Got today 70 Robes. — 

Fri. 13 — Still bothered by the Indians a good deal traded 
Henrys-''^ from them today some 30 Robes. Today they raised 
boy Camp. In the evening- the Rising Head^^ arrived 

born from Michels Camp with some 40 Robes to trade. — 

Sat. 14 — Traded with Rising head when he immediately 
cleared out to join his friends — Finished our New 
Boat, a fine affair and launched her — Now nearly 
clear of Indians except a few loafers to whom we 
have given their walking papers. — 

Sun. 15 — M Champaigne arrived bringing in balance of his 
goods and 277 Robes and now we may consider our 
trade as over 1020 Packs Robes this year, besides 
some 50 Packs small skins. — 

Men. 16 — Commenced caulking one of our old boats, and re- 
commenced Pack making, today had only 1 Table at 
work and made only 50 Packs. Jackson^^ and 
Monroe started on a Beaver hunt. — 

Tues. 17 — Made up 160 Packs Robes^-* today. Very windy and 
men unable to work at Boats. 

Wed. 18 — Made today 150 Packs Robes. Launched another of 
our Boats. Started a man to Camp at Bears Paw 
after an Ox left there in winter by Revais and 
which we hear the Indians have now in Camp. — 

Thurs. 19 — Made 97 Packs Robes and 9 Packs small skins. 
Started Cadot with 2 men and 10 horses after meat. 
Sawed some plank to make a skiff for Revais. 




02 i 

xn 6 

W I 

« ': 

w I 

pQ : 

o ^ 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 29 



April 1855. 



Fri. 20— Made 100 Packs Robes and 11 Packs small skins. 
Finished a skiff for Revais and commenced caulking 
our other Boat — 

Sat. 21— Made 92 Packs Robes and 13 Packs small skins. 
Launched our last Boat. Revais started in a skiff 
on a Beaver hunt. Cadot arrived late with the meat 
of 3 Bulls. Hauled two loads wood. — 

Sun. 22 — Dull cold lonesome day. Opposition people loading 
up their Boats today and we hear are to start in the 
morning. — 

Men, 23 — Made 150 Packs Robes. Opposition people had to 
unload, their Boats being inifffciently caulked. 

Tues. 24 — Made 91 Packs Robes and all our mixed skins which 
finishes this job leaving 700 loose Robes. — Opposi- 
tion Boats started for below. 

Wed. 25 — Commenced Pressing^^ our Packs and today pressed 
230. 

Thurs. 26 — Pressed 250 Packs today. Sent Cadot with two Men 
after meat on other side. — 

Fri. 27 — Pressed 250 Packs again. Cadot and men returned 
with the meat of 4 Bulls. 

Sat. 28 — Pressed 2 Packs which finishes this job River ris- 
ing gradually. — 

Sun. 29 — Balanced mens a/cts and hired those who are agree- 
able who are very few. 

Mon. 30 — Hauled dunnage for Boats. Baled Boats out and 
took Inventory of Goods etc. left. 

May 1855 

Tues. 1 — Loaded up two Boats. Very windy. — (Total eclipse 
of Moon this evening) 



30 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

May 1855. 

Wed. 2 — Loaded other Boat, but the strong wind prevents 
us covering them properly. — 

wind abating got everything ready by night for an 
early start tomorrow ; all hands slept aboard of their 
respective boats tonight. 

Thurs. 3 — Rained little during night, boats started this morn- 
ing at 4^ A. M got Safely round the point ; only 
ten men left in the fort. Sun rose beautifully this 
morning every appearance for the boats to make a 
good run today. — Two men left for Pagan camp, to 
look for an ox that was lost in the winter ; large 
War party of Gros-vents (Ventres) arrived @ fort 
this evening — Wind rose about 9 A. M. and con- 
tinued blowing very hard all day. 

Fri. 4^Beautiful day. — A fine litter of Ten Pigs born last 
night. This afternoon Moreau who started yester- 
day for camp returned reporting the man who 
started with him gave out, he left him on his way 
to fort @ Sand Creek about 20 miles distant. — 1 load 
of wood hauled to day. — 

Sat. 5 — Fine clear day. The man that gave out on his way 
to camp came in after midnight. — Grosvent war party 
left this morning; cleaned for to day. — Kept horses 
between the two forts today ; fearful of the Gros- 
vent's stealing some of them. — Another addition of 
stock, a litter of three young pigs. — 

Sun. 6 — Most Beautiful warm clear morning, slight wind 
towards evng. All quiet about Fort to day, river 
appears to be on a stand. — 

Men. 7 — Beautiful warm day, Cadot started hunting, also two 
men went to pagan camp, one for his wife the other 
to look for a stray Oxen. — Opposition sent out hunt- 
ers to day. — An Indian of other fort brot. in Mr. 
C's Sorrel Mare that had been across the river for 
some time to the fort to night she has a fine colt 
about a week old. 



FORT BENTON' JOURNAL 31 

May 1855. 

Tues. 8 — Very fine day went with a man on 'i'eton for load 
of wood no News @ fort to day. — 

Wed. 9 — Beautiful day, towards night hunter arrived with 
meat of three Bulls. — opposition hunters also arrived 
to day. — 

Thurs. 10 — Another fine day, fixed up Govmt. goods'*^ this 
morning. — No news. — 

Fri. 11 — Fine day rather windy, Men went to Teton to cut 
timber to make a skiflf one load of wood hauled 
to day. — 

Sat. 12 — Another fine day; hauled logs to build Skiff, no 
News ; very high wind after Sunset and cloudy. — 
River rising gradually. 

Sun. 13 — Fine day Men arrived from camp who started on 
last Monday ; The four nations are together below 
the Little Rocky Mountains and are moving further 
down. — River rising. — 

Men. 14 — Flying clouds all day; this evening @ 4 o'clk heavy 
Shower — one saw going, making boards for Skiflf. — 
river rising gradually — 

Tues. 15 — Very rainy disagreeable day no out door work do- 
ing. — River rising very rapidly. 

Wed. 16 — Fine clear morning, but cloudy and showery during 
afternoon Men Sawing today, a load of wood hauled 
for use of fort, — River rising Clear at night 

Thurs. 17 — Beautiful day. The Indian who went hunting with 
Mess. Munroe & Jackson arrived @ fort to night 
(having left them on Missouri this morning) for pro- 
visions, reports they will not be in for some time 
yet ; men Sawing yet ; River rising rapidly. — 

Fri. 18 — Fine clear morning Showery & windy during after- 
noon, river rising rapidly finished sawing timber 
for Skiflf to dav.— 



32 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

May 1855. 

Sat. 19 — Cloudy, rainy disagreeable day — hauled a load of 
wood, moved the Kitchen to day. — Opposition hunt- 
ers arrived this evening, an Indian brought us a load 
of meat river on a stand. — 

Sun. 20 — Rainy disagreeable day fort full of water. The In- 
dian who came from Jackson left this morning. — 
No News. — 

Men. 21 — Disagreeable rainy day. No out door work doing. — 
No News. 

Tues. 22 — Cleared up this morning, cloudy at night, Express 
for Jackson returned this morning. — War party of 
Pagans returned from Flat Head, lost one of their 
party, hauled a load of wood to day. Made & 
launched our skiflF to day — 

Wed. 23 — Clear day. Hunter left to Surround^^ with a man 
and two Indians across river. — War party left for 
camp today — hauled logs in fort to day to make a 
foot way. — also took apart Govmt. wagons. — Traded 
four beaver from war party. — Man from opposition 
came down to stay @ fort tonight. — 

Thurs. 24 — Rainy disagreeable day — Hunter returned early this 
morning with meat of 4 Bulls — War party of Pagans 
arrived from Flat Heads with horses — Load of wood 
hauled to day. — 

Fri. 25 — Another rainy day, two loads of wood hauled ; Little 
Pagan, came to fort to stay to day No News — 

Sat. 26 — Several showers to day — one load of wood hauled. 
Two Indians & families came from camp to day. — 
Commenced to make a garden. — All the Indians mov- 
ing down Milk River on their way to Ft. Union — 

Sun. 27 — Beautiful day, Indian went out and brought in meat 
of two Elk. — rainy at night, river falling. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 33 

May 1855. 

Mon. 28 — Cloudy morning, clear at Noon Cloudy at night. — 
Cadot & Man started for Mountain this afternoon 
to hunt, crossed two wagons to start for timber to 
Mountains tomorrow — river on a Stand. — 

Tues. 29 — Clear day, Started two wagons (ox) to Mts. Made 
and finished planting garden. No News! 

Wed. 30 — Cloudy morning clear at night — At noon a party of 
women (and children) were crossing in opposition 
boat when it Sunk there being 14 persons in her, 
they floated down to the point below, when they 
were picked up by our boat, being more frightened 
than hurt. — War party of pagans arrived from Flat- 
heads no horses — This evening two men come from 
other fort to ours to see if we would hire them, they 
being dissatisfied above, — told them to come tomor- 
row. — 

Thurs. 31 — Beautiful day. — The two men came down today and 
hired for each Twenty dollars per Month. — Reed, 
two notes from opposition ; one of which was very 
insulting Sent answers to both. — No News! 

June 1855 

Fri. 1 — Fine clear day — Cleaned out fort this morning — Men 
arrived from Mountain, this afternoon ; having broken 
one wagon only brought one load. — river on a stand. — 
No News! 

Sat. 2 — Beautiful warm day — Opposition people Started for 
Mountain to make meat ; Load of wood hauled to 
day. — No News! 

Sun. 3 — Very windy, Cadot arrived from Mountain this 
morning with the meat of an Elk, deer and an Ante- 
lope. — 

Mon. A — Three men went to Mountain to bring load of tim- 
ber, also Hunter & four Men went to Bears Paw to 



34 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

June 1855. 

make meat, took two wagons eleven horses & Seven 
mules — Very windy. — river rising- 

Tues. 5 — Clear day, rather windy.— Wagon arrived from 
mountain with load of timber this afternoon. River 
rising. — 

Wed. 6 — Beautiful day — brought logs across river this morn- 
ing and hauled them into fort. — Windy @ night. — 

Thurs. 7 — Clear day. — Men Sawing, Commenced hauling gravel 
to put in fort one man commenced making dobbies 
War party arrived @ other fort & State Indians on 
Milk River.— 

Fri. 8 — Beautiful day ; rather windy. — one man making dub- 
bies. A war party of Pagans arrived this evening, 
state plenty of bulTalo this side of the Bears paw 
mountain ; hauling gravel in fort — 

Sat. 9 — Clear day, hauled a load of wood two men started 
across river to hunt this evening. — 

Sun. 10 — Fine day — War party left this morning for Flat 
heads. — river rising 

Men. 11 — F'ine day rather windy. — men retd. from hunting with 
two cabree^^. — 

Tues. 12 — Beautiful day. Showery during the evening, clear @ 
night, men Sawing, one man at dubbies. — 

Wed. 13 — Cloudy with Shower of rain & hail. — Men Sawing — 
This evening a party of P'lathead Indians came on 
other side of river took skiff across & brought Eight 
to our Fort the remainder went above River ris- 
ing.— 

Thurs. 14 — Cool windy day.— The Flatheads from other Fort 
visited us today ; gave them a present of Knives & 
Ammunition, they report there are two of the Gov- 
ernment Men^^^ with them and when the Governor 
comes over their camp will accompany. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 35 

June 1855. 

Fri. 15— Fine day— Flatheads left this morning— Also a man 
from our Fort. — Bird's Son^'^ & two Indians came to 
fort & report the N. Pagan Camp they having some 
three packs of Beaver they will be @ fort in a few 
days— At 5 P. M. & reported Hunters & wagons 
with meat @ the Marias river it being too high to 
cross, Sent the Skifif to their aid.— 

Sat. 16 — Fine day Wagons arrived about 4 o'clk P. M. about 
6 o'clk P. M. the war party that left here on the 
5th ulto arrived entirely stripped, they being chased 
by the Crows, they Subsisted on roots for 18 days 
& had no covering. — 

Sun. 17— Beautiful day all quiet about the Fort.— No News.— 

Men. 18 — Fine day. — Took down press, also the pickets around 
the Smoke house. — One load of wood hauled, men 
Sawing. — Hunter went out & returned with meat 
of one deer, also an Indian brot one Antelope — No 
News. — 

Tues. 19 — Clear day Messrs Jackson & Munroe arrived from 
their hunt at Noon bringing Some Seventy beaver. — 
War party of Gros Ventres left for Camp to day — 
Men Sawing — River falling. — 

Wed. 20 — Fine day— Men Sawing, two Men at dubbies Op- 
position wagons came in from Making meat. — Two 
Indians arrived from N. Pagan Camp & report the 
Camp above on Teton, will be at fort on tomorrow. — 
they left at night. — River falling rapidly. — 
Thurs. 21 — Rainy disagreeable day — Three Men at dubbies but 
had to stop on account of N. Pagan Camp arriving 
and Making their Camp between the two Forts, 
did not trade any to day. — River falling rapidly — 

Fri. 22 — Clear day. — Hunter went after meat on other side 
of river. — Traded some forty beaver & a few Skins 
to day. — laying planks around fort to day. — River 
falling.— 



36 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

June 1855. 

Sat. 23 — Beautiful day, very warm, hunter returned with meat 
of 7 bulls. — traded 40 Beaver from Burd to day. — 
Load of wood hauled River falling.— Indians having 
returned from hunting this evening, we expect to 
make a good trade to morrow — 

Sun. 24 — Clear Morning. — Six bulls killed to day by Indians 
one behind our fort and five on prarie above other 
fort.— Cloudy & windy @ Night River falling.— 

Men. 25 — Clear Morning. — Tremendious hail storm this after- 
noon breaking several of the windows. — No News! 

Tues. 26 — Clear day. — Hauling gravel in fort. — Men finished 
sawing to day; Cloudy at night. — Traded a horse 
to day. — 

Wed. 27 — Rainy day, cleared during eve. Cleaned Stores. 
River falling. — 

Thurs. 28 — Showery. — Hauled 12 loads gravel in fort to day.— 

Fri. 29 — Clear day — Hauled two loads of wood — Cadot & 
Burd left for the Bears Paw Mountains, to trap 
Beaver Camp left for Mouth of Marias river— At 
dark three Indians came to fort having left the 
war party that started from camp yesterday for the 
Snake country. — 

Sat. 30 — Fine day : Crossed horses opposite fort No News.— 

July 1855 

Sun. 1 — July. — Beautiful day — all quiet about fort. — No 
News. — 

Men. 2 — Another fine day. Two men @ Dubbies, War party 
Pagans, arrived from Camp at the Cypress Mts*^*. 
they having arrived from below, and bring very un- 
satisfactory News, the Express not having started 
up to the 1st Ultimo. River falling. — 

Tues. 3 — Fine day — Five men @ dubbies. — River falling. — 




JAMES BIRD IN 1855 

Reproduced through the court.'sy <if llouiiliton, .Mifflin ('oiupany. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 37 

July 1855. 

Wed. A — "Independence Aniversary", fired 3 Shots ea. at 
Morning noon & Night; war party returned from 
war. — Fine day; river falling. — 

Thurs. 5 — War party left for Camp — Four Men at dubbies ; 
Clear day — No News ! — 

Fri. 6 — Exceedingly warm day — Five men at dubbies; 
Shower @ night and very Cool with high wind. — 
River falling. — 

Sat. 7 — Fine Morning — Wray & Two Indians went hunting 
to day. — Commenced painting. — 

Sun. 8 — Hunters returned (late at night) bringing parts of 
three Elk & an Antelope, having left the rest to 
return & bring it. — 

Men. 9 — Fine day Men went to Teton for a load of hay for 
dubbies, two men making dubbies — No News! — 

Tues. 10 — Beautiful day. — very warm — Five men at dubbies 
No News. — 

Wed. 11 — Fine day — Yellow Hair«2 returned from Bears paw 
with meat of bull. Hunter & two men went hunting 
to day. — Shower at night. — Five men at dubbies 

Thurs. 12 — Clear warm day. Four men at dubbies. — Two men 
left for Yellow Stone from the Opposition Fort. — 
No News! — 

Fri. 13 — Fine day Express arrived from St. Mary's^-* with 
Govmt. despatches to be sent below — report Gov. 
Stevens at St. Mary's & will be here in the course of 
two weeks. — Four Men at dubbies River falling. — 

Sat. 14 — Fine day Hunters arrived with Meat of 8 deer. — 
No Buffaloes Sent a man with an Indian as express 
to meet the boats.— River falling Three Men at dub- 
bies — The Government Express left for to St. Marys 
this morning. — 



38 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

July 1855. 

Sun. 15 — Fine cool day — One man of Gov Stevens^* Express 
returned this eve. his horse having given out at Sun 
River.— 

Mon. 16 — Clear during day — Men filling fort with Sand to day; 
one load of wood hauled — Rainy at night. — 

Tues. 17 — Cloudy during day cleared up @ sundown. — Hunter 
went out this morn to his traps & Returned with meat 
of a deer. — No News! — 

Wed. 18 — Fine day Indian went hunting and brought in meat 
of two Antelope Hauled a load of lime stone to day 
men sawing. — 

Thurs. 19 — Beautiful day Hunter started hunting, Indian went 
out & brot in two deer, if it were not for Indian we 
would be poorly off having no provisions and the 
Hunter being too lazy to hunt. — A load of Limestone 
hauled to-day. — men Sawing. — Carpenter fixing the 
floor of new kitchen, no dubbies made on account of 
other work. — No News. — 

Fri. 20 — Clear day Hunter arrived bringing meat of two Elk 
& four deer. — Men sawing, load of wood hauled. — 

Sat. 21 — Beautiful day ; men sawing one load of wood hauled. — 
Carpenter finished kitchen floor. — No News ! — 

Sun. 22 — Very warm, clear day. dull about fort every one 
crying for tobacco. No News. — 

Mon. 23 — Clear warm day hauled a load of hay also a load of 
wood to day. — 

Tues. 24 — Fine day No News. — 

Wed. 25 — Hunter went across river for meat — Fine day. — War 
party of Pagans 

Thurs. 26 — Fine clear day Gov Stevens & one Man arrived @ 
fort this eve — Shot the Cannon & put up flag. — War 
party arrived 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 39 

July 1855. 

Fri, 27 — Beautiful day ; the Governors train arrived & camped 
on teton War party of Grosventers arrived to day — 
Burning lime 

Sat. 28 — Very warm — Cadot Arrived having been @ the 
Judith, bringing the meat of ten fine fat cow^s. — Being 
out of Provisions Gov. Stevens left fort this eve. & 
went to his camp intending to remain there. — 

Sun. 29 — Fine day War party of Grosvents returned to 
camp. — , A few Indians still lounging about Fort. 

Mon. 30 — Clear day. — Cadot together with Indians; men & 
women went towards the Judith to make meat ; were 
visited by some of the Govmt people to day, fine day 

Tues. 31 — Cloudy Cool day, Government fixed & checked their 
goods to day War party arrived from Crows this 
evening. — 

August, 1855 

Wed. 1 — Cool rainy, & disagreeable day. — Barnes^'' left for 
Oppon to day. — Governor paid a visit to day. — War 
party arrived from Snakes bringing a few horses left 
at night. — 

Thurs. 2 — Very heavy showers during last night. — Govn Stevens 
came to fort to day and remained all night; lent him 
a red Cow & Calf to take to camp. — Cloudy during 
morning cleared at Noon. — 

Fri. 3 — Clear, pleasant day — Several indians arrived from 
Camp — several of the camps at the bears paw Mts. — 
on their way to the Judith to make meat Gov. Still 
at the Fort. No News! — 

Sat. A — Clear, very warm Bercier (express) arrived from 
Yellowstone this evening to opposition fort, brings 
letter to Gov. Stevens. — Gov. left fort for his camp 
this evening 



40 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

Au^st 1855. 

Sun. 5 — Clear exceeding warm to day Governor came to fort 
this morning and remains all night. — Indian came 
from Camp this afternoon and reports three lodges 
coming to fort to remain. — Cloudy at night. — 

Men. 6 — Showery — War party arrived from Snakes^® with a 
few horses. — Gov. Still remains at Fort. — 

Tues. 7 — Cloudy morning clear at Noon Cloudy at night — 
War party left this evening Gov Still @ fort — White- 
washing houses load of wood hauled to day — 

Wed. 8 — Alternately cloudy & clear Mr. Doty*^'^ arrived at 
fort from camp and remains during night — Govn. 
Still @ fort Express from Mr. Culbertson left Milk 
river on 4th Inst, arrived here with letters & des- 
patches this morning. — Three Lodges came from 
Camp on Judith & pitched out side of fort — One load 
of wood hauled to day intending to make Coal. — 
Whitewashing progressing. — river rising 

Thurs. 9 — Clear during morning — rainy at night — Sent an ex- 
press conjointly with Gov. Stevens to pagan camp 
above three butes^^ for horses. — Govn. & Mr. Doty 
remains at fort. Tv^o Warriors arrived at Fort this 
eve. from Snake Country. — Load of wood hauled 
to day — Continue whitewashing fort. — river on a 
stand 

Fri. 10 — Alternately Clear & Cloudy heard from hunters 
to day through Col. Crosby^^ who left there yester- 
day they will return in the course of a week a camp 
of Pagans & the Whole of the Grosvents there & 
plenty of buffaloes — Gov. left fort this eve. for his 
camp Mr. Doty Still remains the river rising 

Sat. 11 — Showery. — Borrowed 3 lbs tobacco from Governor 
Express came back from pagan camp having met 10 
Lodges the rest being beyond Cypress Mts. — white- 
washing progressing. — Big Snake'^'' arrived at fort 
this eve. — one load of wood hauled. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 41 

August 1855. 

Sun. 12 — Clear during day, Rainy @ night Whitewashing. — 
No News. — 

Mon. 13 — Cloudy. — Jackson arrived @ fort this afternoon & 
report hunters will be here early tomorrow. White- 
washing — The Govn's blk Smith came to fort to re- 
main to fix horse shoes & mend wagons. — Indian 
arrived from Big Snakes Camp & report they will be 
here tomorrow. — 

Tues, 14 — Cloudy — Camp of pagans arrived this afternoon also 
Cadot with fresh & dry meat — Whitewashing pro- 
gressing Col. Crosby came to fort this eve & remains 
all night — 

Wed. 15 — Clear warm day Col. left this Morg. (Morning) 
Three Grosvents arrived from Camp this Morn. & 
report plenty of meat in Camp. — 

Thurs. 16 — Fine day — Col. Crosby came to fort & remains all 
night. — 

Fri. 17 — Beautiful day — A Culbertson & family with Col. 
Cummings & two other gentlemen with B Cham- 
paigne & several Indians arrived about noon today — 
hoisted flags & fired Salute — Liquor being plenty 
several persons of the Govorners train made a beau- 
tiful display of their gentlemanly deportment — then 
left after supper & all was quiet again. — 

Sat. 18 — Fine day. — Gov. Stevens came to fort to day & made 
a fool of himself by seating him self out side of fort 
in front of gate causing not only remarks of whites 
but of all the Indians — Burning a coal Pit out side 
of fort — Morreau started with wagon to bring one 
left by A Culbertson Esq. @ Milk River.— 

Sun. 19 — Michell & two others left for Gross ventres camp for 
Mules Stolen @ Ft. Union last winter — Weather 
Continues good. — 



42 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

August 1855. 

Mon. 20 — Cadot & one Man went hunting to day — Had horses 
brot up to day find one missing — Fine weather. — 

Tues. 21 — Very warm day horses sent on other Side opposite 
Ft McKensie'i — Carpenter fixing Carts for trip to 
Ft. Union No News! 

Wed. 22 — Clear very warm — Carpenter Mending up wagon 
for trip to Ft. Union. — 

Thurs. 23 — Clear pleasant day — Cadot returned @ noon with 
meat of three deer, game being scarce at the Moun- 
tain. — 

Fri. 2A — Cool day cloudy during evening. — Took Coal from 
Pit amounting to 11 barrels No News! — 

Sat. 25 — Cool day — Hunters started out this morning & Re- 
turned with meat of two very fat deer. — one load of 
wood hauled 

Sun. 26 — Beautiful warm day 

Men. 27 — Another beautiful day Mr. Munroe left to day with 
Gov. people as interpreter & guide to Gros ventres 
& Blk feet.— No News!— 

Tues. 28 — Beautiful day. — Gov. Stevens delivered wagons har- 
ness etc. etc. to us today M. Champgne arrived from 
Gross ventres Camp this evening bringing back 5 
Mules that were Stolen from Ft. Union by Gross 
Ventres last winter. — Fixed up 6 wagons to start to 
Ft Union for the outfit of this place. — Grosvents 
plenty of meat. — 

Wed. 29 — The day Pleasant and clawday Mr. Ray Started 
with a train of six wagons for the yellow Stone at 
y2 past 12 Mr. Culbertson Started also for the boats 
at 1 A. M. in company with Some of Gov Steavens 
Men 

Thurs. 30 — Clowday and rane earley 2 grovonts left for The 
camp in Companey with 3 Pagans Nothing Nothing 



X 




COLONEL ALFRED GUMMING 

Reproduced through the courtesy of Houshton, Mifflin Company. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 43 

August 1855. 

More transpiered till 2 o'clock Col Crosby left for 
the west Side of the Mountin with Pearson^2 i^te in 
the eavening 4 Flatheads arrived reports acamp of 
forty lodges Coming to The Fort 
Fri. 31 — Weather Mild Mrs Doty and Jackson^^ igf^. for the 
North Piegan Camp, a hunting Party of Piegans 
came in from the Teton, 

Fri. 31 — Flat Heads who came in yesterday and wer to return 
today to their camp today, were detained in consi- 
quence of having their Horses Stolen last ngt by 
some Piegans. 

September 1855 

Sat. 1 — Morning Cold and Cloudy, by 11 ock. am cleared up 
and became milder, the Big Snake came in from the 
mouth of the Judth today and reports having seen a 
war Party of crow Indians, six days ago Journeing 
up the Judth he also reports that the Boats'^ had 
not pased the mouth of the above named River, when 
he left that point 

Sun. 2 — nothig of Importeance occured today, the day was 
Clear and hot. until 6 ock. P. M. when it clouded 
up and Threatened us with a severe Storm, a war 
party of Blood Indians left for the north, the waggon 
Returned last night about, 11 Ock 

Mon. 3 — Warm day nothing of importeance occurred, — 
Mounted Two Waggons, Could not Rig eany morre 
in Consiquence of not getting the Whels to fit 

Tues. A — The day was clear and Pleasent Nothing werthay of 
not occured 

Wed. 5 — the day was Cool and Pleasent, the Express returned 
from the Boats with letters from Missrs. Kipp'^'^ & 
Hatch'^^ the Express returned also from the Flat 
Heads, who wer on the other side of the mountions. 



44 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

September 1855. 

Thurs. 6 — we had quite a refreshing Shower this morning-. 
Cleared up a 2 ock P M quite cool. 

Fri. 7 — the day was quite unpleasent. by a very Heavy 
wind, blowing all day. Mr. Chambirs'^'^ arrived from 
Fort Union with letters to Coin Cumming.'^^ Mr 
Culbertson and others, he informs us that the Sioux 
ar inclined to be Hostile tewards the whites at the 
Fort and are committing varrious depredations in 
that vecinety thay had Stolen 8 eight Horses from 
the Company Dr Lansday'^^ left fo St Maries today 

Sat. 8 — the day was cool and pleasent. the opposetion Com- 
pany started one waggon to the Yellow Storne the 
Indian Hunters came in today, with a concridable 
quantity of Bull Meat, and let us have 3 three Horse 
loads, 5. five warers came in today from the lame 
Bulls^^ Camp, thay are some Bloods with them, 
thay inform us that that thay are talking about going 
to the north to make a trade. 

Sun. 9 — Pleasent day. a war party of Piegans arrived to day 
from the Snake Country, nothing Els of importeance 
occured. 

Men. 10 — Cold with a heavy rain this morning, the Eagle 
Chief^^ and other Gros Vantre left this mornig. also 
a war Party of Piegans, 1ft for their Camp. Mr. 
Culbertson Vaughan*^- and others arrived from the — 
Boats. 

Tues. 11 — Weather fine Michel preparg to go down to meet 
the Boat 

Wed. 12 — Michel Champan — Chambers and an Indian left in a 
Skif for the Boat which left Fort Un on 27' Augt — 
fine weather Traded Two Horses — 

Thurs. 13 — Nothing doing — had Two Hogs relieved of their 
nackers — Clowdy 



FORT BENTON lOURXAL 45 



September 1855. 



Fri. 14 — Some few Gros Venters arrived in search of the Two 
Elk^2 who is here Very sick 

Sat. 15 — Cadott came in late last Night with a Deer — Little 
Dog retred bringing in fiat Head Horses stolen by the 
Piegans which are on Milk River with plenty of Meat 

Sun. 16 — Clowdy and nothing new 

Men. 17 — Sent two men to the Mountains to get timber for — 
Mr Vaughn Kinerly^* & Willsen^^ went with them 
Clowdy and Rainy 

Tues. 18 — Rained and Snowed all Day and no wood in the Fort 

V/ed. 19 — To Wagn returned from the Mts with Timber — 
Weather Cleared of Cool 

Thurs. 20 — The Journalist leaves tomorrow morng for the 
Piegan Camp on a Meat Trade 

Fri. 21 — Mr Culbertson started to the Piegan Camp with two 
waggons to trade for meat to feed the hands on the 
Cordelle when the boats shall have arrived — Mr 
Jackson who was Sent by the Commission as a 
messenger to the Blood Indians in the North returned 
to day about 3 o'clock Mr Bird returned with him — 
He was unable to find the Principal Camp of the 
Bloods but about 8 miles from the Fort overtook a 
small party of them — Three Piegans came to the Fort 
to day — In the evening the party of Bloods seen by 
Mr Jackson (consisting of three men & three women) 
arrived at the Fort. When on the hill back of the 
Fort they called a halt — commenced firing their guns 
& raised their colors and spread them to the breese. 
Mr. Monroe went forth to meet them and to extend 
to them the hospitality of the Fort — They report their 
encampment still a long ways off but making their 
way in this direction. The forenoon was clear and 
pleasant but towards night it clouded up and looks 
much like rain — This morning per request of Col 



46 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

September 1855. 

Cummings I took a letter to Mr B De Rochis^ Bour- 
geois of Fort Cambell authorising him (if he desired 
it) to send out to the Indians to trade for "Meat", 
An important event which I forgot to mention tran- 
spired to day — It was that a yellow bitch belonging 
to the Fort had a fine litter of puppies — who know 
but that some of them which now lie with their eyes 
unopened may in their day prove themselves worthy 
of the travoise About sun set it commenced to rain 
but soon ceased — 

Sat. 22 — It cleared ofiE during last night — This morning was 
particularly bright pleasant and beautiful — During the 
forenoon the men of the Fort were engaged in clean- 
ing up some of the houses — Traded for three packs 
of Meat from the Blood Indians who came to the 
Fort on yesterday Nothing New to day — Every 
thing in the fort has been during the day in a state 
of quietness — the weather has been very fine — 

Sun. 23 — This day has been remarkably bright clear & pleas- 
ant Early in the morning Mr. Monroe Sent two 
pack animals with Gov Steven's men to the Marias 
after fresh buffalo having learned by some Indians 
who had just arrived that they were in abundance in 
that vicinity. All the Indians who could raise horses 
started off for the same purpose — It was as quiet as 
usual in the fort during the whole day and though 
it was the Sabath not an inmate of the fort attended 
Church — Late in the evening some four or five Blood 
Indians arrived from the North — They paid their 
respects to their "Big Chief" Col Cumming soon after 
dark and indulged themselves freely in the use of 
weed. 

Mon. 24 — The Morning bright with a strong wind from the 
North West. Thermometer at Sun rise at 55° The 
wind continued to blow very hard from the North 
west during the whole day rendering it very dis- 




J.k.A Ir- W^-^-i- 'Ac..- 



FORT BENTON, MONTANA. ]VKE 10, 1S()(. 
From a sketch by ( Ji'aiiville Stuart. 



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FORT CAMPBELL, MONTANA, 1805 
From a sketch by Granville Stuart. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 47 



September 1855. 



agreeable to be out of doors — In the evening' two 
Peigan Indians arrived at the Fort from the Peigan 
Camp — No New^s in the Fort — Everything as quiet 
as usual — 

Tues. 25 — The wind blew hard all last night but lulled this 
morning just as old Sol peeped over the hills — The 
day was very fine the sun shining forth with unusual 
brightness making quite a contrast between to day 
and yesterday as regards the weather — Early this 
morning Mr Monroe sent an Indian to drive up the 
horses to send for a load of wood — It was sometime 
before they could be gotten up but they finally came, 
when Henry & Demos took the wagon and George 
the horse cart and brought in wood from the Teton — 
The two horses sent out a couple of days ago to the 
Marias for fresh meat was brought back to day well 
packed with fat cow meat which was very acceptable 
as we have been living on dried meat for several days 
passed. The Indians who went out after meat also 
returned to day well supplied. They killed I learn 
one hundred and seventy six cows — If this aint 
Slughtering buffalo by the whole sale you can "take 
my hat" — but my advise is "To go it while you are 
young" for when you "get old" you will have no 
buffalo to kill as Gov. Stevens railroad hands will 
consume them all. It being his project to feed his 
hands upon them so soon as the road goes into 
opperation which in the opinion of "your humble 
Servant" will never be. 

Wed. 26— The day has been very pleasant — Nothing of im- 
portance transpired — Last night an Indian arrived at 
the camp of Gov. Stevens directly from the Flathead 
Camp — He reports that the Peigans and Flatheads 
are together on the Muscle-Shell making their way 
in this direction — George Weippert was engaged this 
morning in putting dirt on top of the Store house 



48 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



September 1855. 



and sweeping out the same — A war party of five 
Peigans arrived at the Fort late this evening — 

Thurs. 27 — The morning commenced bright and beautiful — but 
a little after noon a hard wind sprung up from the 
north east and before night we had a slight shower 
of rain, nothing going on of special interrest — No 
News from any quarter — Several war parties came 
in during the day 

Fri. 28 — The morning bright and pleasant — Last evening soon 
after dark the war parties which came in during the 
day assembled in room within the Fort and had a 
"grand time" singing dancing and beating on the 
drum our old Cree friend was the leader of the 
performance Gov Stevens sent a man to the boats 
this morning — The object of which I suppose was to 
find out the position of the boats and to learn the 
probable time of their arrival — The day has been 
remarkably bright and pleasant — Late in the evening 
a party of Pend O Reilles^^ arrived at the Fort from 
Deep River^^ where they left their main camp 

Sat. 29 — The day was clear but very windy — In the forenoon 
a large party of Gros Vents came to the Fort — They 
had a good supply of meat, which was traded for by 
Mr. Monroe — The women commenced to sweep the 
Fort this morning but the wind blew so hard that 
they were compelled to give it up — Late in the evening 
it rained slightly — 

Sun. 30 — Morning Commences bright and pleasant — During 
last night it rained — Messrs Wilson and Kennerly 
arrived at the Fort this morning about half past one 
o'clock — having made a long and fatigueing ride from 
the "Three Butes". They left Mr Culbertson yes- 
terday morning who probably camped on the Marias 
last night with "Lame Bull" Chief of the Peigans 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 49 



October 1855 



Mon. 1— Mr C— returned to day leaving the Waggons at the 
Three Butes 

Tues. 2 — Indians arring from the different Camps and report 
Bufflo plenty 

Wed. 3 — Express arrivd from the Boats and report there 
being at the Judith 

Thurs. 4 — ^*^Mr Monroe left for the Camp also a Government 
party for the Boats 

Thurs. 18 — Wray arrived from Ft. Union this evening with 6 
wagon loads of goods 

Fri. 19 — Plenty of Indians about fort cloudy looks like 
snow — at dark two ox wagons arrived from boats 
at the Judith- 
Sat. 20 — One loads of wood hauled to day slight fall of snow 
last night — Traded a few robes to day. — 

Sun. 21 — Clear beautiful day. — Several Indians came from 
treaty to day laden with presents and highly pleased. 
Slight rain last night. — 

Men. 22 — About 3 inches snow fell last night — Several indians 
arrived from treaty ground 3 loads wood hauled for 
Coal 

Tues. 23 — Beautiful clear cool morning — 3 loads wood hauled 
for coal. About noon to our delight Mr. Dawson 
arrived — Many indians arrived from treaty : few robes 
traded. — 

Wed. 24 — Fine day coal pit set up & fired below fort — Robes 
& some coffee traded — A wagon left for Milk river 
to bring the one left by Wray — also men sent to 
meet boat to aid them in bringing them up. — 

Thurs. 25 — Clear pleasant day. — busy trading robes & other 
articles to day also a small amount of specie. — load 



50 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

October 1855. 

of wood hauled to day — News from boats, at or near 
the citadel^i getting along slowly. — 

Fri. 26 — Cool day — Trading a few robes etc. — coal pit pro- 
gressing. — Indians leaving the Teton river & moving 
towards Milk river. — 

Sat. 27 — Fine day. — Robes & coffee traded to day — Coal pit 
progressing — Some of Gov. Stevens, men leaving 
for Washington Terr, their home to day, balance 
to leave in a few days — No News. — 

Sun. 28 — Snowy disagreeable day — a few robes traded today — 
Gov. Stevens left for across Mountains to day, boats 
some ways below mouth of Marias, and getting along 
slowly. — 

Mon. 29 — Snow fell yesterday & last night about 3 inches very 
disagreeable under foot ; a few robes ; also some beaver 
& two horses traded, clear at night. — 

Tues. 30 — Fine day indians still about. — Fixed up stores. — 
Express that started yesterday for boats, not yet 
arrived. — Mr. Doty came from Government Camp 
for Arms, Amunition, etc. on acct. of an outbreak of 
indians^^ i^ Washington Terr. 

Wed. 31 — Pleasant Morning Express arrived from boats bring- 
ing articles sent for. — Also another express sent for 
more goods required. — One load of wood hauled, a 
few robes traded. — 

November 1855 

Thurs. 1 — Beautiful morning. Traded a few robes. — Express 
that left yesterday arrived this afternoon accom- 
panied by Major Hatch — Agent for the Black Feet 
tribes. — Cloudy evening — Boats will camp near mouth 
of Marias river. — 

Fri. 2 — Slight fall of Snow last night Cloudy during morn- 
ing but clear and Cool at night. — One Load of wood 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 51 

November 1855. 

hauled to day — Boats camp within 12 Miles of fort 
by water. — 

Sat. 3 — One or two Gros Ventre young- men arrived their 
Camp being very close, and only we suppose await- 
ing the arrival of the Boats to come all here in a 
rush. Very strong N. W. wind which must have much 
impeded the progress of the Boats. One load wood. — 

Sun. 4 — A man arrived from Gov. Stevens for medicine etc. 
one of his party being very sick. A number of Gros 
Ventres also arrived from and in the evening returned 
to their Camp. Boats now in sight from the Bute, 
sleep very close tonight and will we think beyond a 
doubt bring their very protracted trip to an end early 
in the morning. 

Men. 5 — At long last our Boats^^ came insight but were unable 
to cross the ford. Dropped down to foot of rapid 
again where we unloaded her and had everything 
hauled into Fort but she still remains there on ac- 
count of the wind. Crossed other Boat to landing 
and tomorrow shall unload her, and we hope to be 
able to fetch up Big Boat. This is the longest trip 
on record. — 112 days from Fort Union which includes 
11 days detention in building a boat, and 14 days at 
the Council grounds — but it is also the most profitable 
one. — 

Tues. 6 — Unloaded our little Boat and had frt. (freight) hauled 
into Fort — Hauled also one load wood Hunting lost 
horses. Indians loafing in great plenty. — 

Wed. 7 — Took masts and rigging out of Boats and tied both 
up for the winter below the little Island at ford and 
where we are very sure they will not be injured by 
the Ice — Hauled one load wood and started all our 
Horses above on guard. — 



52 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

November 1855. 

Thurs. 8 — Arranged all our stores nicely — Started Blacksmiths 
to repairing Wagns. — Men to building Bastion and 
Wall at Kitchen — rather late — and hauled one load 
wood. Some 15 lodges Blackfeet arrived to see the 
Major. 

Fri. 9 — "Dobbies" getting on well. Clear day but a little 
cold. Started four men to Mountains for a few logs 
and five to the Teton to make a large Coal Pit — 
Traded 105 Robes and a good deal of meat. — 

Sat. 10 — Snowed nearly all day, "but persevered a little in 
our building — Traded 95 Robes 

Sun. 11 — Clear very cold day. Traded 78 Robes Gros Ventres 
moving camp. — 

Men. 12 — Men returned early from Mountain with the logs 
required — Still very cold but going ahead with our 
Dobbies — Geo Weipperts youngest child died last 
night and was this morning interred back of the Fort. 

Tues. 13 — Another very cold day with slight sprinkling of 
snow. Hauled 2 loads wood. Had Ice broke round 
our Boats and straightened them a little. — 

Wed. 14 — Men returned from chopping wood for Coal Pit, — 
Had a visit from Mr, Clark who has arrived with 
13 Carts loaded with goods to offer another opposi- 
tion to us in trade, still getting a Robe or two from 
the Gros Ventres who are now at mouth of Marias — 
Hauled 2 loads wood — 

Thurs. 15 — Cold and through the ])ast night a little more snow 
fell — A little too bad times for dobbie building but 
still we persevere. — 

Fri, 16 — Had Wagns. Harness etc. all arranged for men to 
make an early start for Ft. Union to fetch up Corn 
of which we are much in want Mr. Clark we hear 
has selected a sj^ot on the Teton where he intends 
to winter. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAI. 53 

November 1855. 

Sat. 17 — Started 6 Wagons for Ft. Union under charge of Mr. 
Rose, everything in excellent order and we have no 
fear they will make the trip in safety. Hauled 2 
loads wood — More snow. — 

Sun. 18 — Some Gros Ventres arrived with a little fresh meat 
and traded from them some 24 Robes. Another slight 
fall of snow and very cold. — 

Mon. 19 — So very cold that we were forced to discontinue our 
building, but we trust to resume it tomorrow. Some 
two Inches Snow also fell, and what first fell some 
8 days since still remains. Had a visit from Clark 
Hauled 2 loads wood. — 

Tues. 20 — Much milder and enabled to resume our building — 
Ice running plenty in the river. Hauled 2 loads 
wood. — 

Wed. 21 — Very mild and snow thawing. Sent 4 horses with a 
couple of Indians after fresh meat. Messrs. Wilson 
and Dawson with Major Hatch took a few miles ride 
for exercise and visited Clark on the Teton at his 
houses. Building coming along nicely, but we are 
sorry to find we have too few dobbies to finish our 
Bastion. Hauled 2 loads wood. — 

Thurs. 22 — Again mild — Ther 26 in the morning Hauled again 2 
loads wood — A few Gros Vs brought us a little fresh 
meat, and in the evening Lame Bull brought us a 
horse, a load of meat, and 3 Robes. — 

Fri. 23 — Some more arrivals from Camp with meat and a Robe 
or Two. Horses sent on 21st. Inst, after meat got 
back today well loaded. Hauled 2 loads wood, which 
will be the last for a day or two as the Major has 
permited the opposition to send to Cam]) after meat 
and we must not loose a chance. — 

Sat. 24 — Started two Wagns. to Gros Ventres Camp to trade 
meat under charge M Champaigne and Revais ac- 



54 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

November 1855. 

companied him. Some Gros Vs arrived with some 
more meat. Building drawing to a close, our dobbies 
being about finished 

Sun. 25 — Star Robe^'* arrived with a load of meat and put out 
immediately. Pleasant day. 

Mon. 26 — No arrivals from Camp. Mr. Wilson took a ride to 
the Horse guard where he intends sleeping. Fin- 
ished our Building for the present and took dowm 
scaffolding the adobes being all used up. — 

Tues. 27 — Michel arrived from Camp with his two Wagns. well 
loaded with fresh and half dried meat. Hauled one 
load wood Had stores arranged. — 

Wed. 28 — Collected all our Cows and Oxen and found one Ox 
missing which cannot be far away. Whitewashed 
the building just finished and started men building 
a pig pen and hen house — Hauled 2 loads wood. — 

Thurs. 29 — Recovered lost Ox. Carpenters Sawing logs. Black- 
smith tinkering at Bridle Bits being out of Coal. 
Hauled 2 loads wood. 

Fri. 30 — Finished our pig pen etc. Swept out Fort others 
hauling in dirt to level it a little 2 loads wood. — 

December 1855 

Sat. 1 — Had men to fix up for a start for Mountains on Mon- 
day, as we want about 100 logs out for building pur- 
poses. Two loads wood. 

Sun. 2 — Eagle Chief arrived with some 10 Robes for trade. 
No news. — Cold and Ice running.— 

Mon. 3 — Hauled one load Coal and one load Sent 9 Men to 
mountains to get logs out for building purposes and 
for Boats should we need them and there is every 
probability we will. — 



fy 



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M 



STAR ROBE, BLACKFOOT CHIEF 
Reproduced throug-h the courtesy of Houghton, Mifflin Company. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 55 

December 1855. 

Tues. A — Hauled 2 loads wood. Mild and an occasional Gros 
Ventres arriving to trade. Every appearance of a 
good trade this year. — 

Wed. 5 — No news other 2 loads wood. 

Thurs. 6 — Major Hatch and Messrs. Wilson and Dawson started 
to select a spot for the Ind. Agency. Slept with wood 
choppers at the Mountains. — 

Fri. 7 — Examined "High Wood" for several miles below the 
Narrows. Slept on Belt Mountain Creek^^ — 

Sat. 8 — Visited Missouri Falls^^ and slept there. 

Sun. 9 — Returned and slept on High Wood. — 

Men. 10 — Returned to Fort and found a lot of Blackfeet await- 
ing the Majors arrival and a few Gros Ventres for 
trade. — 

Tues. 11 — Traded a little meat from Blackfeet and on receiving 
a present from Agent they all put out well satisfied — 
Shortly after their departure a war party of about 
40 Blackfeet arrived, and are having a long talk with 
the Major. Little Dog and six others also arrived 
with some Togs and a little meat to trade. — 

Wed. 12 — Traded with little Dogs party when they also left. 
Hauled 2 loads wood. 

Thurs. 13 — A very quiet day for trade — Revais our hunter arrived 
for meat for men at Mountains. Four Pagans arrived 
with a few Robes for trade Two loads wood. — 

Fri. 14 — Started Revais back with some meat for men at 
Mountains. Traded 13 Robes a few Wolf skins and 
some meat from those who arrived yesterday — A few 
more Inds also arrived with a Robe or two and the 
Big Snake and party to see the Major 

Sat. 15 — Skunk^" and one or two Gros Ventres arrived with 
some meat and a few Robes. Hauled 2 loads wood 
and one of Bark. No news — Cold 



56 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

December 1855. 

Sun. 16 — Some Gros Ventres arrived with a few Robes, and 
in the afternoon Camp of "Little Robes" arrived with 
their Lodges which they have pitched in the Prarie 
behind. 

Men. 17— Busy trading Togs. (Buffalo tongues) Meat Wolf 
Skins and a very few Robes. Some more Gros Vs 
also arrived. Threatning Snow. Hauled two loads 
wood. — 

Tues. 18 — Little Robe Band moved Camp and intend settling 
for the present at Pablos Island to dress what Robes 
they have — Two loads wood as usual. — 

Wed. 19 Some 15 Lodges of Blackfeet arrived and are pres- 
ently camped inside the Fort. Very cold. The River 
closed today. Gave the Blackfeet a feast and the 
Agent did so also, likewise a present of a shirt & 
Legns. each and a few Blkts. — 

Thurs. 20 — Our men returned from the Mountains having got 
out 100 Saw Logs besides some ps. for Oars etc. 
Traded 113 Robes from Blackfeet and a lot of meat 
when they all put out for Clarks and we wish him 
joy of his visit. — 

Fri. 21 — All quiet. A few Gros Ventres arrived with one or 
two Robes for trade — Hauled 2 loads wood. — 

Sat. 22 — The Little Grey Head and a good many other Piegans 
with the Low Horn^^ and some Bloods arrived with 
some meat and Robes for trade and to see the Major — 
Gave them all a feast — Hauled 4 loads wood. — 

Sun. 23 — Traded with the Indians who arrived yesterday some 
113 Robes and a good deal of meat 

Men. 2A — Most of Peigaus left. No new arrivals Very cold. 
Hauled 4 loads wood. 2 of which from other side. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 57 



December 1855. 



Tues. 25 — A Blackfoot arrived for Teton and says spotted 
Eagle''^ and party will be here in the morning — Gave 
the men a feast as usual. — 

Wed. 26 — Seven Blackfoot traders, Spotted Eagle at the head, 
but as they had only 11 Robes in all amongst them, 
and little or no meat we presume their visit is chiefly 
to the Agent — Gave them a feast and the Agent gave 
them a little present. Hauled 4 loads wood. — 

Thurs. 27 — Traded the 11 Robes from Blackfeet and after an 
infinite deal of begging they put out. 4 loads wood — 
still very cold — Tonight the Fort is free of traders 
or loafers — 

Fri. 28 — Still colder with slight fall of Snow. One Gros 
Ventres arrived with three Robes for trade Hauled 
4 loads wood. — 

Sat. 29 — Major Hatch called for two men from other Fort, 
who with four from this have commenced prepara- 
tions for a large Ball to be given by the Major on 
New Years. Two Pagans arrived with a dead Com- 
rade for us to burry — the Little Antelope — Hauled 4 
loads wood — 

Sun. 30 — All quiet. Another heavy fall of Snow — Cooks busy 
for New Year and their labor begins to show. 

Men. 31 — Interred "Little Antelope" in grave yard back of 
Fort and put a flag over his grave for which trouble 
and expense we got 2 Bales meat and a fine horse. 
Four loads wood. — 



58 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

January 1856 

Tues. 1 — Major Hatch new years party came off last evening 
and as the provisions are very plenty will be con- 
tinued throughout the day and night — The dancing 
amusement was varied this morning by a lottery got 
up by the Major 49 prizes and 1 blank — Price of 
Tickets nothing — Every person pleased and happy — 

Wed. 2 — Another heavy fall of Snow — Started the Machinery 
of Fort Benton once more — Four loads wood — Plenty 
meat in Fort, plenty Robes in Camp, and altogether 
a fine appearance for a prosperous and happy trade 
this year. 

Thurs. 3 — Started 4 men on Teton to make a Coal pit. Hauled 
3 loads wood. Commenced Letter writing etc. for 
below. A few traders with some meat today — Had 
visit from Clark and family, who slept in the Fort. — 

Fri. 4 — Still busy getting ready for express. The "Skunk" 
and party of 7 arrived with great promises only for 
trade, gave them a smoke and a little feast. — 

Sat. 5 — Started Mr. Wray and one man with Express for St. 
Louis to be delivered at Ft. Union Very mild morn- 
ing and snow melting very rapidly, but about noon it 
changed and in 5 minutes Ther. went below Zero — 
Strong east wind, we never experienced such a sudden 
change — and we fear for the consequences. Three 
loads wood. — 

Sun. 6 — Still very cold plenty Snow throughout the night. — 

Men. 7— Hauled 3 loads wood — Big Snake and Red Horn'*^*^ 
Peigans arrived with 35 Robes and some 6 Bales 
meat — traded them and put out — No news. — 

Tues. 8 — Still "almighty cold" and snowing a little— No traders 
today — One of our Ox drivers sick so only 2 loads 
wood. 

Wed. 9 — A very little milder. A little Robe Ind. passed with 
one Robe to trade being all we have got for the past 



FORT BENTON JOl-RNAL 5') 

January 1856. 

two days. Man still sick. 2 loads wood. Dull lone- 
some times and lonj^ing to hear of our Wagons from 
below. 

Thurs. 10 — Much milder thoug-h equally lonesome. Mr. Rose's 
Woman arrived from Camp with a dead child born 
26 ulto. for us to bury. Two loads wood. Opposition 
men started out hunting. — 

Fri. 11 — Another mild pleasant day, the pleasantest we have 
had for sometime, and snow begins to thaw some. 
A war party of Blood Indians arrived and are at 
present in the Fort. — they bring three horses they 
say they found. Traded 1 horse. — 2 loads wood. 
Still no news. — 

Sat, 12 — Again warm and pleasant. Most of the War party 
left — Rotten Belly ^"^ and Pickon arrived with a good 
lot fresh meat & Robes last night, which they traded 
today — Sitting woman arrived 2 loads wood — 

Sun. 13 — Pickon and comrade left us, — Traded with Sitting 
Woman, i°- but he still loafs on, Some other Gros 
Ventres arrived with meat and a few Robes, traded 
and left — The Little Robe band moving Camp from 
above across on "Chantier''^^^ looked in to loaf and 
anoy us but gave us no Robes. Same pleasant 
weather — 

Men. 14 — Sitting Woman at long last cleared out. having begged 
us all tired of him. Spotted Calf arrived with some 
fresh meat — This now is becoming a very unaccept- 
able article of trade, we want Robes. — 2 loads wood. 

Tues. 15— Two Elks— Bad Head^o-*— Tobacco Pants etc. etc. ar- 
rived with any quantity of meat for trade but only 
some 7 Robes amongst them all — Our prospects how- 
ever are very favorable for a large trade this year, — 
Plenty meat portends plenty Robes. 2 loads wood. — 



I 



60 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

January 1856. 

Wed. 16 — b'ort cleared out, but immediately filled up again — 
Beardy and some 12 other Gros Ventres arrived with 
a lot of that now dispised article Bufo. meat for 
trade — Two loads wood and had a cart load of "grass" 
hauled to stuff pack saddles. 

Thurs. 17 — Traded with Gros Ventres but most of them still 
remain in Fort. Wister rode out to Coal burners on 
Teton to hurry them along as we are now getting 
short of that article — Two loads wood. — 

Fri. 18 — An express arrived from Fort Union in search of 
horses for trade etc. P Chine^"^ in charge — Plenty 
Bufo. in lower country and very flattering prospects 
for trade — Mr. Rose with our Wagns. arrived at Ft. U 
16th Dec. and was expected to start back about 20th 
of that month. Mr. Bird arrived from Bellies^*^^ river 
— Recovered also 2 horses which have been lost by 
our express man Wray — 2 loads wood — 1 load bark 
for Blacksmith. 

Sat. 19 — No arrivals from Camp — 2 loads wood still very cold 
and again threatning Snow. 

Sun. 20 — Lame Bull and some 4 Peigans arrived with more 
meat for trade also the Rider^"" a Gros Ventres — 
Plenty Robes in Camp ! 

Mon. 21 — Traded with Lame Bull and party when they started — 
Calfs Robe^*'^ and a few other Blood Indians arrived 
with a very few Robes and plenty meat — Started 
Revais and two men with 10 of our fattest horses and 
4 Mules to assist Rose Also sent 3 men on Teton to 
get out knees for a Boat. — 

Tues. 22 — Hauled half a load of Coal and half of Knees from 
Teton. Fine pleasant day — Traded with Calf Robes 
party — No arrivals today Hauled 2 loads wood. 

Wed. 23 — Sitting Woman arrived with 4 Robes and a load of 
meat. He brings also the last of three horses we 




/'y. 



V 



TIIK RIDER, BLACK FOOT CHIEF 

1 thiouuli ihc courtesy ot 1 Icuulit on. .Millli 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 61 



January 1856. 



sent with our express man 5th Inst and which must 
have strayed from them. No news. 

Thurs. 24 — Sitting Woman started back No arrivals Another 
load knees and Coal and two loads wood. — 

Fri. 25 — Hauled balance of knees for a 90 foot Mackinaw — In 
the evening a Gros Ventre arrived with nearly a 
wagon load of meat and 9 Robes. No news. — 

Sat. 26 — Traded with Gros Ventre when he started Some 
Little Robes paid us another loafing visit for the 
100th time — Two loads wood — Mild and pleasant. — 

Sun. 27 — Some few Gros Ventres with plenty meat and as 
usual in these times a Robe or two arrived to trade — 
getting heartily tired of this meat business. 

Mon. 28 — More arrivals of Gros Ventres with meat meat — We 
do wish they would stop it but it seems they will come 
with it notwithstanding all we can say — Two loads 
wood — 

Tues. 29 — Big Feather Blood Ind arrived with 9 Robes and 
some meat of course — Finished sawing knees for a 
new Boat. 

Wed. 30 — Mr. Culbertsons B in L arrived with some 10 Robes 
and meat meat meat — 2 loads wood and one of Coal. 

Thurs. 31 — A whole host of Gros Ventres arrived last night with 
two Mules and two Horses lost by Revais — Fort 
crowded — Traded 1 horse a lot of meat and a few 
Robes. 

February 1856 

Fri. 1 — Mr. C's Brother in Law started back for Camp. Fort 
entirely free of Indians. Hauled 1 load of Coal and 
as usual two loads fire wood. 

Sat. 2 — "Bad Head" arrived with 14 Robes. No news. Three 
loads fire wood. — 



62 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

February 1856. 

Sun. 3 — Two men arrived for the opposition house from be- 
low by whom we learn that Rose and Wagons are 
laid up below Milk River, that Wray with our express 
had been met this side of the Big Bend^"^ 22 days 
out from this — horrible ! and that Revais was met 
below the two forks^^*^ having lost all the Mules sent 
by him and two horses — still more horrible — !! In 
the evening our good friends the Gros Ventres ar- 
rived bringing us one of the Mules lost by Revais 
and the only remaining one is also in Camp — Rose 
has lost 7 of his horses. — 

Men. 4 — Made a present to our friends the Gros Ventres when 
they started — Another arrived with 14 Robes and a 
horse for trade — Hauled 2 loads of wood and one of 
Coal. 

Tues. 5 — Traded with Gros Ventres who immediately left. Mr. 
Dawsons Comrade^^^ arrived from a distance of some 
70 miles bringing one Robe d — him. 3 loads wood. — 

Wed. 6 — A large party of Blackfoot traders arrived who all 
went to opposition Fort — Bad Head arrived with 
some 8 Robes. 3 loads wood. — 

Thurs, 7 — "White Cow" etc. started — No arrivals today and 
no trade — two loads fire wood and one for Coal Pit. 

Fri. 8 — Several Gros Ventres arrived with a few Robes plenty 
meat and the last of our Mules sent by Revais. Mild 
and snow thawing a little — two loads fire wood and 
one for pit. 

Sat, 9 — Several other Gros Ventres arrived and the Lame 
Hand Peigan with a good few Robes. No news. 
Still mild and snow gradually lessening — Hauled 
wood as above. 

Sun. 10 Xiiolhcr iniM daw Some Gros Ventres arrived with 

a good many Robes for trade. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 63 

February 1856. 

Mon. 11 — No arrivals today — Did not trade one Robe. Hauled 
two loads fire wood and one for Pit. 

Tues. 12 — Lame Hand arrived with some 20 Robes also one 
or two Gros Ventres — Father of all people^^^ arrived 
in the evg. Blood Ind. Two loads sleepers^^^ for 
Boat and one load fire wood. Very mild — Ther.' 
at 50.— 

Wed. 13 — Traded with Blood Ind. and some few Gros Ventres 
73 Robes in all — Hauled 3 loads fire wood — Expect a 
large band of Blackfeet in a day or two. — 

Thurs, lA — One or two Blackfeet and a few Gros Ventres arrived 
from whom traded 144 Robes. Revais arrived with 
Letters from Ft. Union and from our Wagons which 
are still below Milk River and have lost some 13 head 
of Mules and Horses. Sent three Wagns. to Moun- 
tains and did a little towards cleaning our Fort. — 

Fri. 15 — A large party of Blackfeet arrived under their chiefs 
the Old Sunn. 11^ Big Sun^^^ Bull Sitting Down and 
The tail that goes up the Hill.i^^ being their first 
formal visit since the Canon was fired on them. They 
were well received firstly by the fort, and secondly 
by the Agent who made them a very handsome pres- 
ent. Traded from them 300 Robes and from the 
Gros Ventres 200 — a pretty busy day for all of us. 

Sat. 16 — Traded some 200 Robes more from the Blackfeet 
when they all put out well satisfied — Traded also 
138 Robes from the Gros Ventres — Now the Indians 
begin to pour in from all quarters and we may say 
our trade has fairly commenced. — Hauled one load 
of fire wood. 

Sun. 17 — Some more Blackfeet arrived from whom traded 346 
Robes. Started a band of 27 Mules and Horses to 
the assistance of our Wagons and for Ft. Union 
trade — Wagons arrived from Mountains with 10 logs 
and 2 ps. for Ooars (Oars) 



64 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

February 1856. 

Mon. 18 — Had logs hauled into fort from other side hauled 
also one load fire wood. Traded 624 Robes from All 
tribes an assortment of whom we now have around 
us 

Tues. 19 — Another fine days trade — 765 Robes in all — Hauled 3 
loads Coal and a load of wood Very busy times. — 

Wed. 20 — Our Stock of goods begins to look down and we are 
already short of many articles — Traded today 550 
Robes making in all at present traded 5586 Robes- 
Sent three Wagons to Mountains. Hauled balance 
of Coal from Teton and commenced on another Pit 
at the Fort. 

Thurs. 21 — Trading again today with all nations but on account 
of having to cash some of our most desirable goods, 
trade has not been quite so brisk — traded only 259 
Robes. Much colder today Hauled one load wood. 
Men working away at pit — Carpenters caulking yawl 
and sawing plank. — 

Fri. 22 — Same work — traded today 273 Robes. The Ice broke 
up throughout the past night without any rise in the 
river and now we think our boats are saved. — 

Sat. 23 — Men arrived from Mountains with 10 ps. 1 Wagn. 
broken — Big Snakes band arrived also a few Black- 
feet — Traded in all 435 Robes, but from appearances 
we think the opposition must have doubled this, but 
we are out of all our desirable goods. — 

Sun. 24 — Still fine pleasant weather. Trade also still keeps 
brisk — 249 Robes today — 

Mon. 25 — Little Dog arrived and got through with him and 
party — Endeavored to clean up our Fort a little — 
In the Evening commenced snowing — One load 
wood — Traded 622 Robes — 

Tues. 26 — Traded with Piegans Bloods & Blackfeet but no Gros 
Ventres today 343 Robes — Hauled 3 loads wood. 
Found one of our Oxen with its tail cut oflF — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 65 



February 1856. 



Wed. 27 — Some Gros Ventres and a few Peigans traded today 
212 Robes. Ther at noon 15 Hauled 2 loads wood. — 

Thurs. 28 — Traded today 353 Robes — Still very cold. Hauled 
three loads wood. 

Fri. 29 — Low Horns band arrived and traded from them and 
others 313 Robes. Cold as ever. Hauled 3 loads 

wood. — 

March 1856 

Sat. 1 — A dance by two Soldier^^'^ bands today — Much 
milder — Saw Geese for the first time — White Eagle^^^ 
Gros Ventre arrived, and traded from him and others 
296 Robes. Three loads wood. 

Sun. 2 — Still cold and unpleasant. Some few Blood Inds ar- 
rived — -Traded in all 193 Robes being the poorest day 
for a long time. 

Men. 3 — Trade still duller but there yet remains plenty Robes 
for us — traded 154 today — Hauled 2 loads wood. — 

Tues. A — Visited by nearly all of the principle Gros Ventres 
as they are about to raise Camp — Received from 
them 59 Robes and 2 horses as a parting present but 
they do not know how to make such presents — their 
hearts are not strong — Wound up the ceremony how- 
ever without very great loss to the Outfit. Traded 
in all 344 Robes Hauled our logs across from other 
side. — 

Wed. 5 — Another busy days trade 414 Robes — Hauled 2 loads 
wood. Mild and pleasant 

Thurs. 6 — Early Maj Hatch and friend Wilson started for Ft. 
Union where they will await the S Boats arrival — 
Gave them a parting Salute from our Canon — Clarke 
also started for below having sold out. Traded 418 
Robes 



66 FORT BENTON jOl'RNAL 



March 1856. 



Fri. 7 — Traded with Big Feather Blood Ind and party — 
exactly 400 Robes today — Hauled 2 loads wood and 
hunted up our stray Oxen Warm and pleasant. — 

Sat. 8 — Mr. Culbertsons Bro in Law arrived on a visit, and 
states his Camp is on the Teton with plenty Robes. 
Traded 330 Robes — Had our Fort swept out and 
hauled one load wood. — 

Sun. 9 — Traded with some few Blood Indians 368 Robes — A 
good deal colder — 

Mon. 10 — Got 276 more Robes from Blood Indians Still 
colder — Sent three Wagons to Mountains for some 
more logs. — 

Tues. 11 — Traded with Mr. Culbertsons Bro in Laws party 384 
Robes today. Hauled one load wood. Much colder 
and snowing a little — A few more days trade like 
the present and we will be entirely out of goods. — 

Wed. 12 — A poor days trade only 75 Robes in all. Men returned 
late from Mountains having broken one Wagon, 
they fetch 8 ps. only — 

Thurs. 13 — Traded from Mountain Chiefs^^^ party today 213 
Robes. Men in unloading Wagns. today let one fall 
over the opposite bank, and effectually used it up 
also. Discharged one of the men — Hauled one load 
wood. Very cold and plenty Ice running. — 

Fri. 14 — Still very cold and firewood in considerable demand. 
Some Blackfeet Bloods and all sorts arrived — Traded 
216 Robes — Had all our logs crossed from other side 
and hauled one load of wood. — 

Sat. 15 — Blood Inds very tardy in shifting Camp and in con- 
sequence much trouble with them — Traded today 
122 Robes— Nearly out of Blankets— Hauled logs 
into Fort — and had Fort cleaned — 





K 



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a^ ^e- ni 



Jtimrt./*ik^M 



LOW HORX, PIEGAN CHIEF 
Reproduced through the courtesy of Houshton. Mifflin Company. 



J 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 67 

March 1856. 

Sun. 16 — Some N Peigans arrived again to trade and from 
them and remaining troublesome Bloods traded 260 
Robes — Very much trouble by loafers — 

Men. 17 — Three Bulls^^o Blackfoot arrived with some 30 Lodges 
— their trade is almost over however but they keep 
oflfering us cords P flesh (Parfleche) etc. etc. for 
horses and such like — Blood Indians finally moved off 
Started two Wagons to Mountains — Hauled one load 
wood — Mr. Wray returned from Ft. Union and brings 
us the news that our Wagns. will be here at long last 
in about 7 days. — Traded 78 Robes. — 

Tues. 18 — Blackfeet moved off after considerable begging — 
Traded 21 Robes in all — We are now through with 
our trade excepting a Camp of N Peigans — "Bulls 
Head^^i — ^vho are waiting our Wagons arrival — 
Possibly however all may yet be back with a few 
Spring Robes to trade Amunition etc. — Thus far we 
have 1316 Packs Bufo. Robes, and are pretty con- 
fident of making it the 1500. — 

Wed. 19 — All quiet about the Fort for the first time for many 
a day. Arranged Stores for the reception of Com p 
Wagons and preparatory to making Packs — Sawing 
plank for a new Boat. Cadot arrived from Wagons 
and started back again, they being much closer than 
we had anticipated. — 

Thurs. 20 — Early our Wagons 5 in number — 1 having been cashed 
by the way — arrived — they have had a long and most 
expensive trip of it, having been absent since 17th 
Nov. and having lost 17 Horses and Mules on the 
trip — So much for Winter travelling — Swept out 
Fort. 

Fri. 21 — Rested our Wagoners and gave them a feast, — Com- 
menced making Packs with one table and got through 
with 40 — quarreled with one of the men and gave 



68 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



March 1856. 



him a good thrashing and his discharge — Men arrived 
from Mountains with 7 Ps. one Wagn. broken of 
course. — 

Sat. 22 — Started men back to Mountains. About noon Maj 
John Owens/22 trader Flathead country arrived v/ith 
several others — Maj Ov^ens very desirous of obtain- 
ing supplies for his trade from this side. Hauled 1 
load firewood. — 

Sun. 23 — All quiet — Planing and talking with the Major. Very 

windy. — 

Men. 24 — Traded with a few Flatheads who arrived with Maj O 
some 100 lbs. Beaver at low rates. Commenced mak- 
ing a skiff to send express to St, Louis under arrange- 
ments with Maj. O. Started 3 men to make another 
Coal Pit on Teton. Hauled one load wood. Making 
Packs with 2 Tables— 100 today.— 

Tues. 25 — Bulls head and party N Peigans arrived to trade. 
Our Wagns. returned from Mountains with 8 ps. — 
Hauled one load wood. Made 100 Packs. — 

Wed. 26 — Started Revais and two men in a Skifif with Express 
to St. Louis — Maj Owens and party also started on 
their return. Traded 385 Robes from N Peigans — 
one load wood. — 

Thurs. 27 — North Peigans started back — Started two saws mak- 
ing plank for boat — one load wood 100 Packs. — 

Fri. 28 — All at work one way or another and in nice order. 
Made 77 Packs Robes and 5 Packs Wolf Skins- 
Started 2 Wagns. to Mountains — hauled 2 loads fire 
wood. 

Sat. 29— Made 50 Packs Robes and 5 Packs Wolf Skins- 
Swept out Fort and hauled 2 loads wood. 

Sun. 30 — All quiet — In the evening our Wagns. returned from 
Mountains bringing 8 ps. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 69 

March 1856. 

Mon. 31 — A band of N Peigans arrived to trade and sleep in 
Fort. Plenty Bufs. close on both sides. Hauled our 
logs into Fort and 1 load wood. Made 50 Packs Robes 
13 small skins. — 

April 1856 

Tues. 1 — Traded with N Peigans 347 Robes etc. Made 50 
Packs Robes, hauled 2 loads wood, and cleaned up 
around the Fort. — 

Wed. 2 — Started three Wagns. to Mountains for logs hauled 
one load fire wood. Made up 50 Packs Robes 5 Pack 
Beaver and 1 pack Grey Fox — A few Peigans still 
remain in Fort and a few have started after Bufo. — 

Thurs. 3 — Baptiste and our Ind Horse guard arrived from Moun- 
tains with a good lot of meat. Bain, of N Peigans 
moved off. Hauled 1 load wood. 

Fri. 4 — Little Grey Head arrived with some 4 or 5 Robes 
for trade, also the Red Bull with a horse for us 
One load wood. — 

Sat. 5 — Grey Head and other Ind started back. Men arrived 
from Mountains with 13 ps. — Put up our new press 
outside of Fort, one load wood — Men making Packs 
as usual — Cleaned out Fort. — 

Sun. 6 — Bad Head & Low Horn etc. who arrived late last 
night traded a few Robes 2 horses and put back on 
their return early. Big Snake and five others arrived. 

Mon. 7 — Started three Wagns. to Mountains — Traded 1 horse 
and some Robes from Big Snake and party who still 
loaf on. Yellow Head^-'"* arrived from Camp. Hauled 
1 load Coal and made 100 Packs. — 

Tues. 8 — Big Snake started back to Camp — Arrived Young 
White Calf and friend — Hauled 1 load wood Made 
100 Packs. 



70 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

April 1856. 

Wed. 9 — Skunk arrived with some Robes for trade Hauled a 
load of wood — Made 100 Packs Robes Our Horses 
arrived from Mountains all much improved since 
their trip from Ft. Union. — 

Thurs. 10 — Wagons arrived from Mountains with 11 ps. Hauled 
1 load — the last — of our Coal — Made 100 packs Bap- 
tistes B in L arrived with a few Robes. — 

Fri. 11 — Very disagreeable cold day — Snowing & raining all 
the time — A considerable number of Gros Ventres 
Chiefs and Soldiers arrived — Traded from them some 
10 packs Robes entirely for provisions — Made 106 
packs Robes which finishes this part of the business 
making 1350 Packs Robes made up which with some 
loose Robes makes us over 1400 Packs Robes to 
date. — 

Sat. 12 — Started three Wagons to Mountains. G Vs as is 
their custom still loaf on — Skunk and other Peigans 
all started back to Camp. 

Sun. 13 — Much to our relief Gros Ventre party all left us. Mr. 
Picotte of the opposition left with his "Returns" in 
three Boats — Gave him a passing Salute from our 
Canon being we suppose the first time an opposition 
Bourgeois had such an honor paid him by this Fort, 
but both houses have been on the most amicable 
terms this winter both having done a most satisfac- 
tory business 

Men. 14 — Very high wind — Commenced on the only Boat we 
intend to build this year 85 ft by 123/4 Hauled up 
to Fort our last years Boat but the wind blew too 
strong for us to bring up the large Keel — Had her 
cleaned however — Men arrived from Mountains with 
15 ps. — Two Peigans arrived to trade a few Robes. 

Tues. 15 — Traded some 20 Robes and 2 Horses from Peigans, 
who still loaf on. Had our Big Keel at long last 
brought up to Fort. This is her first visit to these 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 71 

April 1856. 

upper regions and we hope it will be her only one, 
as she is by far too big for our river — Very windy 
as usual. Crossed our logs and had them hauled 
into Fort. — A few Gros Ventres arrived. — 

Wed. 16 — Traded with G. Vs some 18 Robes and 1 Horse when 
they put back. — Peigans also left Commenced press- 
ing our Packs 115 today. — 

Thurs. 17 — Pressed 150 Packs Robes. Bufo. very plenty quite 
close on both sides — Sent after and got a good supply 
of meat. 

Fri. 18 — Pressed 176 Packs — We are in no want of meat yet 
Bufo. are so very close we can scarce keep our young 
hunters in bounds. They killed four Bulls in point 
opposite today — A young Peigan trader arrived with 
a few Robes. Also two Gros Ventres arrived in 
search of a runaway Woman. — 

Sat. 19 — Pressed 104 Packs — Swept out and around Fort — 
arranged Stores — Hauled one load wood — Finished 
and turned bottom of new Boat. A Peigan arrived 
with a few Robes. — G Weipperts woman died in 
giving birth to a boy last night. 

Sun. 20 — Three Lodges of N Peigans arrived and a few others — 
Very windy day, and had to drop crossing Inds. for 
a while. Bufo. still very plenty quite close. 

Men. 21 — Pressed 150 Packs — Traded 120 Robes — Another very 
windy day — Hauled a load of firewood. Mr. Bird 
and family arrived — Three Cows killed in sight of 
Fort.— 

Tues. 22 — Pressed 215 Packs — A big band of Bufo. between 
the two Forts — rare times these — Hauled one load 
wood. — 

Wed. 23 — Pressed only 131 Packs today ; our labors being inter- 
rupted by a band of Bufo., after which we let the 



72 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

April 1856. 

men have a run — Four Lodges Gros Ventres arrived 
and Camped on other side. Also some 6 or 7 Peigans 
arrived to trade. Pleasant day 

Thurs. 24 — Snowed all day and in consequence had to abandon 
Pack pressing Traded some 14 Robes Hauled one 
load wood. Men spinning Oakum. 

Fri. 25 — Clear and much milder — Snow nearly all gone Pei- 
gans started back to Camp. And in the evening a 
few Gros Ventres arrived. One load wood, and spun 
up last of our Oakum. — 

Sat. 26 — Pressed 205 Packs Robes. Planked up sides of our 
new Boat. Little Dog arrived from a visit to the 
Flat Heads — Also some Peigans from other side. 

Sun. 27 — A few more Peigans arrived — Traded some 70 Robes. 
Bufo. still continues plenty and close 

Men. 28 — Peigans moved off. Pressed 103 Packs Robes and 
40 Packs mixed Skins which finishes this job for the 
present. A large party of Gros Ventres arrived with 
some Spring Robes for Sugar etc. but as we are 
now entirely out of this article a good portion of 
them fell to the opposition house. Big Calf Peigan 
arrived and found his enemy the Plenty Eagles in 
the Fort and cut him badly on the head. The former 
traded and put out immediately 

Tues. 29 — Gros Ventres all started back early. Had our meat 
pile overhauled and found a good deal too much of 
it spoiled — Cut some knees for a skiff, etc. etc. — 

Wed 30 — Finished our New Boat, the biggest ever made here, 
and raised her up for caulking — Made 57 Packs Robes 
— Started 3 Wagons to Mountains — Hauled 1 load 
of wood. No arrivals today. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 73 

May 1856 

Thurs. 1 — Set 8 Men to Caulking New Boat and got through 
with half of it. Put up our Tongues in Bags 1581 
in all for this year, but we have sold some 300 to 
different parties. Hauled one load of wood. Sent 
after and got 6 loads fresh meat. 

Fri. 2 — A few Peigans and Gros Ventres arrived from whom 
we traded 90 Robes and 2 horses — Finished Caulk- 
ing our new Boat and launched her. Men arrived 
from Mountains with 8 logs and a new Mast. All 
going on smoothly 

Sat. 3 — Chambers, Chine, and 13 Men arrived from Ft. Union 
to assist in taking down Boats etc. Caulked our 
Big Keel Boat and sunk her. Also had our old Boat 
hauled out and put on the Stocks to dry. 

Sun. 4 — Sent Chine and others after meat and towards evening 
they returned with 5 Bulls. Bufo. are becoming scarce 
in the vicinity — A few Indians arrived with some 
Robes and 1 Horse to trade. — 

Mon. 5 — Started three Wagns. to Mountains for the balance 
of our logs there — Pressed 51 Packs Robes, — swept 
Fort etc. 

Tues, 6 — Set Fort Union men to covering houses with dirt. 
Caulked our old Boat and sunk her — 

Wed. 7 — Started Chambers Wray and B Champaigne with a 
band of 39 horses for Fort Union. Men arrived from 
Mountains but bring only 7 logs having broken two 
Wagons. Sent after fresh meat — 

Thurs. 8 — Had our Boats all bailed out finished covering roofs. 
All making ready for a start on Saturday — River 
rising — Took Inventory — 

Fri. 9 — Commenced loading Big Keel and got nearly through 
with it when it commenced raining and stopped us. 



74 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

May 1856. 

Sat. 10 — Rained all day. and impossible for us to work at any- 
thing. Bothered besides by a band of Peigans who 
arrived yesterday to dance. 

Sun. 11 — Fine day and got through with loading all our Boats 
satisfactorily. Men sleep on Board and tomorrow 
intend making an early start with our 1540 Packs 
and three Boats. 

Mon. 12 — Fine day Our Three boats started for the Yellow- 
stone with heavy loads and full crews, had the fort 
cleaned out, received a band of Blood Indians and 
traded a fiew robes and one mare from a Pagan — 

Tues. 13 — Weather cloudey wind blowing fresh from S. E. Sent 
three Waggons on the Teton for Coal Wood, had 
all the Waggons not in use stored in Robe Ware- 
house, towards evening commenced raining. The 
Carpenters at Work getting the Doughboy tools 
ready. The Fort full of Indians Bloods and Pagans. 
Continue to trade a fiew Robes. G Wipert on sick 
list- 
Wed. 14 — Weather Clear and warm Sent three Waggons on 
the Teton for Coal Wood. Commenced putting the 
pit up. Sent the hunter with one man and five horses 
for fresh meat, the carpenters complected the Dough- 
boy tools for four men, The Fort crouded with In- 
dians trade a fiew robes — All well 

Thurs. 15 — Weather clear and warm, wind S. W. Sent two 
waggons for grass for Doughboy purposes covered 
the coal pit. The carpenters repairing the windows 
of the Fort. The Fort full of Indians The evening 
closed with fine weather All well 

Fri. 16 — Weather clear and warm wind S. E. coal pit under- 
way The hunter returned with fresh meat found 
buflfelo far, had the dried meat overhauled and prop- 
erly Stowed away. The Fort full of Indians 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 75 

May 1856. 

Sat. 17 — Weather clear and pleasant. — Mr. C's Brother in 
law starts for his camp with several other bloods and 
Blackfeet After a six days loafing. The men com- 
mence to clear their places preparatory to making 
doughboys. All well 

Sun. 18 — Weather clear and warm. This day sent all the loafing 
indians about the Fort to Camp traded a fiew robes, 
towards evening weather cloudey with a little rain. 
The hunter brought in the meat of an Antelope, This 
evening the men mixed their mud in preparation for 
making doughboys — The evening closes with fine 
weather All well 

Men. 19 — Weather clear and cool, Four men making dough- 
boys. The two carpenters sawing timber for the 
Bastion. The Blacksmith and one man tending coal 
pit. During the past night one of the cows had a 
calf The men made 451 doughboys The hunter 
brought in the meat of an Elke and a Antelope, The 
evening closes with fine weather All well 

Tues. 20 — Weather clear and warm wind S. E. During the 
past night the Yellow Head with a fiew other 
Pagans arrived from the Flathead countrey brought 
a letter from Mr. Owen. Several blood Indians ar- 
rived from the Pagan camp. Drawing the Coal from 
the Pit. The men making doughboys made this day 
573 doughboys — The evening closes with fine weather 
All well 

Wed. 21 — Weather clear and warm. Sent the hunter after fresh 
meat brought in the Meat of three bulls The men 
made this day 525 doughboys crossed a number of 
Indians, The Carpenters at work sawing timber for 
the Bastion, The evening closes with fine weather 
All well 

Thurs. 22 — Weather cloudey wind easterly — The men made 592 
Doughboys had Mr. Dawson's room cleaned out 



76 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

May 1856. 

and the carpet put in the warehouse The evening 
closed with cloudey rainey weather The carpenters 
at work on the Saws All well 

Fri. 23 — Weather cool and cloudey wind Easterly This day 
the men made 819 doughboys buried two Pagan 
children brought from camp one of them the child 
of Kelchiponestas Son/24 Who brought a letter from 
Mr. Owen of St. Marie several Indians about the 
Fort.— 

Sat. 24 — Weather Cloudey The Men made 882 Doughboys. 
Crossed a blood Indian and his tent to the South 
Side All the Pagans left for their camp. The Oposi- 
tion has lost fourteen head of horses suposed to be 
taken by the North Assnaboins The evening closed 
with heavy rain my doughboys will suffer All well 

Sun. 25 — Weather cold and cloudey with rain, doughboy 
business stoped untill it clears off. two Gosvonters 
arrived from their camp at the Woolf Mountain and 
crossed to the Pagans on the south side of Missouri. 
The oposition found their horses. The evening closes 
with cold cloudey weather thretening rain — All well 

Men. 26 — Weather clear and pleasant wind westerly Sent a 
Waggon to gather limestone This day did not mould 
doughboys on account of the rain, the men made 
their mud preparetory for moulding tomorrow, The 
evening closes with fine clear weather All well 

Tues. 27 — Weather Clear and warm men made 649 Doughboys 
and piled up the dry ones sent a waggon after wood 
to burn lime also after grass for doughboys — The 
hunter brought in the meat of one Elk The saw at 
work the evening closed with fine weather 

Wed. 28 — Weather clear and very warm the men made 574 
Doughboys sent a waggon after wood The evening 
closes with cloudey weather threatening rain All 
well 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 77 



May 1856. 



Thurs. 29 — Weather clear and very warm wind easterly This 
day the men moulded 601 doughboys, The hunter 
brought in the meat of two Antelope. Two pagans 
arrived from a Camp of Seven lodges camped at the 
foot of the mountains on the Missouri traded a fiew 
beaver and some dry meat, The evening closes with 
a heavy Storm of Wind and rain All well 

Fri. 30 — Weather clear and Warm Wind Westerly the men 
made 747 Doughboys Sent a Waggon after hay and 
limestone, The Pagans at the Fort left for their 
Camp, did not loose any doughboys by the Storm, 
The evening closes with fine weather All well 

Sat. 31 — Weather Clear and Warm This day the men made 
907 Doughboys Sent the hunter out w^ith one man 
brought in the meat of a bull and a cow Commenced 
raining covered doughboys This day Nenonesta 
blood Indian started for the Flat head country with 
his wife and son a good ridance if he should never 
return The evening closes with fine weather All 
well 

June 1856 

Sun. 1 — Weather cloudy. Towards two P. M. commenced 
raining heaviley and continued so for the balance 
of the day. Covered the doughboys with what cover- 
ing I could raise, The evening closes with cold 
cloudey rainey weather with every aperance that it 
will last. All well 

Men. 2 — Weather cloudey with rain The men cannot make 
doughboys, sent a Wagon after a load of wood Part 
of the oposition fell down on account of the heavy 
wind and rains, The men mixed their nood (mud) 
for making doughboys on the Morrow, The evening 
closed with cloudey weather thretening Rain All 
well 



78 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

June 1856. 

Tues. 3 — Weather clear and cool wind N. W. The Men made 
553 Doughboys Commenced burning limestone The 
Blacksmith making Tomehawks The Carpenters 
have nearly — Completed Sawing the timber for the 
Bastion, The hunter brought in the meat of an 
Antilop. The evening closes with fine weather New- 
Moon in sight All well 

Wed. 4 — Weather cool and cloudey wind N. W. This day 
several Flat Heads arrived from over the Mountain 
bring no news of importance The Men made 506 
Doughboys The evening closes with fine weather 
All well 

Thurs. 5 — Weather Clear and pleasant Wind S. W. This day 
the men made 490 Doughboys Sent the Waggon 
after a load of Wood finished burning the lime, The 
evening closes with fine Weather All well 

Fri. 6^Weather clear and Warm only made 96 Doughboys 
have been delayed on account of the scarcity of grass, 
have the Fort cleaned out, The evening Closes with 
fine weather All well 

Sat. 7 — Weather Clear and Cool wind blowing a gale from 
S. W. The men made 546 Doughboys this will finish 
doughboy making for the present, put up three 
Waggons to send to the Mountain for Scaffolding 
poles and timber was prevented from crossing them 
on account of the wind The Flatheads started back 
for across the mountain Claimed and took the two 
horses belonging to the Government The evening 
closed with the wind blowing fresh All well 

Sun. 8 — Weather clear and cool wind blowing :i gale S. \\ . 
All the Indians about the Fort left to join the Flat- 
heads at the Belt Mountain, two Flatheads arrived 
and traded their beaver at the Oposition, The eve- 
ning closes with the wind blowing fresh All well 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 79 

June 1856. 

Mon. 9 — Weather clear and warm, This Morning Started 
Three Waggons and four men to the Mountain for 
timber and Scaffolding poles, Also two Men on the 
Teton River to make Charcol, One of the Sows had 
six young pigs, The evening closes with Cloudey 
rainey weather All well 

Tues. 10 — Weather cloudey blowing a gale from N. W. with 
ocational Showrs of rain. Cannot saw timber on 
account of the wind The evening closes with Stormey 
weather All well 

Wed. 11 — Weather Cloudy wind still blowing heavy The 
evening closes with fane calm weather All well 

Thurs. 12 — Weather clear and very pleasent The hunter brought 
in the meat of four Antelop, This evening our three 
wagons returned from the Mountain the evening 
closes with fine weather All well 

Fri. 13 — Weather clear and very warm wind blowing from the 
South — This day rafted the timber and hauled it to 
the Fort Stored all the Waggons. The evening 
closes with fine weather All well 

Sat. 14 — Weather clear and warm This Scafolded the Bastion, 
A number of Pagan Indians arrived from the Flathead 
countrey One of them brought a letter from Mr. 
Owen The evening closes with fine weather All 
well 

Sun. 15 — W^eather Clear and warm wind blowing fresh from 
S. W. This day traded two horses and a fiew Beaver 
and robes, descharged the hunter for neglect of duty 
Crossed a number of Indians The evening closes 
with fine weather All well 

Mon. 16 — Weather clear and very Warm Wind S. W. This 
day got everything ready round the bastion to lay 
doughboys Sent two men on the Teton to put up 
the Coal pit. One Waggon hauling doughboys. 



80 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

June 1856. 

Several North Pagans arrived at the Fort on dis- 
coverey government business — The evening closes 
with fine weather All well 

Tues. 17 — Weather clear and warm wind blowing fresh from 
S. W. Commenced laying doughboys on the Bastion 
Sent a Waggon after wood, Crossed a number of 
Indians on their way to the Pagan Camp, The Rising 
head North Pagan left with his party, The evening 
closes with fine weather All well 

Wed. 18 — Weather clear and very warm wind blowing very 
heavy from S W Could not make much progress 
with the Bastion on account of the wind The evening 
closes with fine calm weather All well 

Thurs. 19 — Weather clear and warm all the Men at work on 
the Bastion The evening Closes with fine weather 
All well 

Fri. 20 — Weather cloudey with continued rain could but do 
little at the Bastion Towards evening Mr Wray 
arrived from our Waggon at the Mouth of the Maria 
River to high to cross request boat, This day 
killed a Pig. The evening closes with cloudey weather 
all well 

Sat. 21 — Weather cool and cloudey. This Morning, Sent a 
waggon with our boat to cross our goods at the 
Mouth of the Maria. The building going on. Towards 
evening our waggons arrived with one wheel broaken 
Stored the goods too dark to check The evening- 
closes with fine weather All well 

Sun. 22 — Weather clear and warm. This day checked the 
goods received from Fort Union found Six pair 3 pt 
Scarlet blankets missing, the balance all right. 
Towards evening the weather changed to very cool 
with hail Mr Munro's brother in law brought in 
the meat of two cows — The evening closes with very 
cool weather All well 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 81 

June 1856. 

Mon. 23 — Weather Clear and Cool wind blowing a gale, This 
day traded several robes and beaver, could not lay 
doughboys on account of the wind, Sent a Waggon 
after fire wood, The evening Closes with fine weather 

Tues. 24 — Weather Clear and pleasant Made good progress 
with the Bastion Sent the Blacksmith and One Man 
to finish the Coal pit on the Teton, Sent a waggon 
after hay and poles, put one man to make Dough- 
boys, Sent the hunter and Mr Wray with four horses 
After fresh Meat, Sent four horses out to fatten with 
Mr Monroe's brother in law. One black One Yellow 
One Spotted One White The evening Closes with 
fine weather 

Wed. 25 — \\'eather clear and pleasant, This day put one man 
making Doughboys Made 183 — The hunter returned 
with the meat of one bull — put up a good piece of the 
bastion. One Waggon hauling Doughboys. The 
evening Closes with Cloudy windey weather All 
well 

Thurs. 26 — Weather Clear and pleasant This day made 218 
Doughboys, Sent a waggon after fire wood The 
Mason work of the Bastion progressing Slowley The 
two men on the Teton Set fire to their Coal pit. The 
evening closes with cool cloudey weather and a little 
rain All well 

Fri. 27 — Weather Cloudey with heavy rain Sent the hunters 
out with five Mules and horses. Made Doughbovs 
spoiled by the rain. Worked a little on the Bastion, 
The evening closes with cold rainey weather All 
well 

Sat. 28 — Weather Cold and Stormey with heavy rain I have 
lost about two thousand Doughboys for want of 
covering. This day Killed a pig and Salted the meat 
towards evening the rain Stoped still Cloudey thret- 
ening rain if it Continues will loose part of the 
Bastion All well 



82 FORT DENTON JOURNAL 

June 1856. 

Sun. 29 — W eather Still cold and cloudey wind easterly river 
rising- fast During the day rained a little The hunt- 
ers returned with Meat The evening Closes with 
Cold Cloudey weather All well 

Men. 30 — Weather Stormey wind blowing a gale from S. W. 
Sent a waggon after poles for the Bastion, Two 
men on sick list, The Carpenters made Three Wheel- 
barrows and three doughboys moulds. Cannot work 
at the Bastion The evening Closes with fine weather 

July 1856 

Tues. 1 — Weather Clear and Warm, Sent the hunters out 
brought in the meat of a Buffalo Cow, At Work on 
the Bastion Scaffolding, The evening Closes with 
fine weather Made a fiew doughboys — 

Wed. 2 — Weather Clear and Warm, The Bastion going up 
Slowly, One man making Doughboys, The hunter 
brought in the meat of a cow. The evening closes 
with fine weather All well 

Thurs. 3 — Weather Clear And Warm This day got one corner 
of the Bastion up to the hight One man making 
Doughboys, The evening closes with fine weather 
The new Moon in Sight, All well The Berrey 
brought in some fresh meat — 

Fri. -1 — 'i'his day Weather Clear and Very Warm, Gave the 
men a feast fired the Gun and hoisted the flag. The 
evening closes with Cloudey Warm Weather All 
well 

Sat. 5 — Weather Clear and Warm, This Day got the Bastion 
up to the proper hight on three Sides, Sent two 
Waggons to the Teton for Charcol Sent the hunters 
after fresh Meat. Sent One White horse out with 
H Monroe's brother in law to the Mountain to get 
fat, The evening Closes with fine Weather .-Ml well 



■1 

i 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 83 

July 1856. 

Sun, 6 — Weather very Clear and Warm The hunters returned 
with fresh Meat One Man on Sick list All well 

Mon. 7 — Weather Clear and Warm, This day finished the 
Bastion to the Square say Twenty One feet higli 
Cleaned the Fort out, The evening- Closes with fine 
weather One man on Sick examined the dry meat 
and piled it up — 

Tues. 8 — Weather Clear and Warm Bastion nearly finished, 
Several Pagans arrived from the camp, Sent a 
waggon after wood, One man on sick list — 

Wed. 9 — Weather Cloudey with Rain, Sent the hunters out 
after fresh Meat This day finished the Doughboy 
Work of the Bastion, Sent two Waggons after grass 
for Doughboys Traded two horses from a Pagan The 
evening Closes with fine weather All well 

Thurs. lO—Weather Clear and Warm. This day gave the Men 
say five (of) their tools for Doughboy making, cleaned 
their places and cut hay, Dr Landis arrived from 
Saint Maries at the Oposition Fort, Several Lodges 
of Indians around the Fort — The evening Closes with 
fine weather All well 

Fri. 11— W^eather Clear and Warm The Men Mixed their 
Mud this evening. Sent two Waggons after Wood, 
Several Indians left for the Pagan Camp All well 

Sat. 12— Weather cloudey This day the Men made 837 Dough- 
boys The evening Closes with heavy Rain All well 

Sun, 13 — Weather cloudey with rain covered the Doughboys, 
The hunter crossed four horses and mules in readiness 
to Start hunting in the morning The evening Closes 
with Cool Cloudey Weather — All well 

Mon, 14 — Weather Cloudey and Warm, This day the men 
made 1140 Doughboys The Carpenters put in the 
upper floor of the Bastion and Commenced the Roof, 



84 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

July 1856. 

Doctor Lansdel Started for across the Mountain with 
two waggons The evening closes with cloudey 
weather All well 

Tues. 15 — Weather Cold and cloudey, The Carpenters com- 
menced putting the roof on the Bastion, The men 
could not make doughboys on account of the Weather, 
The hunter returned with fresh Meat, Several tents 
of Indians Arrived from the Pagan Camp. The 
evening closes with Cold Cloudey weather All well 

Wed. 16 — Weather very cold and cloudey with rain All work 
stoped, A Number of Indians Pagans arrived at the 
Fort The evening Closes with Cold Cloudey Weather 
All well 

Thurs. 17 — Weather Clear and pleasant the Men Made 1019 
Doughboys The carpenters at Work roofing the 
Bastion Two men covering Doughboys The Little 
Dog Pagan and several of his relations arrived on a 
Small trade The evening closes with fine weather 
All well 

Fri. 18 — Weather clear and Warm. The Men Made 1311 
Doughboys — The Carpenters at Work on the roof of 
the Bastion two men covering Doughboys, The 
Little Dog with his friends left for Camp After trad- 
ing some Meat and Robes, The evening Closes with 
cloudey Weather, This evening traded a White 
horse runner from the Blind Pagan All well 

Sat. 19 — Weather Clear and very Warm This day the Men 
Made 708 Doughboys Sent Our Waggon after Wood 
Cleaned the Fort The Grosvonters raised Camp from 
the Fort, The hunter brought in some fresh Meat. 
The evening Closes with fine weather All well 

Sun. 20 — Weather Clear and Warm, This day a number of 
Blood Indians arrived at the Fort, traded a fiew 
robes and meat — The evening closes with Very Warm 
Weather All well 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 85 

July 1856. 

Mon. 21 — Weather Clear and Very Warm this day made a 
trade of some robes Meat and horses, the Men 
Making and piling doughboys — The Fort full of 
Indians 

Tues. 22 — Weather Clear and Very Warm This day The Bloods 
and Blackfeet left for Camp, Traded several horses 
and Robes, This evening an express arrived from 
the Boats at the point Frenchman^^s requiring a 
boat Sixty feet long, The evening closes with fine 
Weather All Well 

Wed. 23 — Weather Cool and Cloudey, put up three Waggons 
to get timber from the Mountain getting things in 
preparation for sawing the boat timber The evening 
closes with fine weather All well 

Thurs. 24 — Wether cloudey and pleasant — This day Started three 
Waggons to the Mountain and four Men for boat 
timber, four men at work on the Saws, today an 
Asnaboin came into the Fort think he is a fool had 
some trouble to Stop a Blood Indian from Killing him 
The evening Closes with fine weather All well 

Fri. 25 — Weather Clear and Warm Four men on the Saws 
turned oflF Fourteen planks put up two mor logs 
on the pit — three men at work on boat nails numbers 
of Indians arround the Fort, Sent a waggon After 
fire Wood All well 

Sat. 26 — Weather clear and Warm four Men at Work on the 
Saws. One Man piling up Doughboys Three Men 
making Nails, The Fort full of Indians, A little 
traed (trade) going on. Sent the Assnaboin back 
of to his countrey in the Night The evening closes 
with cloudey weather All Well 

Sun, 27 — Weather cloudey with heavy Rain continued so All 
Day 



86 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 



July 1856. 



Mon. 28 — Weather clear and cool, The Men at Work on the 
Saws Sent a Waggon after Wood The evening 
closes with fine weather All well 

Tues. 29 — Weather Clear And Warm This Day Shouquet 
(Chouquette)^26 Smith^^v ^j^^j ^n Indian with Six 
Mules and a horse Started to meet Mr Culbertson 
on Milk River with letters for Mr Dawson & Mr C 
a camp of North Pagans crossed the river and camped 
between the Forts The evening Closes with fine 
Weather All well 

Wed. 30 — Weather Clear and Warm This day finished Sawing 
the bottom of the boat The Indians traid (trade) a 
fiew peltries All well 

Thurs. 31 — Weather clear and Warm This day the carpenters 
started for the Teton with two Men and one Waggon 
to cut nees (knees) and other timber for the boat 
Two of My Waggons arrived from the Mountain with 
elleven (eleven) logs and all the men and cattle One 
Waggon brock (broke) down at the dry fork with 
Seven logs. The Indians raised Camp The evening 
Closes with Stormey Weather the wind blew down 
about twelve pickets All well 

August 1856 

Fri. 1 — Weather cloudy, Sent the Men after the brocken 
(broken) Wagon and timber. They arrived this 
afternoon and brought the wagons into the Fort, 
Crossed all the oxen The Fort full of Indians again 
The evening closes with fine weather All well 

Sat. 2 — Weather Clear And Warm, This day rafted and 
hauled the timber into the Fort Sent two Waggons 
on the Teton for the Carpenters returned brought 
in all the nees (knees) and other timber for the boat, 
The evening closes with fine weather All well 



FORT BENTON JOURNAI, 87 

August 1856. 

Sun. 3 — Weather Clear and Warm This day Killed the old 
sow and Salted her, A Number of Pagans arrived 
to trade The evening- closes with Stormey weather 
All well 

Men. A — Weather Clear and Warm, This day the Carpenters 
and two Men at Work dressing plank for the boat 
four men at Work on the Saws Sent two Men on 
the Teton with a Waggon for timber to lay the bottom 
of the boat on the evening closes with fine Weather 
All well 

Tues. 5 — Weather clear and very Warm All hands at work 
on the boat dressed the bottom ]>lank and sawed 
the bars. The evening closes with fine weather All 
Well 

Wed. 6 — Weather clear and very warm Commenced laying 
the bottom of the Boat and spliting the knees, fin- 
ished laying the bottom of the boat commenced 
sawing the Sides, One Man Sick The evening 
Closes with fine weather 

Thurs. 7 — Weather clear and very Warm, This day turned 
the bottom of the boat, four men sawing the Sides 
The Fort full of Indians the evening closes with 
fine weather All well 

Fri. 8 — Weather clear and very warm All hands at work 
on the boat — fine weather All well 

Sat. 9 — Weather Clear and Warm, Planking the Sides of 
the boat Six men on the Saws fine weather 

Sun. 10 — Weather clear and Warm — All well 

Men. 11 — Weather Clear and Warm This day finished sawing 
the sides of the boat traded Considerable Beaver 
from the North Pagans All well 

Tues. 12 — Weather Clear and Very Warm The boat planked 
up, Whitewashing the Fort finished the boat with 



88 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

August 1856. 

the exception of caulking, The Fort full of Indians 
All well 

Wed. 13 — Weather Clear and Warm, The Boat nearly finished 
for launching. The Fort full of Indians All well 

Thurs. 14 — Weather Clear and Warm This day the boat Started 
to meet Mr Dawson with five men and F Wray in 
charge Major Hatch arrived — All well 

Fri. 15 — Weather Clear and Warm This day Mr Culbertson 
and party arrived, The oposition people arrived also, 
The evening Closes with fine weather All well 

Sat. 16 — Weather Clear and Warm, Wind blowing fresh from 
S. E. lots of Indians about All well 

Sun. 17 — Weather Clear and Warm Wind S. W. We had a 
Sermon from the Rev Mr Mackey^""* in Mr Cs room 
and one in the Indian house for the Indians 

Men. 18 — Weather Clear and Warm, Sent a Waggon after 
wood Commenced building a necessary with Dough- 
boys Sent the horses on the Missouri All well 

September 1856 

'Wed. 3 — Weather cloudey A Rose returned after an absence 
of fifteen days found the Blood Indian and Blackfeet 
Camps and deld (delivered) the Words of the 
Agent — Mr Culbertson this day started for the 
Boats with the Mules and Four pack horses The 
evening closes with cold cloudey weather — Several 
half Breeds from the Flat head countrey arrived to 
trade All well 

Thurs. A — Weather cloudy and cold witli rain Traded some 
Beaver and Bear Skins with the half breeds The 
carpenters at work on the Bastion, Sent after wood 
All well 



KORT BENTON lOL'RXAL 89 



September 1856. 



Fri. 5 — Weather Clear and Warm The Half Breeds left for 
their Camp took two of Major Hatche's horses to 
exchange, The evening closes with fine weather All 
well 

Sat. 6 — Weather clear and Warm. This Day cleaned the 
Fort. The Little Dog left for Camp. The Black- 
smith Shoed three of Major Hatche's horses The 
carpenters finished roofing the Bastion. All well 

Sun. 7 — Weather cloudey wind blowing fresh All well 

Men. 8 — Weather Clear and Warm This Day put up three 
Waggons Took the Scaffolding of the Bastion down. 
The evening closes with cloudey weather All well 

Tues. 9 — Weather Stormey with heavy rain. This day Mr. 
Culbertson arrived from the boats left them at Cow 
Island, brought three Mules and four horses and 
four Men, The evening closes with cloudey weather 
All well 

Wed. 10 — Weather clear and warm Sent two Waggons after 
Wood, finished Shoeing Major Hatche's Horses 
this day traded One horse and a fiew Beaver, The 
evening closes with fine weather All well 

Thurs. 11 — Weather Clear and Warm wind blowing fresh. This 
day put up Six Waggons, hauled up the small boat 
ready to caulk Cleaned the Fort, Three Lodges of 
Indians Camped at the Fort The evening Closes 
with fine weather All well 

Fri. 12— Weather Clear and Warm— This day The Flat Head 
Camp arrived say Twenty five Lodges Traded some 
Beaver and one Horse for Major Hatch All well 

Sat. 13 — Weather clear and Warm This Morning Sent a 
band of horses and Mules to Fort Union in charge of 
L Beliveau and two Men, Traded Some deer skins 
with the Flat heads All well 



90 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

September 1856. 

Sun. lA — Weather Stormey wind blowing fresh from N. E. 
All well 

Men. 15 — Weather cloudey This day A Culbertson Started for 
the Judith with two Wagons and his bugey The 
minister and his Wife left with him Major Hatch 
left in the small boat with One Man to meet the 
boats, have left in the Fort Three Men and two 
families The evening Closes with cool weather All 
well 

Tues. 16 — Weather Clear and Warm Wind blowing fresh from 
S. W. All well 

Wed. 17 — Weather clear and pleasant Four Blackfeet Young 
Men arrived from their Camp report them far ofT 
they left immediately for the Judith. This day bor- 
rowed 25 lb. Flour and Ten pound sugar from Major 
Hamiltoni29 All well 

Thurs. 18 — Weather Clear Calm and pleasant Commenced re- 
moving the White Store into the room ocupied by 
Major Hatch, The evening closes with fine Weather 
All well 

Fri. 19 — Weather Clear and Warm This day commenced 
putting the goods in the New white Store All well 

Sun. 20 — Weather cool and cloudy wind S. E. blowing fresh 
All well 

Men. 21 — Weather clear and Warm This day removed the 
harnis and other articles into Chouquets room All 
well 

Tues. 22 — Weather Clear and Warm Wind S. E This day 
overhauled counted and removed the robes and other 
l)eltries into the robe house The evening closes with 
fine weather All well 

Wed. 23 — Weather clear and very Warm Wind S. E. This 
day mooved the dried Meat into the lower room of 



FORT BENTON [Ol'RNAI. 91 



September 1856. 



the Mens row The evening closes with fine weather 
All well— 

Thurs. 24 — Weather Clear and Warm — repaired the Windows 
and Steps. Three Indians pagans arrived from the 
Judith on horseback, sayed they were going over 
the Mountain to the Flathead country appeared to 
be in a great hurey could get no news from them 
The evening closes with fine weather All well 

Fri. 26— Weather clear and Warm This day several Indians 
arrived from the Treaty^'^^ report our Waggons on 
the road to the Fort, found the horses and brought 
them to the Fort All well 

Sat. 27 — Weather clear and Warm This day several Blood 
Indians arrived report their Camp coming in left 
them this side of Sipres (Cypress) Mountain a short 
distance — keep the horses in Kips point — The evening 
closes with fine weather All well 

Sun. 28 — Weather clear and Warm wind S. W This day 
our Waggons arrived One Toung (tongue) brocken 
Several Tents of Pagans camped at the Fort. The 
evening closes with fine weather All well 

Men. 29 — Weather Clear and Warm Several bands of Pagans 
came and camped at the Fort traded several robes 
and some other furs One horse Mr Owens and 
one of the Fathers^^^ arrived from the Flat head 
country, The evening Closes with fine Weather All 
well 

Tues. 30 — Weather Clear and Warm This Day sent after a 
load of wood Traded some fiew robes and other 
furs One Horse numbers of Pagans around the 
Fort — The evening Closes with fine weather All 
well 



92 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

October 1856 

Wed. 1 — Weather clear and Warm. This day sent Howard'^- 
with Mr Owens man^"^^ to Sun river to bring down his 
furs, Traded several Robes with the North Pagans, 
The evening closes with fine weather All well 

Thurs. 2 — Weather cloudy Wind Easterly This day traded 
a fiew robes with the North Pagans The evening 
closes with cloudy weather All well 

Fri. 3 — Weather cloudey wind Easterly traded Two or 
three robes with the North Pagans the evening 
closes with Cool weather The oposition's wagons 
arrived from Milk river had one horse stolen by 
the North Assnaboins — 

Sat. -1 — Weather Cloudy Wind blowing fresh from S. W. 
The Blood Indian Camp reported on the Missouri 
river below Mouth Maria river, Several Grovonts 
arrived, The Indians crowding around the Fort The 
evening closes with cold cloudey weather All well 

Sun. 5 — Weather cloudey and Cold Wind blowing fresh The 
Fort full of Indians All hands unwell — 

Mon. 6 — Weather commences with Warm S Easterley breeses, 
Mr. Owen and Chouquet Started to meet the Boats 
The Blackfeet Camps arrive on the Teton river today 
Most of the Children about the Fort unwell 

Tues. 7 — Weather Clear and Warm This day Mr Owen's 
packs arrived and stored Sent his horses to the 
Card Say Seventeen plenty of Indians about 
the Fort. The evening closes with cool cloudey 
weather — 

Wed. 8 — Weather cloudey wind Easterly Fort full of In- 
dians. Commenced raining at two P M weather 
cold — people of the Fort unwell — 
Thurs. 9 — Weather clear and pleasant Wind blowing fresh 
from S. W. Boat reported close Sent the horses 
below on the Oposite of the river The evening Closes 
with fine weather All well 



i 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 93 

October 1856. 

Fri. 10 — Weather Clear Wind blowing- very fresh from S. W. 
Boats cloas (close) The Fort full of Indians All 
well 

Sat, 11 — Weather Clear an<i Warm wind lig;ht from S. W. 
The Boats landed below the Island and descharged 
some freight came on and Stoped just below the 
Fort — about Sun down will descharge in the morn- 
ing All well 

Sun. 12— Weather Clear and Warm Wind S. W. This day 
unloaed (unloaded) and Stored Goods All well 

Mon. 13 — Weather Clear and Warm This day feasted the 
Blood Indians they held a Counsal with Mr Dawson 
and apeared to be satisfied with the keeping of the 
goods belonging to the Government at the Fort, 
Traded some fiew robes All well 

Tues. 14 — Weather Clear and Warm Trading robes from Bloods 
and Blackfeet put up Mr Owens equipment and 
opened some of the goods All well 

Wed. 15 — Weather Clear and Warm Wind blowing fresh 
Trading a fiew robes with Blackfeet and Bloods still 
puting up Mr Owens Goods and opening equipment 
All well 

Thurs. 16— Weather Cloudy Wind blowing fresh Trading 
robes opening equipment Fort full of Indians 
brought the horses in to the (Fort) this evening 
All well 

Fri. 17 — Weather Clear Wind blowing fresh from S. W. 
This day Mr Owens Started with his equipment for 
Bitter Root Valey loaned him two Waggons and 
four Yoke of Oxen as far as Sun river and two Men 
Fort full of Indians bloods and Blackfeet — buried the 
Little Dogs brother Cleaned out the Fort All well 

Sat. 18 — Yesterday started two men on Teton to make Coal- 
Today Burried Calf Robes Woman Indians all sick 
and still loafing around Fort Hauled 1 load wood 



94 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

October 1856. 

Sun. 19 — Snowed all day. Nothing- of moment passing. In- 
tended to commence building tomorrow but we fear 
this weather will stop us. — 

Mon. 20 — Still snowing and it now lies on the ground to the 
depth oi \y2 feet. Barely able to get one small load 
of wood hauled. Unable to do any other outdoor 
work. 

Tues. 21 — Another days incipant Snow — Such a severe and 
early storm was never known before — One small 
load of wood — Mechanics doing what little they can 
without fires in these cold times. 

Wed. 22 — Still snowing and it now lays on the Prarie to the 
depth of 3 Feet. Impossible to haul even an empty 
Wagon. Such a heavy fall of Snow is unprecedented 
at such an early season. Doled the men and others 
a scant supply of wood from the roof of our old store. 

Thurs. 23 — Ceased snowing though it appears to want to renew 
again. Commenced cleaning out the Fort with all 
hands. — 

Fri. 24 — Clear but very cold. Still cleaning away at Fort. 
One of our Coal burners arrived from Teton with his 
foot froze — Several Warriors we hear are froze to 
death. 

Sat. 25 — Another heavy fall of Snow today — Cleaning out Fort 
and thus far got it about half done with — Impossible 
to haul wood — and we are burning up our old W 
House — slowly, but I fear surely. — 

Sun. 26 — Clear and pretty mild — An Indian woman brought to 
us for burial — Visited Mr. Picotte of the opposition — 

Mon. 27 — Put men to cleaning Fort and hurrying woman for 
which last service received a horse — No meat and 
no wood and impossible to get any in these times. 
Altogether we are pretty much tried. — 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 95 

October 1856. 

Tues. 28 — A \e)ung- warrior, frozen, ;uul thrown into the Fort 
today by his friends to die — He lays in the Indian 
House in great agony — Men still cleaning u]:) — 

Wed. 29 — Men finished cleaning fort of snow but now it is such 
a mud puddle as was never before seen — A band of 
Nez perces arrived from whom traded 124 Deer 29 
Beaver etc. some Bear Skins etc. — The "Little Grey 
Head arrived on a travois he says to die — but we 
have some hopes of his case. — Warrior still alive. — 

Thurs. 30 — A few more Nez Perces arrived from whom traded 
some 12 small Beaver and a few deer skins — Our 
sick warrior removed to Camp and notwithstanding 
all his belowing has some chance of recovery. Mr. 
Rose's Sister in Law died in the Fort last night and 
was interred today — Opposition Boat arrived. — 

Fri. 31 — Still cold disagreeable times a very little trade with 
the Blood Inds. who are now getting well of their 
sickness and talk of moving Camp soon. 

November 1856 

Sat. 1 — Hauled 1 load wood. No word yet of our men who 
went with Owens 2 weeks since. Removing goods 
and planning to enable us to pull down old log 
store. — 

Sun. 2 — Still cold but Snow nearly all gone. Bothered con- 
siderably by Blood Indian beggars — Traded some 6 
or 7 Robes from them and one horse. — 

Men. 3 — Set Sleepers and baled out Boats preparatory to haul- 
ing them out — Hauled 2 Wagon load of Coal at long 
last — Much bothered by Blood Indian beggars, but 
we are happy to say they have now raised Camp and 
but very few remain. — 

Tues. A — Attempted to haul boats out but our Oxen would 
not help us as wanted — and we did not succeed — Sent 



96 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

November 1856. 

after other Oxen but they were not found — Hauled 
balance of our Coal Yz a load. No word yet of our 
men with Owens — Opposition House started a band 
of 27 horses for below. — 

Wed. 5 — At 9 last nig-ht our men arrived from Mr. Owens. 
They have had a severe time of it as Mr. O writes — 
Three of his Oxen having strayed ofT he sent one 
of his Wagons here — Hauled our Boats out — Snowed 
all day and very cold — We never felt or experienced 
such times — Nothing but a Rice diet — 

Thurs. 6 — Hauled two loads of wood — and had men to fix up to 
start in the morning to the mountains 

Fri. 7 — Very cold and Ice so thick in the River as to prevent 
our getting the Oxen from other side. Late in the 
evening Mr. Monroes youngest boy died. — 

Sat. 8 — Hauled 2 loads wood and started men to Teton to 
burn more coal. Too much Ice for our Mountain 
trip yet however — A little milder towards evening. — 

Sun. 9 — Pretty mild and no more Ice in the River — Crossed 
two Wagons and our men for the Mountains who 
camp on other side and will start in the morning — 

Men. 10 — Hauled two Wagon load of firewood — Towards noon 
5 horses we started for meat on the 4th inst got 
back with about one decent load in all scattered 
amongst them — So much for Ind hunters 

Tues. 11 — Other two loads wood — Mild and pleasant day. Sent 
again four horses after meat this time with Mr. Rose's 
f-in law — A few Blood Indians also brought us a 
little meat. — 

Wed. 12 — Revais with four Gros Ventres arrived for other Fort 
with a little meat. We hear by them that all the 
Gros Ventres have plenty Bufo. but are prevented 
coming with meat on a/c of the wetness of the ground. 
Hauled one load wood. 



FORT BENTON JOURNAL 97 

November 1856. 

Thurs. 13 — Revais (a free man!) and his friends started back to 
Camp. Our choppers from Coal Pit returned. One 
load wood — Cleaned out our Fort. — 

Fri. 14 — Took down and reset some Pickets to enable us to 
start building, which we now have some prospect of 
doing on Monday. Mild pleasant weather and ground 
drying fast. Hauled one load wood. — 

Sat. 15 — Rose's F in Law returned with our four horses well 
loaded with meat. Man got back from Coal Pit with 
Wagon. Buried Mr. Monroes little boy — Very pleas- 
ant weather. — 

Sun. 16 — Another pleasant day, but very foggy until noon — 
Opposition people crossed their Wagons intending 
we suppose to send to the Mountains. — 

Men. 17 — Again foggy but cleared away towards noon — Took 
down our old Smoke house being the first dobie house 
evrry (ever) errected in this Country and found most 
of the Adobis quite sound. Dug foundation for a 
wall — 137 feet long which we are in hopes of getting 
through with before the winter sets fairly in — Hauled 
one load wood. Reed, a little fresh meat — Opposi- 
tion people started to the mountains 

Tues. 18 — Our hunter from the Mountains arrived with meat 
of 8 deer. Reports too much Snow there yet to admit 
hauling out logs. Started our Wall and raised all 
round 1 foot or 3 Rows. — One load wood. 

Wed. 19 — Cold and threatning Snow. Another foot of Wall 
and one load wood. — 

Thurs. 20 — Much pleasanter Hunter returned and Choquette and 
B. Champaigne accompanied him Indians in our 
vicinity raised Camp thank god Calfs Robe, Blood 
Ind died and was brought to us for burial — Another 
foot of wall. — 



98 FORT BENTON JOURNAL 

November 1856. 

Fri. 21 — Sent with Lame Bull and Rising Head 6 Horses to 
Camp for a little meat. Opposition 3 Wagons arrived 
with Logs from Mountains — Another foot of wall 
and one load wood. — 

Sat. 22 — Two Indians arrived from Peigan Camp with 4 Robes 
3 Beaver and some meat. Slight Snow all day, which 
interrupted our building Two loads wood, and raised 
flooring of old store — 

Sun. 23 — Continued snowing and very cold. Mr. C's Bro in 
Law arrived for the lOOth time and much to our an- 
noyance, as we find his visits expensive — 

Men. 24 — Ther. 5° below zero, decidedly too cold for build- 
ing — Fixed up about Fort a little and hauled two 
loads wood. — 

Tues. 25 — A party of Flatheads arrived from whom traded some 
deer and Beaver Skins — Our men also returned from 
Mountains and though they have chopped all they 
were sent for they report too much snow to get them 
out. They bring in only six logs. 

Wed. 26 — Mr. C's B in Law started back with a loaned horse — 
Two traders — Feigans — arrived with some meat — 
pulled down our old store — 

Thurs. 27 — Mr. Dawsons Comrade arrived with a lot of meat. 
Milder than for sometime & again started at our 
wall — Two loads wood. 

Fri. 28 — Again very cold but persevered with our building — 
Skunk arrived with a fine lot of meat — 2 loads wood. — 

Sat. 29 — Another Cold day — Ther at 10 all day — kept on with 
our Wall. Some 8 Peigan Traders arrived with meat. 
Skunk started back — 2 loads wood — 

Sun. 30 — Very cold — River closed and Peigans unable to cross 
back — Traded a good lot of meat from them 
See new book for 1st December, 1856 



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LAME BULL, BLACKFOOT CHIEF 

Repi-oduced through the courtesy of Houg-hton, Mifflin Company. 



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FORT BENTON JOURNAL 99 



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100 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

ORIGINAL JOURNAL OF JAMES H. CHAMBERS, 
FORT SARPyi^^ 

Journal No. 5, January 1, 1855 

January 1855 

Mon. 1 — Here we have a New Year upon us God grant that 
it may be a prosperous one. Not only to the Natives 
of the prairies, but the White men that are in this 
country, as also all others 

Our little band of Brothers are celebrating the day 
with a vengeance. They are cooped up in the fort 
waiting for the Dove's heads party to start & be 
killed & scalped by the Sioux. Six^^s fondly hopes 
that something dreadfull will befall them As long 
as they are in the Fort the Boy's cannot Feast 

Moakes^-*'^ has come with his pans for a feast for 
the Boys, he says the last of the Hounds has dis- 
sapeared but he wont commence cooking untill such 
time as he thinks they have put good six miles be- 
tween themselves & Fort Sarpy Six asserts that a 
Crow can smell cofife five miles, wind fair or foul A 
band of Buflo came in the prairie but we could get 
no chance for a shot the Crows run them ofif, who- 
ever heard of Fly time this season of the year. 

The Crow Nation are a singular set of people. 
Col. Vaughn told them to stay at home «& not trouble 
the Sioux without they had provocation for so doing 
which they pledged themselves to do & now look at 
their actions, the Sioux have kept away from them 
so far and the probability is that thier intentions is 
to let the Crows alone, but the dogs are not satisfied, 
they must hunt them up, if they do meet with the 
Sioux my wish is that the Crows may get a genteel 
drubbing one they will remember. At this present 
time they are one hundred Lodges of Crows camped 
a short distance above the Fort, & should they happen 
to see tracks of three Sioux in the vicinity of their 
camp, nothing could prevent thier nmning to the 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 101 

January 1855. 

mountains, they fear the Sioux so much, last Winter 
they run from us, & seen no tracks "Oh the "Cow- 
ardly*' dogs 

A cold day Still suffering with the rheumatism. I 
have no chance to bathe or rub the place is to small 
Scarcely room to breathe, for Indians 

Tues. 2 — After the warriors took thier departure yesterday & 
the Boys pretty well satisfied with themselves & 
every one else with the good cheer they had partaken 
commenced looking around for their personal effects, 
"When" lo & behold it appeared that each & every 
one of them had unknowingly a substitute on the 
War path One's Blanket being martialy disposed 
had trotted off in quest of the Sioux Another's Coat 
concluded to cover the shoulders of a "Brave. Big 
Six's^^^ Comb was under the impression that a richer 
trapping ground could be found elsewhere, his to- 
bacco had no idea of being Smoked in a white clay 
pipe by a Virginian when the Natives carried large 
red stone pipes with stems three feet long & dearly 
loved the weed, a parr flesh^-^^ trotted off to look 
after the mocasins tin cups & Knifes Eloped two 
Wolf Skin of Valles Vamosed the Ranche & your 
humble Servants Shirt cut stick & put off to the wars 
the war party returned the cold weather put a damper 
on the red "Sons of Mars," but cold had no efect on 
the representatives of F. Sarpy they still kept on the 
war path, if not they certainly would have returned. 
On interrogating the Crows about each of thier rep- 
resentatives, it appall'd the Boys to hear that the 
Warriors knew nothing of the Absconding parties 
from F. Sarpy, the Boys are in despair they are 
alarmed for the safety of Brigadier Coat. Col Blanket, 
Sergeant Comb. Corporal Mug & the rank, in No 3 
Bug row surmises & suspicions are rife. Big Six is 
inflated with wonder Some times he thinks they 
have been cut off the Lout (?), rank & file Again 



102 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

he thinks the Crows have overpow them & taken 
prisoners of the whole party At times a glorious 
smile flits over his face & then how his noble coun- 
tenance glows with delight the Bloom on his peach 
like cheek, he jumps up & with a knowing wink says 
we will get them all back it is only a trick played on 
us by the young bucks The devil take all such trick 
Say I The last few days has been very cold the 
river full of floating ice. I think it will close tonight. 
So far we have had no Snow & but a few cold days 
(Query) What has come over Murrell^^^^ he is much 
colder than the weather. I look back & for the life 
of me I can see no cause on my part in what manner 
I have offended him. I know not. Neither am I 
going to puzzle myself to solve the mystery. I care 
not So far I have pursued a strait forward course & 
in what manner I have offended him if offence they 
are — let it go at that I am confidant that the course 
I am pursueing were it known to C. & D.^^^ would 
meet thier approbation 

Wed. 3 — As I predicted yesterday the river has closed up 
offering a good bridge for crossing Our Noble Crow 
Warriors have taken their departure. Peace be with 
them if I never set eyes on their ugly carcases again 
I shall not think the time long. 

"What noise is that in Ethiopia, has some rascally 
savage maltreated the Ethiop or his wife. I will step 
over & find what ocasions those sobs of distress. I 
did & a heart rending spectacle did I witness. A 
Husband bereft of his wife. "Oh "Shades of" Africa 
poor Widowed husband. A wife torn from his bosom, 
not by "death, but worse far worse by "Bucks Young 
Crow Bucks At that the worse possible kind of 
bucks . . . (Several lines are deleted here, being too 
obscene to print.) . . . Big Six disinterested good 
soul that he is, is doing all that lays in his power to 
console the Bereaved husband quoting Scripture to 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 103 

January 1855. 

Mosei-'^- to prove that his affhctions are for the best 
"Oh Six you do not how I loved that woman I 
have worked for her cook'd for her wash'd for her, 
done every thing mortal could do, but no it wont do 
Six sugested that perhaps his color did not suit Mose 
Became indignant & replied that he was lighter than 
an Indian, if I was not says he could I get as light 
a child as that "Oh says Six doubts exist about 
your being the Father of that child, where is the 
kinks I can see none the child's hair is straight & 
your hair is wool, dont say so Six dont trifle with 
the feelings of a man in misfortune & that, a man 
the same as yourself away from "Old Virginny tis 
true say Six that I have a warmer feeling for Vir- 
ginians than any others providing their Hair is 
straight but let me sing you a song 

They stole my wife away 

I hear a voice upon the Hill 

Me' thinks I hear it still 

They stole they stole Mose Squaw away 

get out of my house big Six & dont come here again 
Mr. Meldrom^^^ (jo^t make fun of me & you shant 
White folks have no feelings for a man of color or 
big Six & Tetreaui54 would not all the time be singing 
where you gwine I am gwine down thar "Oh "Mr. 
Meldrom for God Almighty's Sake tell me how I 
can get her. take ten dollars & jump on that horse 
you can catch her. "Oh "My "Wife "My Wife, 
bring her back & I will do any thing for you I will 
wash all winter for you & charge you nothing just 
bring her back to me that is all I want. Mose I 
would not go for a hundred dollars well I'll go, you 
had better not if you want to save your wool says I. 
You certainly are not going to run after the Slut & 
make her come in the Fort, & live with her on the 
same terms as heretofore No indeed Sir I am done 
with her God knows, Why I would be worse than 



104 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

a dog if I would do so. She shows plainly she likes 
Indians better than whites or she would of remained 
in the Fort No Sir I's done I washes my hands 
clar of the Strumpet. "Oh I'se gwine down thar 
some time during the night Major Mosier^^^ call'd 
me I went out there was Mose reading or rather 
shouting a passage in the new Testament In those 
days came John the Baptist preaching in the Wilder- 
ness, &c. presently our ears were assailed with a 
very unmusical voice singing "Oh then we will be 
joy full &c. 

Thurs. 4 — Mose comes in to the Majors the Major being a kind 
hearted man asked Mose how he passed the night 
Oh Mr. Mosier I did not pass it at all but kept reading 
the testament & singing hymns the whole during 
night thinking that reading the Scripture would settle 
my mind but it had no effect I want my wife & if 
Mr. Meldrom dont get her for me I will go & live 
with the Indians 

Fri. 5 — A very cold day large bands of Bufiflo on the op- 
posite side of the river. Valle Lamarche & all hands 
out on a hunt Valle approached & kill'd one cow 
Faillant^^^ at the report of the gun took after the 
Band on foot fired in the band some five or six shots 
without effecting a wound of all the fools I have 
ever seen Faillant bangs all 

Sat. 6 — A fine day Hunters out Valle kill'd three cows two 
Indians arrive from camp report both camps running 
Bufflo. Mose could stand it no longer fill'd both 
pockets with sugar & cofifee & along with Mr. 
Pumpkins' ^'^ started to the camp, he says that he 
will have his wife or Blood 

Sun. 7 — A pleasant day Men stayed at home as good chris- 
tians should Mose arrived with his amiable lady as 
also a delegation of Crows from both camps 



FORT SAKFY JOURNAL 105 

January 1855. 

Mon. 8 — The Aniversary of the battle of N. Orleans Our men 
celebrated the day by pulling bark for the horses 
Pumpkins arrived as also those inveterate loafers 
Ebey & Brothers. What under the sun can induce 
Mr. M. to treat those Dogs so well, I cannot concieve 
that hound Ebey, came with us from F. U. his wife 
& two brats were hauled up in the boat a good place 
in the boat was found for them to sleep in coflFe & 
Bread furnished them three times a day whilst the 
poor white slaves that dragged the heavy boat had 
neither bread nor coffee nor a place to crawl for 
shelter, in case of rain during the night the Indians 
were snugly stowed away in the Barge & the poor 
devils of Whites laying out beneath the shelter of 
the canopy of Heaven taken what cheer providence 
& Mr. Meldrom gave them without a murmur of 
dissatisfaction, with the exception of a few Benedic- 
tions on the devoted head of Mr. M. something similar 
to "Sacre Foin Gass &c. When the boat arrived at 
Fort Sarpy Col Vaughan wished to send for the 
Indians I wanted some person along better ac- 
quainted with the region of the country that I was 
to search than myself Col V offered Ebey an enor- 
mous price to accompany me but the cowardly dog 
would not go under any consideration on my return 
I found the gentleman in the fort eating Bread & 
drinking coffee, he had grown to be such a con- 
sequential person that his squaw could not go to the 
river for water Mr. Mosier Superintendant of the 
Culinary department of F. Sarpy had to furnish the 
lady with water Four Dances & squad departed 

Tues. 9 — A fine day the loafers feasting Bill of Fare Fort 
Sarpy Indian table Fresh Meat Boiled to be eaten 
with depouille^^^ it makes no odds how fat the meat 
is the cold depouille if not given is called for. Coffee 
Hotel Sarpy gives no dinner, in lieu of which a rich 
dessert of sugar & Bull Berries is given about 12 M 



106 KORT SARPY JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

Supper Fat meat & coffee Sometime in the night 
say nine O'clock they have either Rice & sugar Berries 
& sugar or pancakes & molasses these have been the 
edibles that have been daily & nightly spread before 
the patrons of Hotel & their name is Legion they 
are all comfortable bedded robes in abundance given 
them to sleer) on, & ocasionly some are missing in 
the morning 

Wed. 10 — Bear's Heads^"*^ & Gordon's camps came in. Oh 
what a prodigal waste of everything 

Thurs. 11 — Fort full of boarders. Regulars every Mothers son of 
them never miss a meal nor pay a cent the Land- 
lord of Hotel Sarpy gives nine days for a week & 
takes trust for pay & if he is not doing a Hog Killing 
buisiness you can take my Hat 

Fri. 12 — I should call this a dull day if the fort was not so 
crowded with loafers no trade going on but lots 
of grubbing 

Sat. 13 — hardly room to breathe, Oh you "pests 

Sun. 14 — A dull day as regards trade but lively in other re- 
spects. Gordon's camp treated us to a Scalp & 
Squaw dance, the roofs of the houses were covered 
with the natives witnessing the performance, the 
Trophies taken in the battle, a full description of 
which I gave in No. 4 were exhibited as also the 
eight scalps taken in Gordon's fight with the Black 
Feet On the whole it was rather a fine display & 
pleased Mr. Meldrom greatly. A cool Fifty came 
out of the pockets of P. C. sr & Co.i^o foj- ^]^^^ 
dance — rather a costly affair. 

Men. 15 — Bears Head seeing that the other camp got so well 
jiaid for shaking the light fantastic toe came & 
gave us a specimen of his Camp's Terphiscorean Art, 
but had to call in requisition Princess May & her 
Bosom Friend & Maid of Honor "E "See "Tah — 




b!I 



FORT SARPN' JOURNAl, 107 

January 1855. 

Those ladies from the Fort were the observed of 
all observers the Princess led the van & made but 
two or three circles in the yard of the Fort when 
she placed her divine foot in something of a dark 
brown substance that emitted an odor like anything 
but the Otto of roses. May blushed or as good 
tryed to blush her Lord & Husband was cast down, 
the Squaws sighed the Bucks laughed & Big Six 
Shame on him, bellowed out May tramped on a 
green tird, however the miss step broke the Ball 
thus depriving the Princess of bringing out her 
powers of fascinaton before her loving subjects. 

Tues. 16 — An unpleasant day Mr. M has an idea of sending 
over the Mountains My being indisposed prevents 
me from being one of the party 

Wed. 17 — A fine day A few robes come in but thrice the value 
goes out 

Thurs. 18 — A fine day Faillant refuses to go to hunt the Crows 
I wish you had me to deal with you good for nothing 
whelp you would go or get kicked out of doors Valle 
& Stoupe making preparations to start for the Moun- 
tain Camps 

Fri. 19 — A few Crows came from Tongue river where they 
had been hunting Elk report that they were chaced 
by a large party of Sioux. Gordon moved camp He 
is now in the first point of timber above the Fort 
Bears Head still opposite to us 

Sat. 20 — last night a heavy snow storm the first of any im- 
portance this winter A large part of Crows started 
in pursuit of the Sioux returned with the intelligence 
important to us that the Enemy were not Sioux 
but Blackfeet 

Sun. 21— Winter has come at last A bitter cold day Indians 
out on discovery returned report no BufTaloa close 
My pen refuses to write what is to come Oh the 



108 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

ways of this wicked world, thou Vile Seducer man 
could you not of spared "Her. Oh Frailty thy name 
is Women. What shall I utter those damning words 
the Princess has fallen aye fallen the Seducers 

tongue was too much for her 

(Remainder of paragraph deleted. Too obscene to 
print.) 



Goods Fort Men & trade the Boss 

was merely her substitute 

..the Other Men in the Fort she call'd 

her slaves. I gave the lady once a private 

kicking for calling men her slaves, whether she told 
her Buck or not I do not know if she did he took it 
kindlv. for I heard no more of it 

Men. 22 — I find this morning that Murell not being satisfied 
with one whore house has converted the Store in to 
another this wont do. I must tell my Employers 
lock a Buck & Bitch in the Store all night the goods 
all open, the Fort full of Indians the windows of the 
Stores hasped on the inside they can easily pass 
what goods they like out, this is the first ofifense of 
the kind that I have known him guilty of but Mr. 
Lamarche says that the like is done often to his 
knowledge 

Tues. 23—1 find this morning that Murrell took to himself 
another wife last night A dirty little lousy slut that 
was ofifer'd to me last fall. I enquired of her Mother 
what she reed for her she told me One Horse one 
Gun one chief's coat one N W Blkt. one Indg B. 
Blkt two shirts one pr leggings, six & half yds Bed 
ticking one hundred loads Ammunition twenty 
Bunches W Beads ten large Plugs Tobaco & some 
sugar coffe Flour &c. Oh says the Old Crone I am 
rich now. I am a chief for all this not one single 
copper is charged to his a/c. An honest man. The 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 109 

January 1855. 

new Madam gave her coronation Feast it was well 
attended lots of Grubbers. 

Wed. 24 — The new Madam out in her finery A Scarlet dress 
with Six Hundred Elk teeth Murrell traded four 
hundred Elk teeth for one Bunch containing two 
hundred for which he paid an In. Blue Blkt for I 
offered him twenty dollars cash he refused & said 
he wanted them to give to his squaw. So P. C jr & 
Co loses a cool twenty by that opperation. Murrell's 
Mother in Law Wolf Skin as the Boys call her has 
put up a lodge in the Fort. P. C & Co has another 
family to clothe & feed at their Expense 
Fort full of Indians filling their guts & receiving 
presents, a warm day. 

Thurs. 25 — robes come in tolerable brisk I see Mr. M dont want 
me in the store whilst trading I suppose I know too 
much of the Crow language to suit his way of trade. 
Another pair slept in the store last night 

Fri. 26 — A disagreeable day raining trade tolerable brisk. 
W^iat a waste of goods 

Sat. 27 — Gordon's camp moved on the opposite side of the 
river we have now in the Store one hundred & 
sixty packs of robes but they have took all of our 
Original Stock of goods to get them, if it was not 
for the Slack I do not know what would become of 
Murrell, his whole equipment gone & the above 
number of packs the returns his resources not 
equivalent to his liabilities 

Sun. 28 — Bears Head camp moved on Emmells creek^^i a 
short distance ofT Bufflos plenty 

Men. 29 — A great many Indians in the Fort today Gordon's 
camp split those that had robes to dress cross'd & 
ioin'd Bears Head the others moved up the river. 
Rotten Hand Brot me a splendid Otter quiver, I 
wanted it for Mr. Dening & was about getting it 



110 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

January 1855. 

when Murrell came along & traded it at an enormous 
price I told him who I wanted it for says he I want 
it for Col Vaughan Mr. Dening^'^^ jg poor pay he 
pays in paper & the Col pays in whiskey he has 
now for Col Vaughan stuffed three Big Horns one 
he paid Valle ten dollars the other two cost the 
price of four robes each All without charge 

Tues. 30 — no Indians in the fort commenced making packs. 
Caught the new Madam stealing sugar caught her 
by the arm & showed her the door she went off 
crying 

Wed. 31 — Cold day made a few packs too cold to work. Men 
got Fire wood. 

February 1855 

Thurs. 1 — A beautiful day made a few^ packs 

Fri. 2 — Nothing worthy of recording 

Sat. 3 — Cleaned up store & ware house 

Sun. A — A party of Crows arrived from Knot on the Hands 
camp report that Traders from the Platte has been 
with them all Winter the Sioux Friendly with the 
Crows they know nothing of the other Bands Knot 
on the Hand is moving down Tongue river & will 
be in this spring early 

Men. 5 — Nothing transpired of note 

Tues. 6^Tetereau Valle Faillant & Squaw left for Ft Union. 
As also the party from Knot on the Hand's camp 

Wed. 7 — the Ice broke in the river opposite the Fort Above 
the ice is still firm 

Thurs. 8 — Some Crows came from Bears Heads camp Brot a 
little meat & a few Tongues Most of the Meat after 
trading it goes to Old Wolf Skins lodge her & her 
Brats must have good Fat Meat to Eat & the men 




EDWIN T. DENIG 



Reproduced from the 4<ith annual report. T. 
Buieau of American lOthnolosy. 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 111 

February 1855. 

poor dry meat without Fat poor as I am I would 
freely give one hundred dollars to see Mr. Culbert- 
son in Fort Sarpy Forty Eight hours just to strait 
up matters & things at Fort Sarpy 

Fri. 9 — Mr. Meldrom left for the camp he told me he was 
going for meat yes it is meat but it is squaw meat 
& Mag's meat at that since she has been gone he 
has acted more like a crazy man than one posses'd 
of sanity 

Sat. 10 — Five young Bucks arrived from above being part of 
Sets every way's party that turned back, how the 
new Queen did try to show off her title. Her Majesty 
told, or rather ordered the cook to provide cofTe & 
Berries for them I devilish soon countermanded the 
order & gave her to understand that for the time 
being I reigned in Fort Sarpy 

Sun. 11 — Mr. Meldrom arrived & as I predicted Brot Miss 
Mag & some Crows with a few Tongues & a little 
meat However the meat done us no good it all 
went into Wolf Skin's lodge, the Old Bitch reported 
me to the Boss for not obeying her daughter's orders 
As a sensible man he said nothing to me Mr M 
says that twelve Horses were stolen from the Crows 
by Assinaboins. Showery day 

Mon. 12 — the Indians that came with Mr M left loaded down 
with goods. When is this profuse waste going to 
end I have never seen any thing to equal it More 
Indians arrived 

Tues. 13— River broke leaving Four Dances High Pumpkins^*'-'^ 
& several more Crows here A Squaw & Buck Brot 
two young calves & two ribs to trade for which two 
pr leggings two shirts six yds calico Ninety strands 
Beads & ten plugs Tobaco were given in exchange 
pretty well paid for when you take in to considera- 
tion the meat cofTe & sugar eaten bv them during 



112 FORT SARPY JOTRNAL 

February 1855. 

a week's stay I am duty Bound to report matters 
it is my duty 

Wed. 14 — St Valentines day Fort full of Loafers 

Thurs. 15 — Four Dances & Squad took their departure & came 
near taking every thing in the store with them from 
what I can see goods cost nothing no Indian is re- 
fused give me what you like & take what you want 
is the motto of Ft Sarpy 

Fri. 16— Five or six Crows came Brot a few robes 

Sat. 17 — Indians to & from the camp got a few robes 

Sun. 18 — Our men headed by that renowned Hunter & 
Voyager Bix Six started on a hunt returned Killing 
a — Nothing 

Men. 19 — rather a dull day nothing stirring 

Tues. 20 — Birth day of the Imortal Bix Six & one of the coldest 
days of the season 

Wed. 21 — Sent Lamarche & two men on Tongue river for a 
horse we had secreted in cache returned with the 
Horse 

Thurs. 22 — Birth day of the Father of our country Six says that 
he came very near being born on Washington's 
Birthday but his Mother was in too great a hurry 
& I dont blame her for trying to get rid of him as 
soon as possible, for if he was as much in her way 
as he is a nuisance to others here the sooner she 
was clear of him the better. Coflfe & meat for eight 
Brats that have just arrived 

Fri. 23 — A cold day Fort full of grubliers 

Sat. 24 — Mrs. M the Second is in a sad situation 

(Several lines of this paragraph deleted. Obscene. 
Adds nothing to the context.) 

Doct Long Elk^''"* has taken the case 



KORT SARPV JOURNAL 113 

February 1855. 

in hand his first fee one Gun one Blkt shirt leggings 
Brass Kettle Tobaco &c. what his second will be 
time will tell 

Sun. 25 — Fort full of loafers Feasting & lounging in the houses 
Every pan plate & cup is Brot in requisition three 
or four times a day to feast Brats & Whores Boys 
& Squaws are the favorites but few men of note 
get fed. the Horse Guard^^^ has but three cups of 
cofifee this winter & them I gave him he is a Chief 
& leads a camp of Fifty Lodges 

Men. 26 — Fort full of loafers cold day 

Tues. 27 — Bears Heads camp sixty lodges arrived & camped 
on the opposite side of the river Mr Bad Shape & 
family put up in the Fort his calculation is to re- 
main & go down in the Boats & send his horses by 
the white men they go down woth the Company's 
horses the danger of a trip to F LTnion is too great 
for an Indian to perform if an Indian would get 
kill'd it would be dreadfull but a white man or two 
that is nothing so Murrell thinks 

Wed. 28 — Indians out hunting returned with plenty meat Fort 
full of Loafers & whores Doct Long Elk has call'd 
in the professional services of Doct Fool to assist 
him Doct Fools first fee one three point W Blkt 
one shirt one pr leggins Tobaco Knife & Ammuni- 
tion 

March 1855 

Thurs. 1 — Nothing worth note with the exception of Drs. 
Long Elk & Fool had each a squaw in the store 
last night 

Fri. 2 — trade tolerable lively Indians speak of leaving us 
shortly the sooner the better for I have never seen 
Indians completely spoil'd untill now Princess Mag 
slipt the cable last night I was at the gate putting 



114 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

March 1855. 

the Indians out for the night when she started I 
Halloed & asked her if she was coming back that 
I was going to lock up No says she I have had 
enough & got enough out of that old fool dog 
"Sap-Kat "A Hook that was true, for what she 
wanted for herself to gamble or give she had 

Sat. 3 — Murrell looks cast down I cannot simpathise with 
him of the two Mag is the better. Oh what a night 
I would put the Indians ou.t of the gate, they would 
climb the pickets come in put them out again the 
Old Man stormed the Indians laughed and made 
sport of him. I went ofif to bed & left them to settle 
it among thier selves the indians have never troubled 
me, in fact take the Crows in the right way & they 
are good people but to coax & pay a Crow to go 
out of the Fort will not answer. 

Sun. 4 — A cold day I really feel sorry for the Old Man the 
Indians treat him too bad 

Men. 5 — the Crows this morning had found a horse kill'd 
near the camp the whole camp started in pursuit 
of the perpetrators, of the deed Some Crows from 
Tongue river report seen sign of Sioux Fort full 
of women & children badly scared. 

Tues. 6 — Oh what a night squaws screaming Brats bawling 
& dogs barking I never saw a place completely 
crammed before In the night a report come that 
Four Dances camp was surrounded by Black Feet 
then such a shout or cry enough to rend the heavens 
I defy the whole tribe of Assynaboin's dog's to equal 
the Old Fort shook till the Bark fell from the pickets 
the war party that left say 25 returned Brot nothing 
stated while in Gordon's camp a party of Crows 
from Rotten Tails'"*' camp arrived from F Benton 
had stolen eight horses & seven mules from some 
white men that were out hunting some of the In- 
dians that started out this morning have returned 




ROTTEN TAIL, CKOW CHIEI- 
Kiiiz Jotinial, Bureau of American Kthiiology. RuUeti 



FORT SARPY JOURNAI- 115 

March 1855. 

& are on the other side of the river cannot cross 
the Ice has broke. 

Wed. 7 — the Indians still on the other side rain 

Thurs. 8 — Bears Head & party of one hundred & thirty or 
forty men returned they overtook the Enemy 
down on a little fork near Jabots^*"'" houses they 
were but seven Blood indians As soon as they dis- 
covered the Crows they charged on them but the 
Crows were too many twenty to one is too great a 
power however brave Bears heads party kill'd the 
whole seven not one escaped to tell the news. Bears 
Head told me that four of the Blood Indians fought 
like Heroes, three made no fight whatever but got 
kill'd like squaws One said he was a chief for the 
Crows to come on it was good to die &c. Bears 
Head got two men badly wounded one his son in 
law the other a nephew of Pumpkins, Big insides 
son, I think it is probable both will recover. 

Fri. 9 — the Fort full the halt the lame & the Blind came in 
the fort & Danced before Old Wolf Skins lodge, 
sang & dancd the old Hussy out of Beads & 
Domestic or rather it came out of the pockets of 
P C jr & Co About the worth of an X away down 
below, in the afternoon the Beauties of the camp 
decked in thier Holiday rigging came & treated us 
to a dance Bears Heads son in law on Horse Back 
led by his Father in law Pumpkins nephew on horse 
Back led by Pumpkins were on the ground the scalps 
& trophies taken were exhibited. Bears head made 
a speech Old Murrell made a speech he said that 
the Blackfeet were dogs his heart was good when 
he heard of their being kill'd &co &co After he was 
through he presented a squaw with a dress & ninety 
strands of Beads Old fellow thinks I goods are 
scarce & you might have saved them t^- traded for 
robes Bix Six the damned fooll steps in to the ring 



116 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

March 1855. 

with three dollars worth of beads & kisses Miss 
Tramps on her foot a dirty lousy whoring slut oh 
the Fool 

Sat. 10 — The very day that I have been looking for the 
camp moved I would like to see Mr. C & Mr. 
Spyi68 j^ere to see how his Agent Acts it would 
answer as well to through the goods in the prairie 
as to give them as he does squaws & children get 
the most Old Wolf Skin wont remain in the Fort 
with me she is off with the camp Mr. M has traded 
another horse for her & I have just put u]) ten lbs 
coffe fifteen lbs sugar & a bale of depouy's for her 
at this present time there is not as much fat in the 
fort as she took with her All right 

Sun. 11 — Mr M left leaving me in a critical position in the 
first place the Stores are unsafe in case of rain Our 
provisions scant & forces small, we have not over 
seventy lbs sugar About twenty lbs Flour, poor 
dry meat & no fat, & his orders not to use any 
Flour at all perhaps I may obey him but I doubt 
it if I feel like eating a little bread I will be apt to 
break my orders in that case & he & I for it on 
his return 

Men. 12 — I arranged store & ware house we have but part 
of one Box Tob 1>4 Keg Powder 10 guns (5 badly 
used by Indians) 30 prs 3 pt Blkts 20 pr W 20 I B 
Blkt 10 Blue Blkt 18 Scan & 25 Hudson Bay Blkts. 
no cloth of any description not one kettle not a 
knife not a foot of Beads wire but 200 lbs Beads 
No colored Beads Not a single 1 ])t Blkt goods all 
gone & but two hundred packs of robes I call this 
trading with a vengeance It is just as the Mountain 
folks told me when I was on last fall they said it 

was no come they would get nothing the 

the Banks would get all & it is too 

If they do come how am I going to 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 117 

March 1855. 

out of the scrape I told them th 

(Corner of page torn off) had goods here sent them 
from thier great Father & now there is nothing 
for them to trade let alone rec gratis Murrells 
Friends & relations have got all Elackfeet hover- 
ing around the Fort a couple of shots dispersed 
them 

Tues. 13 — disagreeable day Snow and rain 

Wed. lA — Cold & Blustry put up a few packs 

Thurs. 15 — Cold & Windy done nothing 

Fri. 16 — Made a few packs & arranged press 

Sat. 17 — A very cold day Chas Carter^^'' arrived from F. Un. 
brot no letters Says Mess Culbertson & Clark are 
at F. U. From Carters Story it appears that Carter 
got into a difificulty with a man by the name of 
Brown & that he kill'd Brown in self defence Men 
here that were acquainted with Brown give him a 
bad name, they say he was of a quarrellsome dis- 
position & Bears the name of a petty Thief. Os- 
born^'^ says that Brown was drumed out of the 
U. S. Service at Fort Belknap^"^ Belonged to the 
Fifth Infantry 

Carter arrived in a pitifull condition third 

day from F. U. broke the tube of gun & 

from that time eat nothing 

Blowed a perfect Hurricane 

Cold Windy & Snow done nothing (Corner of page 

off) 

Tues. 20 — My Birth day this day 1 am Thirty five years of 
age hauled wood for baggage in looking for my 
Journal No four I find that it is missing. I am 
sorry for the loss as it contained sketches & notes 
of my trips to little Powder river in search of the 
Crows Winter of 1852 & 3— My trip to & from the 



118 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

March 1855. 

Grosventres Spring of 1853. My trip to & from F 
Benton the same Spring, two voyages up & down 
the Yellowstone by water Trip fall of 1854 in Search 
of the Crows & my last trip to & from F Union by 
land it also contained sketches of doings at F Sarpy 
I have an idea where it went — but let it go let the 
Gall'd Jade wince our withers are unwrung 

Wed. 21 — Big Six this day imortalised himself he kill'd a 
Goose the only game of any description that ever 
he kill'd — Except Lice 

Thurs. 22 — A fine day press'd packs 

Fri. 23 — put by packs & secured them from rain Ass Small 
furs heard the report of two shots in the point above 
one shot in the point below Shortly after seen four 
Indians — Blackfeet 

Sat. 24 — Commenced sawing side plank for Boat 

Sun. 25 — A Beautifull day Very lonesome 

Men. 26 — \'ery windy could do nothing out of doors 

Tues. 27 — A Blustery cold day Snowed considerable 

Wed. 28 — Another stormy day One cow came in the prairie 
Carter kill'd her she was very poor 

Thurs. 29 — Sawed curbs for Boat very windy 

Fri. 30 — dried wolf & deer skins finished sawing curbs 

Sat. 31 — March is determined to keep up its Blusty reputa- 
tion as the saying is it went out like a Lion 

April 1855 

Sun. 1 — A dull quiet day nothing doing 

Men. 2 — too much wind to saw puled Bark Chas Carter cut 
himself very badly 

Tues. 3 — Another windv dav Worked a little abo\it the fort 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 119 

April 1855. 

Wed. 4 — Nothiiii^ done Blowed a Hurricane 

Thurs. 5 — Made & Pressed a few packs Beat Bii? Six out of 
two & a half dollars shooting the Target was a 
small pup tyed one hundred yards I bet Six Five 
dollars to Fifty cents that he could not hit the pup 
Six shot three times & miss'd he became excited & 
bet me one dollar that I could not hit the pup. I 
shot & struck puppy & beat Big Six out of two & 
half which he must certainly pay the odds were too 
great too much risk to plead the Baby Act 

Fri. 6 — A windy day sent for a steering oar for keel boat 
got an excellent one No sign of Mr. Meldrom 

Sat. 7 — Sawing & doing little jobs about the fort 

Siin. 8 — A windy ugly disagreeable day 

Men. 9 — Stormy day Snowed considerable done nothing 

Tues. 10 — Mr. Lamarche & all hands out to look for a horse 
We had in Cache returned with the horse — kill'd 
two cows Brot the calves & skins — Meat to poor 
to bring 

Wed. 11 — The time advances & no appearance of Mr M & 
having nothing for the men to do I set them to 
dressing plank for boat Altho contrary to Mr M's 
orders but when he left he had no idea of us having 
a Carpenter — A party of twelve Crows arrived the 
Boy Chief Grey Chief^^^ & ^.^e White Bear are in 
the party, they saw nothing of Mr M. the camp 
will be here shortly to trade they had scarcely dis- 
mounted before they asked me about their presents 
the Grey Chief was one of the party that I brought 
in last fall & seen what was left for them I told 
them they had forfeited thier Annuities by failing 
to come in but that if they would come in with thier 
trade I thought Mr. M would satisfy them either at 
the present or on his return on the arrival of the 
Boat this Summer 



120 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

April 1855. 

Thurs. 12 — the Indians are in a great way they are very much 
dissatisfied they want to trade with me in preference 
to waiting for Mr M I told them that if they would 
go home & wait untill Mr M arrives that I would 
give them a good present they hesitated a good 
deal & at last consented I promised that as soon 
as Mr M reached here I would go & bring them in 
I have put away goods for them traded a few robes 
& meat 

Fri. 13 — Indians still remain considerable grumbling I do 
not blame them they have been badly treated 

Sat. 14 — Indians left Except the White Bear he still remains, 
his horse being too poor to travel they left under 
the following circumstances If I do not go for them 
within Ten nights after they reach camp they are 
to come in & I will trade with them they would 
not give me a longer period they say thier horses 
are poor the grass bad & too close to thier different 
Enemies I fondly hope Mr M will reach here before 
that time the Burden is rather too heavy for me 
to bear 

Sun. 15 — I am uneasy on account of Mr M's not coming the 
White Bear tells me that the camps that he is on 
the route for will not come in that he probably re- 
turned with but a few Crows & was overtaken by 
Blackfeet & cut off of this I am not alarmed I am 
under the apprehension that he is on the hunt of 
Four Rivers^'^3 & ^t^ey are far off & he will not be 
able to be in time for Two Face^'^-* & Boy Chiefs 
trade if not I apprehend difficulty & it might termi- 
nate seriously. I am duty bound to protect the 
property & interests of my Employes — Should I 
risk life for it my Employers are in no manner 
culpable for the distruction of the Indians goods 
nor in this particular case do T think them re- 
sponsible 




fA.%^' • ♦ • 



I.J*.** 



FOUR RIVERS, GROS VENTRE CHIEF 
Kurz Journal, Bureau of American Ethnolog-y, Bulletin 115. 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 121 

April 1855. 

Mon. 16 — finished sawing:: laid bed for Boat 

Tues. 17 — Laid bottom of boat Made & press'd a few packs 

Wed. 18 — A very windy day five Bulls came in the prairie 
Lamarche & Carter kill'd them 

Thurs. 19 — Cold blustry day Cut the skins of the Bulls kill'd 
yesterday into cords I have cords sufficient to tie 
all the robes &c. 

Fri. 20 — Made & press'd forty eight packs robes calf &c put 
up curbs on Boat No sign of Mr. Meldrom 

Sat. 21 — A windy day Cover'd with Fat Old Limpy three 
Crows & four Nez Perces arrived Say camp will 
be in on Tuesday next 

Sun. 22 — Fine day Indians kill'd a cow. 

Mon. 23 — Crows left this morning Nez Perces remain put 
away goods for Mr. Meldrom, made pretty near an 
equal divide 

Tues. 24 — Boy Chief, Sets Every Way &- four other Crows 
arrived. A trading party also arrived traded fifteen 
packs Indians much dissatisfied on account of our 
scarcity of Tobaco & Ammunition 

Wed. 25 — Traded in the forenoon about forty packs Soldiers 
stop'd the trade. Call'd me to council told me they 
came a long distance to support us that in coming 
they had lost a great many of thier horses & when 
they did come we had no Tobaco or Ammunition 
for them that they thought it a hard matter to be 
deprived of thier Annuities & said if I would come 
down in my prices of Blankets they would be satis- 
fied. As I had but few left. I consented they gave 
me twenty-one robes for so doing Commenced trad- 
ing traded briskly 

Thurs. 26 — Would not trade as it was raining hard clear'd of 
11 A. M. traded forty four packs robes & one & half 
Beaver goods dissapearing fast. 



122 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

April 1855. 

Fri. 27 — ^Finished the trade & gave a small present to Two 
Faces Band gave two face his Medal as also the 
suit Col Vaughan gave me 

Sat. 28 — Indians speak of moving camp got some robes on 
credit for which I gave orders, payable on return 

Sun. 29— Camp moved on Tongue river Crows would not 
let Two Face remain Dick paid his debts like a man 
Mountain TaiP'^ & wife remains to go down in 
the Boat. 

Men. 30 — Made packs & find we have about one hundred & 
eighty packs robes four packs Beaver Deer Elk &c 
A sufficient quantity of rawhides & Lodge skins to 
cover both boats good quantity of meat & parr flesh 
got all the Nez Perces Beaver but had to strip myself 
& squaw of our clothing to pay it. My trade will bring 
Mr. Meldrom out of the brush had I Tobaco, Am- 
munition, Brass Wire Knives Corn Sugar Beans 
Flour Scarlet & Blue cloth, I would have made the 
trade more profitable — As it was I had nothing but 
Blkts & bed Ticking A delegation arrived to per- 
suade Mountain Tail to go back to the Camp they 
offered him three fine Horses which he refused — 
he has but one Tongue 

May 1855 

May 1 — More Crows came this morning after Mountain Tail 
he drove them all back & told them if any more 
came he would club them 

Wed. 2 — Big Six run off last night stole all the Amnumition 
&c he could lay his hands on I could have sent &; 
overtaken him but as he was only a nuisance in the 
Fort T thought to let him go he was always sick 

Thurs. 3 — A Blustry day folded & press'd fifty-two packs 
robes river rising rapidly Our Boats are all ready 
for caulking but T have not force enough to move 
the keel Boat Col Vaughan'"'' 



I'-oirr s.\RP^' jorRXAi. 12:^ 

May 1855. 

Fri. 4 — Made and press'd P,eaver Bear Wolf Deer Elk Big 
Horn & Antelope Immediately after supper sun 
about one hour high Michel Stoup & a Pagan Squaw 
were going down to the river the Squaw about 
twenty yards in advance when a party of Black 
Feet charged & kill'd the Squaw three shots were 
fired at Michel without effect. At the time I was 
lying clown in my room had a severe head ache I 
jumped & run but without my gun thinking it was 
Mr. Meldrom coming. Some of the men halloed 
Mr M's coming As I got to the corner of the Fort 
three Balls pass'd close by me I run in the Fort 
snatched up my gun & by the time I got out it was 
too late the Woman was kill'd & scalped & the Hell 
Hounds off. A wet night 

Sat. 5 — A wet day buried decently the Woman killed yes- 
terday. Gave the Indian in the Fort a small present. 
Indians much alarmed 

Sun. 6 — A long day All of us on the tops of the houses look- 
ing for Mr M or the folks from F Union in the 
evening hopes run high seen people on horseback 
coming to the Fort Mr M's coming was the shout 
they neared us & much to our dissapointment we 
found it was Indians from Two Faces Camp they 
had seen or heard nothing of Mr M. it appears 
from thier tale that in the Camp Six the notorious 
villian told them I had cached nine horse loads of 
good at the month of Tongue river that I had plenty 
of Tobaco & Ammunition & they came for some 
Myself, Mountain Tail & Mr M's Brother in Law 
satisfied them that Six was a liar let me ever get 
my clutches on Mr. Nokes^" & if T do not drub 
him soundly I will pass for the greatest calf in 
Christendom 

Men. 7^'*' — Mr Perault''" cS: six others arrived from Ft Union 
poor fellows they were a pitifull sight Everyone of 



124 FORT SARPY jOl'RXAL 

May 1855. 

them naked About the crossing they were over- 
taken by a party of Sioux numbering over two 
hundred the Sioux all mounted & well armed. Some 
of the Leading men rode up in advance & told the 
men they would spare thier lives but they must 
give uj) every thing it was with great difficulty 
that the friendly disposed Sioux kept the others back 
two of our men got wounded. All of them more or 
less shot at. One George Shike a German whom 
they took for an American was wounded in two 
places & three balls put in his clothing the men 
were robbed of thier Guns Ammunition & clothing 
poor fellows they had a hard time of it, but were 
fortunate in not coming across Blackfeet had they 
of met Blackfeet in the situation they were in with- 
out a single gun to defend themselves, all would have 
been put to the crudest death. Perrault fortunately 
preserved the letters for F Sarpy. I opened Mr. 
Denings to Mr Meldrom & told Mountain Tail & 
the others the danger attending thier accompanying 
us & advised them to go home directly whilst thier 
people were close they took my advice & started in 
the night I find I am one day ahead of the time 
caused by Carters mistake. I was right before 

Mon. 7 — Correct date, the Fort rnion men all stiff unable 
to do any work. My calculation is to push the work 
have the Boats in readiness to start at a days notice 
& then in case Mr Meldrom does not come I shall 
remain untill I find it would be dangerous to re- 
main a longer period — so long as the river is in safe 
Boating conditon I shall remain but when I see it 
to commence to recede & that the cargoes run a risk 
of reaching the Point of destination from low water 
I shall push on 

Tues. 8 — Set some to pick Oakum Others preparing the Col 
Vaughan for caulking Got her uji without much 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 125 

May 1855. 

difficulty it will be a particular job to make a safe 
boat of her some of her seams are an inch wide 

Wed. 9 — Commenced caulking & find we have not Oakum 
to caulk her bottom. Making use of Bale cloths 
flour & sugar sacks & Lodge skins 

Thurs. 10— got one half of the Vaughan caulked & turned over 
commenced on the other side 

Fri. 11— Last night the river rose four inches finished the 
Col Vaughan & made a good job considering the 
materials we had to work with we have put into 
her seams one & half Bale Oakum fourteen Bales 
cloth & nine good Lodge skins fourteen flour & 
Sugar sacks She is well greased & I think By care 
& good management she will carry her Cargo safely 
down the Yellowstone prepared ways to launch the 
Col Vaughan got her in the water without difficulty 

Sat. 12 — Commenced caulking the new Boat I was in my 
room writing About 12 M I heard some of the men 
sing out Indians Mr M's Coming I rushed out of 
the Gate unarmed & at a glance I seen they were 
not Crows I called all hands inside the Fort locked 
the gate had the Cannon loaded to the Muzzle all 
ready for them to commence the attack We got on 
top of the houses to have a better chance looked 
around in every direction seen Indians Some ap- 
proaching under the river bank others surrounding 
the Fort here was a Fix regularly trapped a Sioux 
Trap at that I was under the impression that we 
would have a bloody fight I advised coolness & 
discretion Ten on horseback some hundred yards 
from the Fort I hailed & asked what they wanted 
they said they meant us no harm that they were 
looking for Blackfeet & came to shake hands with 
the Crows' whites I called for the Partisian^so ^q 
approach & I would talk & smoke with him One 
would not come without the whole ten on horse- 



126 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

May 1855. 

back I told them that they might come but that if 
those on foot came closer I would fire they hesitated 
some time at last came on, we had hardly shook 
hands with the chiefs before the whole party ar- 
rived they all sung- out our hearts are good so I 
took thier word we shook hands all around it was 
the same party that robbed our men on thier way 
up I conversed with them about one hour the chief 
told me they had seen a woman in the Fort to bring 
her out that they would shake hands & so I brought 
out my Squaw they shook hands & left 

Sun. 13 — put Osborne on the night watch Seen five during 
the night Also in the morning seen Indians on the 
opposite side I am in a critical situation I have 
charge of an immense property in a dangerous coun- 
try only fourteen men & Eight guns Scarcely two 
hundred rounds of Ammunition & badly Forted I 
shall certainly leave this week 12 M our Sentry 
gave the alarm of Indians on Horseback I got on 
the Observatory & seen that it was Crows & that 
Mr M was in the party. Mr M in good health the 
Crows remained but a short time & left for home 

Men. 14 — Caulked & launched the new boat river rising 

Tues. 15 — Rained all day put up benches in boats 

Wed. 16 — Made up Elk & Fox packs rained all day 

Thurs. 17 — Took Stock men working at the Boats 

Fri, 18— Dunnaged the Boats arranged the crews &c. 

Sat. 19 — Loaded up the Boats fired the old Fort & left 1 p. m. 
run again a strong head wind passed the gap & 
camped early at the mouth of Powder river BufTlo 
plenty 

Sun. 20 — Made a late start on account of high wind passed 
all the Rapids & camped at the head of the Big 
hill rained & blowed all night 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 127 

May 1855. 

Mon. 21 — rained untill 3 p. m. Set in to snowing Snowe<l the 
whole night River raised 14 inches 

Tues. 22 — A bitter cold morning Started 10 M in a snow 
storm camped 12 M above Jabots houses high wind 

Wed. 23 — did not move high wind & a heavy snow storm. Mr. 
Meldrom very sick 

Thurs. 24 — A clear morning Started early & made a good day 
Camped in Law's Point 

Fri. 25 — Started early & arrived at the mouth 10 a. m. I 
went to Fort LTnion to get men to assist in bringing 
up the Boats, found CarafelP^^ very sick got the 
Boats up before dark, rained hard 

Sat. 26 — done nothing rained all day 

Sun. 27 — unloaded and reloaded the boats started about 1 
p. m. blowing hard 

Mon. 28 — A party of Pagans arrived led by the little dog they 
say a large party of Pagans & those inveterate dogs 
the Blood Indians will be in tomorrow Look for 
your top knots Boys 

Tues. 29 — About three hundred Pagans & Blood Indians ar- 
rived we closed the gates however a great many 
got in I suppose about sixty 

Wed. 30 — things went along smoothly traded some horses & 
robes in opening the gates to let the traders in 
Others would rush in Mr. Dening concluded to 
leave the small front gate open the Little Dog's 
party treated us to a dance & Whilst our attention 
was on the dance some few Blood Indians sliped in 
to one of the house where an old Assinaboin was 
sleeping & cut his throat then dragged him out 
about forty yards from the front Bastion & com- 
menced mutilating his body in the most horrible 
manner. I was dispatched to take charge of the 



128 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

May 1855. 

Bastion 1 had four men with me right under my 
very eyes & at the muzzle of a Six pounder charged 
with grape & canister were crowded round the body 
of the poor old man they were not aware of the 
danger they were in, the fuse was in my hand one 

slight move from me & all would be over 

they left for home 

Thurs. 31 — the Pagans left except the Little Dog's son & 
another. Cleaned up stores &c. 

June 1855 

Frid May 1st — Note : This date should have been "Frid. June 1st." 
Commenced taking Inventory & find it will be a 
considerable job 

Sat. 2 — Going on with Inventory 

Sun. 3 — A beautifull day done nothing 

Men. A — Going on with the Inventory they are an immense 
amount of property in Fort Union 

Tues. 5 — Started with a band of twentyseven horses to Fort 
Berthold^^- Along with me was two Spaniards the 
Little Dog & Son & another half Pagan & Blood 
Indian Kill'd two cows & camp'd about ten miles 
below the Bobires^^^ 

Wed. 6 — Made an early start run & kill'd two cows Stop'd 
10 M & eat Gathered up our horses & started 12 M 
About One p. m. seen Indians on horseback. Caught 
& saddled up each of us a runner Started the Spani- 
ards to find who they were I remained with the 
horses & Indians they proved to be Grosvonts re- 
turning from a hunt 3 p. m. arrived at the Dry 
fork & found some Grosvonts camp'd making meat, 
the took & hid the Indians in the Brush As a short 
distance of a camp of two hundred lodges of Assyna- 
boins are camp'd & if they should happen to come 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 129 

June 1855. 

across the Little Dog they would soon make Wolf 
meat of him. Started at Sun down & travelled fast 
till 12. Slep't below white riv 

Thurs. 7 — Made an early start & stopped for the night on the 
Water raises^^*. About 1 M I was call'd by a Gros- 
vont who came with me from the Dry fork & told 
that he seen three Indians pass through the horses 
& heard them talking Sioux I did not believe him 
but however in as dangerous a country as this is 
it behooves every one to be on his guard. I saddled 
my horse & counted them, found none missing & 
started 

Fri. 8 — Arrived safe at Fort Berthold 7 M found a large 
delegation of Ricarees & Mandans at the Village 
waiting to recieve the little dog about midday three 
Indians that had been out looking for the Grosvonts 
came in with the news of a war party of Sioux on 
the water raises the deception was mutual we took 
them for Sioux so did they us 

Sat, 9 — A wet morning cleared up 12 M I started for Fort 
LTnion 2 p. m. had with me three men Camped 
ten miles above the Water raises 

Sun. 10 — Made the longest days travel that has been made 
in this country to my knowledge Camped on a little 
creek above the dry Fork in the night heard the 
dogs of some camp 

Men. 11 — Saddled up started early proceeded but a short dis- 
tance & discovered the Assynaboin camp got to 
them & remained all day one of my horses being a 
little lame detained me 

Tues. 12 — Started late cross'd the Bobires 12 M at the red 
spring I discovered sixteen Sioux on horseback but 
luckily for us they were on the opposite side of the 
river & the Missouri being very high it is not an 
easy matter to cross horses. I went down to the 



130 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

June 1855. 

bank of the river & tantalised them with my presence 
for an hour or such a matter I left them & arrived 
at Fort Union at 4 p. m. making the trip in eight 
days, travelling time five if that is not skimming 
the prairies I dont know what is 

Wed. 13 — A Beautiful day Lounging about the Fort 

Thurs. 14 — Accompanied F. G. Riter^'^^ Esqr to his garden & 
was surprised to see vegetation flourish so well in 
this out of the way part of the world 

Fri. 15 — This day dined sumptuously on lettuce & radishes 
the first I have eat for six years 

Sat. 16 — A wet day river rising fast 

Sun. 17 — Rain in the fore part of the day Commenced re- 
pairing one side of the Fort Self on night guard 

Men. 18 — it will take the Balance of the week to repair the 
damage done by the wind 17 ult Self still on night 
guard A AVar party comprising one hundred Black- 
feet were discovered yesterday 

Tues. 19 — A beautiful day Every thing tranquil no sign of 
the enemy 

Wed. 20 — The old Spaniardi*^*^ was seen by Indians whilst out 
looking for the Cattle 

Thurs. 21 — Some Crees & Chippeways arrived brot a few robes 
& skins — traded & left in the night 

Fri. 22 — Nothing stirring All quiet 

Sat. 23 — A rainy day no sign of the enemy 

Sun. 24 — A large party of Assynaboins & North Crees arrived 
traded what the}- had & left in the night 

Men. 25 — the Enemy hovering in the vicinity of the Fort I 
dont think they wish to kill us but are waiting an 
o})p()rtunity to steal our horses 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 131 

June 1855. 
Tues. 26 — a fine day everytbinq- ([uict very warm 
Wed, 27 — Nothinj^: stirring- tine pleasant storm 

Thurs. 28 — A heavy rain attended by thunder & Hg-htning 

Fri. 29 — A dull day, cool 8z windy 

Sat. 30 — All the squaws out on a service berry Imnt returned 
loaded with fruit 

July 1855 

Sun. 1 — Squaws & Bucks gathering berries 

Men. 2 — Very Cool Hail storm Nothing of the Steamboat 

Tues. 3 — four of our folks out in the point below the opposi- 
tion hunting were attacked by a large party of 
Sioux the boys threw the meat of thier horses & 
made thier escape I came out one hickory gun 
stick & gun cover loser & consider myself lucky 
that I did not lose my gun — As the person that 
borrowed my rifle has a habit of throwing away 
guns when attacked by Indians I have known him 
to lose six & this is the only time that he ever came 
in with his gun Once he left his horse trusting to 

his heels being the swifter "What we 

have here 

Wed. 4 — A dull fourth No sign of the Steam Boat river 
very low and the prospect is that if She dont arrive 
this week that in all probability She will not be able 
to reach this point without another rise & that we 
have but little hope for Indians discovered prowling 
about the Fort No injury done as yet but no telling 
how soon 

Thurs. 5 — A beautiful day All quiet 

Fri. 6 — four Assynaboins arrived from the Wood Moun- 
tain — report the camp moving this way during the 
night six more Assynaboins arrived We were visited 



132 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

July 1855. 

with a tremendous storm Wind from N. W. the 
enclosure surrounding the mill house was entirely 
blown down 

Sat. 7 — Our Hunters started out this morning 

Sun. 8 — Hunters returned with meat of the Bulls 

Men. 9 — I & two others started out hunting ret. with the 
meat of two cows & one Bull Found Mr. Denig's 
son^^^ & two others from the Steamboat She was 
at Fort Berthold when they left 

Tues. 10 — Making preparations to recieve the Steamboat 

Wed. 11 — we had the pleasure of greeting the arrival of the 
Steamer St Mary^^^ quite a number of gentlemen 
arrived among which were A. Culbertson Esqr Col 
A. Gumming, Supt. of Indian Afifairs Col A. J. 
Vaughan Ind. Agt & Major Hatch of the Blackfoot 
Agency & several other gentlemen 

Thurs. 12 — buisy unloading & recieving goods from Steamer 

Fri. 13 — Ship'd robes & peltries the Steamer left 1 p. m. 
Mr E. T. Denig left on a visit to the States Joy be 
with him may he enjoy a pleasant trip is the wish 
of Riter & myself 

Sat. 14 — buisy working about the stores 

Sun. 15 — Gala day Indians dancing & Self took a small blow- 
out 

Men. 16 — rec. Fort Benton goods 

Tues. 17 — finished rec. F. B. goods & stored the same the 
Boats left for F. B. Mess Kipp & Dawson in charge 
Major Hatch Doct Haydon^^^ & several other pas- 
sengers 

Wed. 18 — Knocking about the Fort getting scythes in order 
to commence cutting hay 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 133 

July 1855. 

Thurs, 19 — Putting stores &c in order 

Fri. 20 — Commenced cutting hay between the two forts fine 
day 

Sat. 21 — Still cutting hay 

Sun. 22 — took a genteel Blow out 

Men. 23 — finished cutting hay at this point cut 19 loads of 
splendid hay 

Tues. 24 — Started a short distance above the Fort to cut hay 
cut a little & find it wont pay the grass being 
too thin 

Wed. 25 — Cross'd over the river to make hay — Started six 
scythes cut a good deal 

Thurs. 26 — finished cutting all that was fit to cut & sent word 
to that efifect 

Fri. 27 — Mr F Girard^^^ came over & was convinced of the 
worthless quality of the grass but desired me to 
keep on as it was Mr Culbertson's positive orders 
to cut everything so here goes obey orders if you 
break owners has always been my motto 

Sat. 28 — Cutting weeds & a little grass mixed but a small 
portion of the latter article Cross'd over in the eve- 
ning and found that Mr Culbertson Lady & party 
had left for Fort Benton 

Sun. 29 — Col Vaughan gave us a small blow out 

Mon. 30 — Cross'd over a horse & cart to haul hay Made two 
small stacks three mowers cutting above 

Tues. 31 — Hauling & stacking hay I think I have about sixty 
loads cut such as it is 



134 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

August 1855 

Wed. 1 — knocking about among the mowers & hay haulers 

Thurs. 2 — I find it very slow work hauling hay as the grass 
was cut in spots here there & everywhere — where 
ever we could cut an armfull 

Thurs, 3 — Myself & two others working at the hay 

Fri. ■'1 — the same as yesterday 

Sat. 5 — took a look at the folks cutting above they make 
but poor headway 

Sun. 6 — I heard from F G R that Mr M told Mr Culbertson 
that the Crows scared me to give goods to them 
the "Old "Liar 

Men. 6 — rain done nothing over the river 

Tues. 7 — Showery in the forenoon 

Wed. 8 — Scatter'd hay immediately after we were done it 
commenced raining 

Thurs. 9 — A showery day done nothing 

Fri. 10 — rain'd hard all day 

Sat. 11 — Showery went up to the garden sowed some radish 
seed & got a supply of vegetables for the table 

Sun. 12 — fine day making preparations to start for timber 
tomorrow 

Men. 13 — Started to the Point of timber above the little Muddy 
to get out saw logs made a good camp & prepared 
to work in the morning Our Hunter did not come in 

Tues. 14 — got breakfast early & started my men out Our 
hunter returned with the meat of a fat cow cut 
forty logs & got out twenty curbs men work excellent 
our cattle hard to manage in each team we have 
one yoke of unbroken cattle hauled but seven logs 
with both teams 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 135 



August 1855. 



Wed. 15 — Perranlt getting out curbs three men chopping & 
the rest assisting the teams 

Thurs. 16 — finished cutting timber all hands except Perrault 
cutting roads & assisting the teamsters, got scared 
by a Bear 

Fri. 17 — Started our hunter to the Fort as we have plenty 
of meat rec'd express from Fort commenced raft- 
ing, lost three of our oxen Suppose they have gone 
home 

Sat. 18 — finished building tvv^o rafts thirty-two logs in each 
fifty curbs & an oar for the Crow boat sent the 
teams to the Fort 

Sun. 19 — the rafts made an early start Myself came down 
on foot to look for a young bull that was lost did 
not find him. One of the rafts arrived 12 M & 
stated that the other was grounded in the night 
One man arrived from the raft to procure assistance 

Mon. 20 — Sick — Started five men to the raft the raft arrived 
11 a. m. All right 

Tues. 21 — Some better Assisted to caulk the Crow boat got 
her in the water 

Wed. 22 — Loaded the Crow boat & started about 1 p. m. 
hauled one load of hay from above In the evening 
the hunters from the Crow boat returned to the 
opposite side of the river as also two Crows they 
stated that they had kill'd a cow & were returning 
to the boat when three Sioux charged on them they 
threw thier meat away & sloped — "Oh the Bitches, 
our horses stolen 

Fri. 24 — Commenced Col Vaughan's boat in the evening 
the Brave Hunters two Crows & one Grosvont ar- 
rived on the opposite side & halloed for help sent 
for them & said they had seen two Indians & Mr 
Meldrom had concluded to turn back. A Brave Act 



136 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

August 1855. 

Sat. 25 — tinished the Col's boat all ready for caulking Mr 
M's Boat arrived, seen some Indians over the river 
appear to be crossing on to this side 

Sun. 26 — ^^^Early this morning we had the extra pleasure of 
grasping the hands of a few Sioux A party was 
discovered back of the fort All hands out armed 
& equipped as the law directs Girard Lophyr^^^ ^ 
myself went out & met them they told us they were 
from the Crows & was on the look out for Assyna- 
boins they said they seen our hunters & wanted to 
shake hands with them but they run off they report 
the Crows on Powder river them & the Sioux have 
been there all summer but have parted the Sioux 
camp are at the thin hills they stated they seen the 
Crow boat & were going to buy some tobaco, they 
are friendly with the Crows they also report that 
a fight had taken place between the Crows & Black- 
feet & that the Crows got the worst of the battle, 
we brought five in the fort gave them a cup of 
cofife & a small present Col Vaughan gave his red 
children a talk & when through they sloped for 
Dobey town, being as our forces here were strong 
they behaved well but had we been the weaker 
party there is no telling what might have happened 
an express arrived from Dobey town^^^ stating that 
CampbelP^'* & a half Breed was caught out from 
the Fort their horses stolen & themselves stripped 
to the Buff Unlucky Dobey town 

Men. 27 — Caulked & launched Col Vaughan's boat unloaded 
the Crow boat reloaded her for Fort Benton Self 
making preparations to start with express for Fort 
Benton I intend leaving before day 

Tues. 28 — Started 2 M Day broke on me at the little Muddy. 
Seen the opposition folks from the Blackfeet Ar- 
rived at the Big Muddy 10 a. m. Met Le Gras^^^ & 
the Fool Bear^^^ made them a cup of coffe they 




y>r J^' ->' V . •' V- 





FOOL BEAR OR CRAZY BEAR, ASSINIBOINE CHIEF 
Kui'z Journal, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin lir». 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 137 



August 1855. 



told me to be on my guard as six young Bucks run 
off to war they advised me to take care of my 
napper^^'^ & Horses I learn that three horses were 
stolen from Mr Culbertson left & shortly after 
leaving discovered three Bucks following me kept 
on at a smart walk until about four O clock stopped 
& let the horses eat a couple of hours started again 
&: kept on a smart pace untill an hour after dark 
camp'd eight miles below tremble river 

Wed. 29 — Made an early start my horse fell with me but done 
no injury Breakfast at Tremble^^^ River saddle up 
and proceeded but a short distance when I dis- 
covered an Assynaboin camp of about thirty lodges 
I took out in order to give them the slip however 
I was seen by a party of men & women on thier 
way out to cut lodge poles, from this party I learned 
that the reason the three young men stole Mr Cul- 
bertson's horses was his Brother in law cut a hand 
of an Assynaboin off & they took the horses for 
pay moved about fifteen miles above Tremble river 
kill'd a cow plenty of Buffaloa camped on the 
creek with fine water grass & timber I do not 
know the name it bears — (Quaken Asp) 

Thurs. 30 — On getting up this morning I found myself com- 
pletely surrounded by Buffaloes my horses were 
feeding along with them saddled up & started morn- 
ing cool «& very misty jogged along at a snail's pace 
& came on Milk river about two o'clock p. m. 
stopped a couple of hours to cook & let my horses 
eat. I have come here in a remarkably short time 
& hereafter I shall take it easier as I apprehend but 
little danger from this out, Buffaloes very plenty 
I should not be surprised if there is a camp on Milk 
river the Buff are all travelling down catched up 
my horses & travelled at a slow pace camp'd about 
four miles above the porcupine in the night we 
were visited by a shower of rain 



138 FORT SARPY JOURNAl. 

August 1855. 

Fri. 31 — Cool & ver\- windy took Breakfast about seven 
O clock l')nffal(), E1I< Deer cv Antelope very plenty 
iioonM at camp Pecan [omul Mr Culbertson's ba,q;- 
g'dge waggon here I find from a card left on a 
tree that they passed here on the fifth ult. Seen a 
party of Indians on horseback 1 am under the im- 
pression that 1 was not seen by them Kill'd two 
Bulls raised thier tongues & slept on a small creek 
plenty of sign of Beaver Buflflo in abundance 



September 1855 

Sat. 1 — took Breakfast before I started on starting I dis- 
covered that one of my horses was sick went but 
a short distance kill'd two cows & one Bull took 
meat enough for a couple of meals my horse got 
some better eats tolerable well made another start 
& crossed milk river took across & cut oiT the Big 
Bend. Stopped to cook supper at Empty bottle camp 
in every camp Mr Culbertson slept I find bottles 
powder cannisters &c. had he left a bottle full of 
brandy there would have been some sense in it. I 
am confident that there are Indians in this vicinity 
I have seen good signs Bufifalo raised in diflferent 
directions I hope that all would be right in case I 
should meet them. Camped after dark on the river 

Sun. 2 — On getting up this morning I was a little surprised 
to find my horses missing I looked well for a couple 
of hours Examined the tracks & found some thirty 
or forty horses had passed during the night I gave 
them up for lost returned to camp & hung up my 
saddles &c. on a tree packed myself & woman & 
started on foot I had proceeded but a short distance 
wdien I discovered something in the hills beckoning 
to me I immediately went & found three Crow- 
Indians they had passed along in the night & seeing 
the horses took them thinking they belonged to 



1<X)RT SARf^V JOURNAL 139 



September 1855. 



Blackfeet & were laying low to take thior nappers 
from them as they would come out in the morning". 
I told them to go home as Government was about 
effecting a treaty with the Blackfeet they gave me 
thier word they would I gave them the news — they 
appear very sorry and blame Mr Meldrom very 
much this has been a remarkably warm day one 
of the hottest of the season travelled slow took 
dinner about six miles from where I slept I can 
almost call this a lost day — however I consider my- 
self very fortunate that I have not been put on foot 
caught up my horses & kept on up the river a little 
before sundown saw a fine horse in the hills went 
to it & with but little trouble caught it proved to 
be a mare — she is a noble looking animal of a dark 
brown color, camp'd at sundown grass excellent 

Men. 3 — a fine clear morning started early cross'd over the 
river killed a fine cow & stop'd to breakfast about 
9 a. m. Started on a short time met Mr Wray with 
six waggons on his way to Fort Union I sent my 
mare by him to Fort Union Killed another cow & 
took meat enough to do me to Fort Benton they 
tell me there are no Bufflo above here. I also learned 
that Mr Culbertson had left Fort Benton to meet 
the Boats. Mr. B. Champagne & Motsena were of 
the party wrote a few lines by Mr Wray to Mr 
Girard camp'd on Milk river grass excellent 

Tues. 4 — Made an early start travelled briskly untill about 
eight O clock, let the horses walk from that untill 
eleven O clock took dinner a short distance below 
the two little rivers I have not seen any Buffalo 
since yesterday Started at about two p. m. it com- 
menced clouding up & thundering picked out a 
good place & camp'd 3 p. m. however it all turned 
out wind no rain — Camp'd on a small creek 



140 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

September 1855. 

Wed. 4* — Started early & travelled briskly cross'd below 
Champagne houses^^^ let my horses drink & feed 
a couple of hours Saddled up and proceeded but a 
short distance when Brick's^^o horse gave evident 
signs of giving out I have not packed him carrying 
all our meat coffe & clothing on my own horse since 
I left F Union Camp'd about three O clock on Eagle 
creek water & grass most excellent I hope this 
afternoon's & night's rest will enable him to per- 
form the balance of the journey My own horse ap- 
pears to be better on the trip he is a most excellent 
horse but rather scary for the prairie 

Thurs. 5 — made an early start took breakfast on beaver creek — 
about ten O clock commenced raining rain'd hard 
untill three camp'd in the prairie about ten miles 
from the Marias 

Fri. 6 — Started before day & came on the Marias made a 
cup of coffe cook some meat & eat shaved & shirted 
in order to meet the Fort Ben. folks Saddled up & 
started Met a party of Indians on the Crow 
ca-ja-na^oi on thier way out a hunting Also one 
white man belonging to Gov Steven's party Arrived 
at Fort Benton 11 a. m. Seen his Excellency Gov 
Stevens — Col Cummings Mess Kennerly & Cham- 
pagne learned that Mr Culbertson had gone down 
to meet the Boats — no one in the Fort lonesome 
time 

Sat. 7 — A fine day cleaned my rifle & revolver looking for 
Mr Munroe to come in from the Grosvont camp 
Expect Mr. Culbertson tomorrow or next day dur- 
ing the evening some pagans arrived being a part 
of a war party on thier way to the Crows May they 
come home the worse of the battle is the fond wish 
of your humble servant 



* The writer used date of "4th" twice. 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 141 

September 1855. 

Sun. 8 — A beautiful day paid a visit to Gov Stevens the 
Gov is very anxious to glean information of the 
Crows & thier country gave him what little I knew 
of the Agricultural qualities of the Crow country 

Men. 10 — A wet morning cleared up about 9 a. m. in the 
evening Mr Culbertson arrived as also A. Vaughan 
& Willson Esqr bring news of a fight between the 
Grosvonts & Crows of which five of the latter were 
killed. I presume it was the band I met on my 
way up. 

Tues. 11 — Making preparations to start to Fort Union intend 
going by water in a small skiflF 

Wed. 12 — Started from F. Benton at half past eleven a. m. 
Camp'd three points above the Marias our party 
consist of Mr Champagne Esqr Bricks a young 
Pagan & myself fine days 

Thurs. 13 — Made an early start stopp'd to kill some meat at 
the three Islands202 kill'd a deer & took dinner be- 
low the Islands a strong head wind the whole day — 
Camp'd below fine horse Island 

Fri. 14 — Started early had got but a short distance say 
about two miles when we had to come to on account 
of wind blew hard all day during the afternoon I 
was out hunting Antelope. Mr Champagne & the 
Pagan were asleep Bricks browning coflFe when Mr 
Bear paid a visit to the camp Bricks threw a stick 
at him & gave the alarm to the sleepers I came in 
at that time the young Pagan and myself started 
in pursuit & killed him he was a fine roystering 
blade of youngster & made a good show for a fight. 
Hawkins-''^ sickened him & three rounds from Colts 
put him past fighting 

Sat. 15 — rather windy however not enough to stop us At the 
Citadel seen three Pagans they had been on a hunt 
& had plenty of meat report the Grosvont camp had 



142 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

September 1855. 

run to the Muscle Shell for fear of the Crows had 
killed yesterday two Grosvonts by the Crows four 
Crows three men & one woman got killed below the 
hole in the WalP*''* came too on account of wind 
about sundown pushed off & slept in a Crow fort 

Sun. 16— Started & had a fine current nearly the whole day 
took dinner at the Old Judith Fort^^^^ camped be- 
tween Adams & Rondin's rapids^^e killed a Bull 

Men. 17 — Rained all day about half past ten came across two 
Boats Mr Dawson in charge — Stopped a short time 
took Mr. Dawson on Board, he is going down to 
meet Mr. Kipps' Boat — left Bricks with Rivier 
camp'd at Snake Point^^'^ 

Tues. 18— About two O clock this morning commenced snow- 
ing & raining the hills covered with snow Started 
about twelve O clock M. Come too at Cow Island^''^ 
laid a few hours for wind pushed ofT — Stop'd at the 
head of Grand Island^®^ Started again & reached 
Mr Kipp's Boat a little after dark 

Wed. 19 — Snowed all night cleared off at nine a. m. after 
dinner all hands took a Bear hunt 

Thurs. 20 — Foggy morning cleared up at nine a. m. Started 
again left Mr Dawson on the Barge took Mr. Kipp 
on Board for Fort Union made eleven points & 
camp'd early in a beautiful point the whistling of 
the Elk kept us awake all night. Kill'd a Bull 

Fri. 21 — A Beautiful day Started very early took dinner 
after making six points camp'd two points above 
Muscle Shell— Kill'd a fine Elk 

Sat. 22 — Started early & had a good current nearly all day 
Made eight Points & took dinner Kill'd two Elk 
& two fat deer camp'd above Forchettes point^'" — 
fine dav 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 143 

September 1855. 

Sun. 23 — A Beautifull morning got along slowly but little 
current & head winds made four & a half points 
before dinner Started & a little before sundown 
came on Mr F. G. Riter's Boat just at the round 
Bute2ii all well 

Men. 24 — 'hauled out our skiff left Mr Champagne — Dophin^i^ 
& wife & child as also Mr Riter came on board for 
Fort Union made two points & came too on account 
of wind Started & run to sundown made five & 
half points 

Tues. 25 — Blowing a gale fixed up camp I went out on a 
hunt — seen plenty of Deer but had no chance for 
a shot— kill'd a fine Elk Friday kiU'd a fat Bull 

Wed. 26 — Started early made four points & took dinner killed 
a cow & Bear camp'd one point below the Dry 
Fork2i3. Made seven points 

Thurs. 27 — made an early start took dinner below Milk river 
killed a very fat cow & camp'd a little above the 
Porcupine river Bufflo & Elk very plenty from 
Milk river to the round Bute the distance is thir- 
teen points 

Fri. 28 — high winds from the N E remained all day Killed 
the fattest Deer I have ever seen it is impossible to 
eat anything but the hams 

Sat. 29 — Started early made four points & took dinner — 
Made three more & camp'd killed two Beaver — I 
forgot to mention that yesterday we killed a Badger 
in camp 

Sun. 30 — laid by all day for wind about one half hour before 
sundown started & made one half Point 



144 FORT SARPY lOl'RXAL 



October 1855 



Mon. 1 — Started before daylight made two & half points 
came too to get dinner blowing a gale from N W 
at half past three made another start made four & 
half Points camp'd two points below tremble river 
killed a fine Deer 

Tues. 2 — Started before day got two points & discovered a 
large band of horses drinking got on the other side 
as soon as possible hailed them they proved to be a 
Crow camp of one hundred lodges put out my man 
Friday for fear of Squalls Mr Riter accompanied 
him to another point & took them on Board I am 
much alarmed for my man Friday I was opposed 
to his coming with us & if I can get him home safe 
I shall never travel with a Blackfoot on enemy's 
ground Camp'd below Carafells^^* houses made 
seven points 

Wed. 3 — High winds from the N W with rain unable to 
make a move wind bound close to the Fort is very 
very unpleasant Especially in this case as we are 
entirely out of coflfe & sugar but have plenty meat 
the swell of the river foundered our boat fortunately 
for us we had taken every thing out of her. four 
O clock p. m. Still no prospect of the wind abat- 
ing — had the wind fallen so that we could have 
made a point or so today we could easily reach Fort 
Union in another day by hard pulling. Feasting 
on Fat Deer — Beaver & Cherry Tea. We have an 
excellent encampment. Completely sheltered from 
view on both sides of the River. Killed a large fat 
Buck hauled out our Skifif & bailed her out the 
bottom covered with sand to the depth of six inches. 

Thurs. 4 — Still a high wind from the N West unable to start 
plenty of meat but nothing else last night the water 
in the boat frose ice one half inch thick A very cold 
day. cleaned the sand out of our boat roasted & 
eat some delicious ribs Buflflo plenty but it is fool- 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 145 



October 1855. 



ishness to kill as we have plenty of meat to supply 
our wants & the report of a gun might be the means 
to discover us. About ten O clock the opposition 
carts ten in number arrived on thier way to Fort 
Benton, got news from Forts Clark^is ^ Union 
hear that Mr Clarke is coming on with fourteen 
carts to oppose the Fort Benton trade 

Fri. 5 — No prospects of leaving very cold & wind from 
N W. opposition folks still remain — Killed two fat 
deer Bufflo plenty wrote Mr Dawson by Gardape^is 
I hope he will receive it Gardape & party left three 
O clock p. m. Crossed the Bobieres^^'^ & camp'd 
Still remain in camp strong hopes of the winds 
falling tomorrow. 

Sat. 6 — Started six O clock A. M. pulled hard the whole 
day Made no stop & arrived at Fort Union at half 
past five — this has been a tedious & long uncom- 
fortable trip found at the Fort all well except some 
children Since I left there has been two deaths both 
children One a daughter of J P Perraults the other 
a daughter of Mrs J B Cardinal^i-^ found Mr M 
Clark here with eleven carts on his w^ay to Fort 
Benton to oppose us in the trade 

Sun. 7 — A beautifull day — Sauntered about the foit had Mess 
Clark & McKenzie^i^ for dinner 

Men. 8 — Making preparations to start on a perilous trip in 
search of the Crows on the other side of the Moun- 
tains it will at the least calculation take four months 
to make the trip & if a severe winter it cannot be 
made short of Eight Months 

Tues. 9 — A party of Crows & Grosventres arrived from the 
Crow camp, they bring discouraging news — they 
say all of the Crows with the exception of one hun- 
dred & thirty seven lodges that will be here in a 
few days, Are on the Platte 8z Sliould T be able to 



146 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

October 1855. 

find them they are under the impression that I 
could not get them on the Yellow Stone, they told 
Mr Kipp & myself not to let Mr Meldrom go for 
as sure as he went they would kill him As for 
myself they would not harm me or any one else in 
my company but Mr M & that my interest could 
not save Mr M's life Mr Kipp has deferred the trip 
for the present 

Wed. 10 — All hands buisy digging & gathering our potatoes 
the frost in the night of Aug 15 has destroyed the 
crop 

Thurs. 11 — finished gathering our potatoes Our hunters ret 
with the meat of four cows A party of Sioux were 
discovered in the vicinity of the Fort As we have 
but few men I volunteered to stand guard for a 
short trip 

Fri. 12 — I seen nothing unusual last night kept lights in 
each Bastion, this is most beautifull weather. Sent 
my man Friday home Also wrote Mr Clark to 
keep out of the way of the Crow Camp. I am much 
afraid that the Crows are going to be a bad people 
& I know what has drove them to it — As regards 
myself I am in no ways alarmed, for I am confidant 
my person or property will not be molested by them, 
but others must look out 

Sat. 13 — Mess Girard & Clemow^so q^ a duck hunt 

Sun. 14 — Our Duck hunters returned with a fine lot of Duck 
& geese 

Men. 15 — Our hunters out after meat during the day some 
Crows arrived from Camp to trade 

Tues. 16— traded a few robes from the Crows Our hunters 
returned with the meat of four cows 

Wed. 17 — An Assynaboin arrived from the Sand hills^^i report 
BufTalos plenty 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 147 



October 1855. 



Thurs. 18 — A very windy day A party of Crows arrived oppo- 
site the fort but could not cross owing to the wind 
they stated that they were from the Mountains on 
thier way to join the Crows that are above 

Fri. 19 — Mr Meldrom started to the Crow Camp crossed 
over the Crows, from them we learned that the big 
camp has run over the Mountains in order to get 
rid of some sickness that has been committing great 
havoc amongst them upwards of four hundred have 
died from the disease 

Sat, 20 — Girard & Co started on another duck hunt to the 
lake but returned — Seeing six fires and some Indians 
the supposition is that the enemies are about Sioux 
I suppose 

Sun. 21 — Commenced snowing about 8 O clock & snowed 
hard all day. Mr. Meldrom returned from camp 
bringing a few Indians along reports buflfaloa plenty 
& close 

Mon. 22 — fine day snow melting fast traded a few robes & 
beaver from the Crows 

Tues. 23 — Sent out hunting. Four Bears^^s & party of Gros- 
ventres arrived from thier village they are on a 
visit to the Crows they bring bad news from the 
Sioux 

Wed. 24 — the Grosventres left, the Two White Weasles-^^ 
Crow arrived with a few beaver 

Thurs. 25 — Cadot & four men arrived from fort Benton with 
fifty odd horses & mules Cadot left on the 8th Mr 
Culbertson & Col Cummings left for the Judith on 
the same day to hold a treaty with the upper tribes 
he seems to think that all will go well — I hope so 

Fri. 26 — Friday fine day nothing strange preparing to start 
out in the barge with our horses 



148 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

October 1855. 

Sat. 27 — Started with band of horses & mules to Snake 
Bute224 killed five cows found the grass but tol- 
erable water miserable set two traps for Wolf 

Sun. 28— Ramsey225, Bouchie226 & Constantine227 went back 
to the Fort Cadot & Alvary'-^s remain with me 
caught three Wolves 

Men. 29 — had great trouble collecting the horses I found 
them much scattered 3 wolves 

Tues. 30 — Same as yesterday I am afraid I shall lose some 
of my horses found 46 some six miles from camp 

Wed. 31 — Beautiful weather Ramsey & Caddot came out for 
Col Cummings mules received a few lines from 
friend Riter no news 

November 1855 

Thurs. 1 — No person from F. U. a band of Assynaboins thirty 
in number came to my camp and spent the night 
with me 

Fri. 2 — Catching wolves & killing Bulls 

Sat. 3 — The two Caddottes arrived with news for me to 
come in with my horses I also learned from them 
that a difficulty occurred between Girard & a half 
breed & that Girard killed the half breed Girard 
was sent to St. Louis to stand his trial 

Sun. 4 — Got to Fort Union with all my horses found Mr 
Kipp very unwell I learn that Col Cummings gave 
permission to establish big trading house for the 
Assynaboins. 

Mon. 5 — Levelling the bank in front of the Fort so the 
Cannons from the Bastions will command the river 
bank. Some Crows arrived 



FORT SARPY lOlRXAL 149 



November 1855. 



Tues. 6 — Still working at the hill Started two waf2:gons to 
the Bobourse to build trading houses John C 
Rollete223 arrived from St. Louis with express 
Harney^^*^ has gave the Brulus a drubbing Fort 
full of Crows to recieve thier presents Considerably 
hard talk I would not be surprised if it would end 
in a difficulty, the Crows are getting very mean 

Wed. 7 — Gave the Crows thier Annuities All went ofif well 
Every one appears satisfied One of our men was 
standing at the gate A Crow fired his gun at him 
& wounded him severely, the other Crows to a man 
were for killing the Crow on the spot but we inter- 
fered & saved his life however they took his gun 
& broke it over his head & drubbed him soundly 

Thurs. 8 — The Crows all left they appear to be very sorry for 
what was done yesterday & hope we will not censure 
the whole nation for the faults of one bad man. 
Certainly not. 

Fri. 9^Some few Crows came & went they are very uneasy 
traded a few robes 

Sat. 10 — Quite a number of Crows came to see the wounded 
man they made him a present of 12 robes & say 
that as soon as they have them dressed they are 
going to give him 130 robes and a horse traded a 
few robes the Crows left 

Sun. 11 — Snowed hard the whole day Ever}- appearance of 
Winter setting in upon us No news of Denig 

Mon. 12 — Cold day towards night commenced snowing Some 
Crows arrived & state that the Indian that shot our 
man made an attempt to commit suicide Our 
hunters killed 5 deer 

Tues. 13 — Cold day Nothing worth recording 

Wed. 14 — Same as yesterday hunters brot in 3 deer 



150 FORT SARPY JOl^RNAL 

November 1855. 

Thurs. 15 — Very Cold Some Crows arrived hunters brot in 
2 deer & 1 cow 

Fri. 16— Pleasant day hunters brot in 6 cows Report Buf- 
falos plenty & close 

Sat. 17 — Fine day the two Cadottes started after an Her- 
maphrodite Cow that they had wounded yesterday 
they found the cow the young Cadotte went to head 
the cow the other took through the brush to cut her 
off his rifle caught a brush & went ofif the ball 
passed through his lung he lived but a few minutes 

Sun. 18 — Buried Mr Cadotte. two Crows arrived, brot some 
little meat & a few robes 

Men. 19 — Snow. Excavating the bank & cleaning up the Calf 
house, quite a party of Crows arrived, brought in a 
few robes & a quantity of meat, it Appears that 
we are going to be troubled with those pests the 
whole Winter, they have been coaxing us to build 
trading houses for them & now that they have them 
they will not trade but intend to trade here. Expect- 
ing waggons from F Benton 

Tues. 20 — The Crows remained all day a party of Grosventres 
arrived Enroute for the Crow Camp — Carpenters 
getting out timbers for Sleighs 

Wed. 21 — The Grosventres left for the Crows 

Thurs. 22 — Some Crows came on a begging expedition but got 
what the boy shot at hunters brot in the meat of 
two fine cows 

Fri. 23 — Crows coming & going the opposition folks arrived 
from the Blackfeet, they Say our boats had not got 
up when they left, they came down in twenty Six 
days, report the Snow deep above 

Sat 24 — Clear fine day Express from St Louis arrived but 
nothing for me the Grosventres arrived on thier way 
home, the Crows gave them a great many horses 



i 



FORT SARVY jOrRNAL 151 

November 1855. 

Sun. 25 — J. C Rolette Started above to take charge of the 
Winter houses. Mr Meldrom is to come down 

Men. 26 — Clear & warm Some meat traded our hunters killed 
two fine cows 

Tues. 27 — Clear & pleasant Snow dissapearing- fast making 
a road on the ice. hunters killed one cow 

Wed. 28 — finished road across the river in the Evening Mr 
E T Denig & family, Mess Morgan--'^ Robt Denig 
& Labombarde232 arrived from St I.ouis Via St 
Pauls & Red river having been nearly three months 
on thier trip 

Thurs. 29 — Same weather nothing worth recording 
Fri. 30— Dull Dull dull - - 

December 1855 

Sat. 1 — Clear & pleasant Cadotte & Bompard start for the 
Winter houses to bring down the horses. 

Sun. 2 — Fort Union pretty well filled up upwards of 130 
souls living in the fort High wind Cleaned up fort 
Some Assinaboins came in 

Men. 3 — Regular spring weather traded considerable from 
the Crows, the Crows had a war dance in the Fort 

Tues. A — the Crows are quite a bore the bother the life out 
of every one in the fort except myself 

Wed. 5 — Crow Camp moved across the river 

Thurs. 6 — Some little trading going on 

Fri. 7 — Clear & warm the Crows very troublesome 

Sat. 8 — Cloudy the Wagon from the Trading house came in 

Sun. 9 — Snow in the morning Cleared up in the afternoon 

Mon. 10 — Snow Some Crows came with a present of 50 robes 
to pay for shooting the Dutchman 



152 FORT SARPY lOURNAL 



December 1855. 



Tues. 11 — Snow working on the road across the river, but 
little going on 

Wed. 12 — Clear & pleasant Some little trade going on 

Thurs. 13 — Fort filled with Crows A Cree arrived with a 
stolen horse Chiene came from the Winter houses 

Fri. 14 — Clear the Blackfoot Wagons in charge of Mr Rose 
Arrived As also Bricks — Stones — Missy 

Sat. 15 — high Winds all day but little trade 

Sun. 16 — Clear & cold quite a quiet day but few Indians 

Men. 17 — Same Chene & three others started to Ft Benton 

Tues. 18 — Cold Bombard & Degnue^^s started to Rolette's 

Wed. 19 — Snow & wind a Crow Buck shot a ( ?) 

Berkshire Boar for sport "Oh the Brute. 

Thurs. 20 — Snow decidedly the coldest day this far Our hunters 
killed two cows — Crows hunting 

Fri. 21 — Clear & cold Thermometer stood at 29 below zero 
packed the Blackfeet Wagons 

Sat. 22 — Snow during the night 30 below zero Buffaloa 
plenty around the Fort our hunters killed 4 cows, 
the Crows stole the meat of two Rose has some 
horses missing 

Sun. 23 — 22 below zero Mr Riter a little indisposed Crows 
& our hunters slaying the Bufifalos 

Men. 24 — Mr Rose started to Ft Benton with 6 waggons four 
horses in each I propheysy that he will never reach 
Milk River without a relay of horses no animals in 
the world can stand such weather Rose thinks not — 
we will see 

Tues, 25 — Clear & cold a quiet Christmas 

Wed. 26 — Dobies Expedition started for Ft Campbell 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 153 

December 1855. 

Thurs. 27 — Some little Meat trade going on 

Fri. 28 — hunters killed 2 cows Bompard & Degnue started 
to the Winter houses 

Sat. 29 — Cold our hunters killing Bufifaloa 

Sun. 30 — Snow trading Meat 

Mon. 31 — Snow & high wind — dull dreary times 

January 1856 

Tues. 1 — Hail Happy New Year we had a nice little Rail 
last night No salutes fired on acount of Bufiflo being 
so plenty — No grog being on hand the consequence 
was that all hands kept sober 

Wed. 2— Clear & cold Bufiflo plenty 

Thurs. 3 — Thermometer stood at 34 below zero Bufifaloa thick 
close to the fort 

Fri. 4 — Clear &: cold got in the meat of 4 cows 

Sat, 5 — Stormy day nothing going on 

Sun. 6 — Cold & Stormy Two Assinaboins arrived 

Mon. 7 — this has been the worst day I ever saw the wind 
blew a hurricane you cannot see six inches the 
snow has filled the air T am alarmed for our people 
from Rolettes 

Tues. 8 — Clear & cold Our people came in at dusk they were 
caught in yesterday's storm seven horses & two 
oxen frose to death & the party came near sharing 
the fate of the animals. A little child, the Daughter 
of the late Col A. B. Chambers^^* was brought in 
by them, its Mother had thrown it away poor little 
thing it was near gone completely chilled through. 
I took charge of it & intend to keep it 

Wed. 9 — I started out to bring in the Sleighs left by our 
folks — got to the place cut away the dead horses 
& camp'd at little muddy 



154 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

January 1856. 

Thurs. 10 — 1 find I frose my face yesterday Started & g-ot safe 
to F Union 

Fri. 11 — Cloudy & pleasant Thermonu'ter only 6 below zero 

Sat. 12 — Clear & pleasant Some trading- .^-oing^ on Crows a 
i^reat bore 

Sun. 13 — preparing to start to Rolettes 

Men. 14 — Started with three men & three Sleighs for Roletts 
post camp'd at Cote Trambeleau^^-'' 

Tues. 15 — Made a late start folowed on the ice & camp'd early 
in the point above little Muddy 

Wed. 16 — Started early Camp'd at McKenzies old houses^-'^*^ 
Ice hard travelling- 

Thurs. 17 — Made a g-ood day & camp'd at the foot of Henry's 
cut 

Fri. 18 — Made an early start left the river & took the prararie 
snow over a foot deep our horses stood thier work 
bravely Arrived at Rolettes late in the afternoon 
I learn here that Rose is a short distance above 
with his wagons tliirteen of his horses are dead & 
all the others so poor they have to be lifted up 

Sat. 19 — Still at Rolettes Indians hunting well 

Sun. 20 — Keeping Rolette in hot water what a niny 

Men. 21 — Started for the fort with three trains loaded with 
Tongues Camp'd at the foot of Henry's cut 

Tues. 22 — U)ok the ice as far as McKenzies housi-s left it 
thier took the prairie & cam])'d at the little Mudd}- 

Tues. 23 — Met a war party of Crows on the hunt of Black- 
feet that had stolen some horses I told them it 
was not Blackfeet but Crees. they kept on 1 ar- 
rived at the fort all right 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 155 

January 1856. 

Thurs. 24 — Cold morning fort full of Crow loafers no robes — 
dull times the settee in the office affords a fine 
lounge for those Indans who poor fellows have to 
wait often some Minutes for thier coffee As that 
piece of furniture is not of unlimited length some 
are obliged to sleep standing whilst others find a 
more comfortable snoozing place on the floor among 
the dogs. Sugar & credit much in demand the 
former to drink the health of the fort the latter 
merely to have something to be remembered by 

Fri. 25 — Cold & dull nothing doing 

Sat. 26 — Started for Rolettes with three Sleigh loads of Mer- 
chandise Camp'd above the little muddy Some fifty 
Crows camp'd with me they acted well 

Sun. 27 — Started early a Storm came up early in the day 
Camp'd at Herveys Point-^" 

Men. 28 — laid by all day Still Stormy 

Tues. 29 — Started early made good time Camp'd at the old 
Burnt Houses, in the night some Assinaboins came 
in with napper poor fellow got caught out in the 
storm of Monday & got froze — poor napper is a 
goner. 

Wed. 30 — Started & got to Rolettes about 10 M Napper ar- 
rived but died as he got home 

Thurs. 31 — Feby — Snow & wind — Poudirie--'^ 

February 1856 

Fri. 1— Still Stormy 

Sat. 2 — Stormy & cold — Still playing Rolette 

Sun. 3 — fine cold day Started & camp'd at Henry's cut — 
Mr Fool Bear & wife Old Peke Dogs lodge & 
Squaw followed me 



156 FORT SAKPV jOl'RXAL 

February 1856. 

Mon. 4 — Started killed a cow for Peke's dogs & Squaw — 
camp'd at little muddy 

Tues. 5 — got to the Fort all right killing hut three dogs on 
the trip 

Wed. 6 — clear & cold — fort full of loafing Crow Indians 

Thurs. 7^-clear & pleasant the Crows lost upwards of 100 
head of horses last night Supposed to be stolen by 
the Blackfeet a party of Crows started in pursuit 
of the Blackfeet 

Fri. 8 — Snow — A Crow returned with three of the horses 
stolen — they had given out & was left 

Sat. 9 — Clear no news of the Crows as yet 

Sun. 10 — Snowing & dull times 

Mon, 11 — Same weather considerable trade going on 

Tues. 12 — High wind the Crows returned with all the horses 
& one Scalp Very little trade a brisk Scalp dance 
going on 

Wed. 13 — clear & pleasant Crows dancing in the fort all day 
preparing to start to Rolette 

Thurs. 14 — Started found but little snow on the Prairie & con- 
siderable water on the ice Camp'd at little Muddy 

Fri. 15 — Started found hard work no snow Camp'd at 
Harvey's Point 

Sat. 16 — Started «&: travelled through about a foot of water 
horses falling every step came to two feet water & 
turned back left the drivers to bring the teams to 
little Muddy & myself started to F L'nion to re- 
port — found Mr Wray had arrived with express for 
St Louis 

Sun. 17 — Started with two horses to bring the goods back to 
Ft Union got to little Muddy & slept the night 
I found my drivers there goods all safe 



FORT SARP\' JOURNAL 157 

February 1856. 

Mon, 18 — Started & arrived at Ft Union 

Tues. 19 — Writings letters for "home "Sweet "home" Dauphin 
came up to take the St Louis express as far as Fort 
Clark News came of a fight between the Blackfeet 
& Assinaboins one of each was killed 

Wed. 20 — Clear & pleasant a party of Assinaboins arrived 
with the Body of napper & the Bears son kill'd in 
the fight with the Blackfeet 

Thurs. 21 — Clear 8z fine Some Assinaboins left Dauphin left 
with the express for St Louis I started for Rolettes 
with pack horses Mr Wray started express for Ft 
Benton campd at little Muddy 

Fri. 22 — hard travelling Mr Wray's feet very sore camp'd 
at Henry's cut 

Sat. 23 — got as far as big Muddy seen that it would be dan- 
gerous to cross my mules Sent to Rolette for his 
cart carried the goods over & returned Slept at 
the old Burnt Wintering houses some Assinaboins 
past & told me that the Crows & Blackfeet had a 
brush the Crows got three scalps a Crow boy got 
kill'd 

Sun. 24 — Started early picked up a cart that was left by 
Bompard camp'd little Muddy 

Mon. 25 — Arrived at Ft Union foun the fort full of Crow 
Indians dancing the three scalps taken in the late 
battle 

Tues. 26— Cloudy considerable water on the Ice the Crows 
are afraid to cross Dobey's in the Crow camp trad- 
ing contrary to law 

Wed. 27 — Slight snow &; cold the crossing in tolerable good 
order a trading party of Assinaboins arrived 

Thurs. 28 — Fort full of Crow loafers in search of Mush & 
cofifee but little trade 



158 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

February 1856. 

Fri. 29 — Cloudy & snow a large party of Assinaboins ar- 
rived with a quantity of robes — fort full of Crows 
& Assinaboins 

March 1856 

Sat. 1 — The Assinaboins left after trading all thier robes 
Old Greyhead came over with his robes & as usual 
he was hard to get through with — got the rheuma- 
tism 

Sun. 2 — a few robes traded I am still unwell sent a few 
goods to Rolettes 

Mon. 3 — High wind but still trade going on 

Tues. A — Clear & cold six lodges of Assinaboins came here 
to stay untill they dress thier robes 

Wed. 5 — Traded all day the Crows pretty well cleaned out 
of thier robes self in good health 

Thurs. 6 — Clear Crow trade winding up 

Fri. 7 — Eight Crow Chiefs got dress'd by Ft Union Bears 
Head, Grey Head — Dogs Head — Long Horse^^s — 
White Thigh24o, Four Dances & the Iron Boy As 
also High Pumpkins Crow trade finished 

Sat. 8 — "Glorious "News! Great Victory!! Grand illumi- 
nation to take place this Evening Crows Evacuated 
Fort Union. After a series of unheard efforts, the 
Band of Crow Indians raised camp & left carrying 
with them the best wishes of the Fort never to see 
thier snouts again. Mr Kipp gave them a certificate 
for good behavior to show the U S Agt had I 
drawn it up it would read something like this 

This is to certify that the same Crow Indians 
are a lousy, thieving. Beggarly set of Rascals They 
shot a dutchman Kill'd a Boar cut up two car- 
riages stole everything they could lay thier hands 
on. Begged & Bothered Mr. Kipp to death got 



i 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 159 

March 1856. 

credits & never paid run everywhere through the 
Fort insulted & annoyd every one Amongst those 
that particularly distinguished themselves by mean- 
ness the first is Rotten Tail vi^ho w^ith his infernal 
Old Sow of a wife has been a torment to the traders 
besides cheating them out of thirty robes, the next 
is Four Dances who is a grumbling disagreeable 
troublesome beggarly rascal & ready to cheat & 
steal whenever an opportunity offers — The rest are 
a thought better in some respects but the whole may 
be put down as the Horrid Tribe 

It is but just to say that in this flock of black 
sheep there are a few white ones The Dogs Head 
is the best Indian on the Upper Missouri Old Grey 
Head sticks to the Fort gives all his robes & takes 
care to get well paid Long Horse Pumpkins White 
Thighs & Iron Boy may be classed among the re- 
spectable men but they have no command over thier 
children 

The Bears Head is a good easy man & lets his 
people do as they please and the consequence is 
that the Bucks are raping the Squaws in broad day 
light in every corner without regard to lookers on 
indeed they seem to prefer witnesses to the opera- 
tion 

The women are all Whores, the Young Bucks 
impudent Scoundrels, the children noisy rabble the 
Old rips Thieves And the elderly portion having 
run thier course in these things, have now settled 
down to begging at which they excel all other tribes 

Sun. 9 — Fort looks deserted P Chane & two others arrived 
from Fort Benton, prospects good as regards the 
Robe trade 

Mon. 10 — A slight snow storm 

Tues. 11 — Commenced making packs what Robes we got from 
the Crows are without exception the worst lot of 
robes I have even seen — heretofore the Crows were 



160 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

March 1856. 

famed for making fine robes — but opposition has not 
only ruined the trade but spoild them — thier robes 
are but half dress'd 

Wed. 12 — Very cold too much so to make ])acks 

Thurs. 13 — Some little snow nothing doing 

Fri. 14 — Cloudy & cold river rising 

Sat. 15— Cloudy & cold dull 

Sun. 16 — Somewhat milder 

Men. 17 — Making packs two Assinaboins arrived from the 
Band de CanotsS^i 

Tues. 18 — Cloudy & warm got in the meat of a Bull & cow 

Wed. 19 — The Far famed old Assinaboin Astrologer Dry Bones 
predicts that in nine nights from this three White 
men will arrive with dispatches from below 

Thurs. 20 — My Birth day & a beautiful day it is 

Fri. 21 — Very pleasant finished the packs 

Sat. 22 — Cloudy & Windy Ducks coming in quite Respect- 
able numbers. Dug graves for the dead & buried 
them 

Sun. 23 — Clear & windy first ducks kill'd 

Men. 24 — Stormy & snow first geese seen 

Tues. 25 — Clear & pleasant river rising 

Wed. 26 — river still rising Hunters out 

Thurs. 27 — cloudy & windy Hunters returned with the meat 
of 2 cows press'd 141 packs 

Fri. 28 — clear & windy pressing packs 

Sat. 29 — cloudy & windy pressing packs 

Sun. 30 — quite a snow storm river fell 4 feet Ice strong on 
the Missouri 

Men. 31 — A beautiful day March died like a lamb 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 161 

April 1856 

Tues. 1 — Cloudy & Windy Ice beginnino- to start 

Wed. 2 — from appearances the river must be gorged above — 
Bars full of ice water receding rapidly — but little 

current 

Thurs. 3 — Windy in the morning but warm & calm in the 
afternoon Caulking Mackinaw 

Fri. 4 — Pleasant day launched boat & rigged her to start 
to Rolettes in the morning 

Sat. 5 — clear & windy Boat started the men going up to 
the Blackfeet with me will go on the Boat as far 
as Rolettes Myself will start on Monday & over- 
take them 

Sun. 6 — Clear & warm Louis Rivias arrived with Express 
for the States, he says that Maj Hatch & Mr Clark 
will be here in a day or so & that two men coming 
down are to go back with me so I shall not be able 
to start tomorrow 

Men. 7 — A beautiful day doing nothing 

Tues. 8 — Last evening turned out bad & stormy A dreadfull 
snow storm this day 

Wed. 9 — Cleared ofif & turned out warm e^ pleasant in the 
evening Mr Kipp rec'd letters from Messrs Hatch 
& Clark— it appears that they are at the little Muddy 
Eleven of thier horses perished in the storm of 
Tuesday As an Assinaboin camp is close to them 
Mr Kipp wrote them to come in at once 

Thurs. 10 — Major Hatch & Mr Wilson & party arrived a little 
before day Making preparations to start in the 
morning 

Fri. 11 — every appearance of a storm Started at 10 o clock — 
about 12 M commenced raining — rained about one 
hour & turned to snow Snowed steady & tremen- 
dous hard untill day light — Camp'd on the Cote- 
Tramp-Leau. Made about six miles. 



162 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

April 1856. 

Sat. 12 — Started late Snow over a foot deep. Cross'd little 
Muddy came on & camp'd at Ash Island 

Sun. 13 — Started early Arrived at the Big Muddy found it 
high made a lodge Skin Baggage & cross'd our 
luggage safely — Swam over & came on to Rolettes 
found that the Boat had left about two hours I find 
the ten men here that is to go up with me — Chane 
Snow Blind from the time we left the Fort untill 
we got here we had nothing to eat 

Mon. lA — Still at Rolettes houses Chane some little better I 
hardly know what to do with the man that Mr 
Kipp sent to assist in bringing down the Boat he 
is unwilling to go down by himself & I cannot spare 
a man to go with him — the consequence is that he 
will have to go up to Ft Benton 

Tues. 15 — had some difficulty to find our Horses — found them 
at last & Travelled against a strong west wind — 
camp'd early at the head of Frenchman's Point — 
every prospect of Another Storm — kill'd 2 geese & 

1 Bull 

Wed. 16 — Made an early start come to River Au Trembe took 
dinner made a raft & cross'd Kill'd an Antelope 

2 geese & 1 Bull 1 Elk camp'd on the first Fork 
above River Au Trembe 

Thurs. 17 — Made an early start Kill'd a fat Bull Noon'd at the 
Lake, raised camp & came on to the Big Gully — 
kill'd 2 Brant 

Fri. 18 — Made an early start came to the first creek above 
Wolf Point & noon'd — caught up & came on to the 
Porcupine of the Miss, kill'd a cow & Bull each 
man took his load on his back — Our old Cut Ear 
is about giving out 

Sat. 19 — Fine day — Started early Came on Milk River & 
noon'd — packed up & started Chene kill'd a cow 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 163 

April 1856. 

Sent ten men to pack in some meat camp'd on the 
Porcupine of Milk River Grass excellent Some of 
my Dutchman distinguished themselves in the way 
of slaughtering Hare & Sage Cocks 

Sun. 20 — Fine day made an early start noon'd opposite Tiger 
Butes--'- — Camp'd on the first creek below Willow 
Creek — One of my horses pretty well knocked up — 
Kill'd an Antelope & Bull 

Men. 21 — Started in good season Kill'd two cows on Willow 
Creek & noon'd — both the cows had young calves 
the boys brought them with along untill we camp'd 
for the night Camp'd about twelve miles below the 
foot of the Big Bend the Boys kill'd thier calves & 
had a jolly feast 

Tues. 22 — Started at the usual time Kill'd an Antelope below 
Sand Creek Cross'd Sand Creek & took dinner 
mired one of my horses — Came to the upper crossing 
made rafts & cross'd Milk River — camp'd early at 
the crossing 

Wed. 23 — Started late owing to my horses having strayed 
from camp took out from Milk River — Stop'd to 
dinner Started again kill'd three cows & a Bull 
camp'd on Beaver creek243 

Thurs. 24 — Made an early start came on to Beaver creek in a 
severe snow storm camp'd about 11 o clock Snow- 
ing hard & continued snowing untill 12 o clock in 
the night I am alarmed for my horses 

Fri. 25 — Cleared up fine morning Our Horses lost all hands 
out in search of them — prospects look gloomy I am 
afraid we will have to pack our things on our backs 
if such is the case our trip will be any thing but 
pleasant about three O clock the last party came 
in with out finding them I immediately started ex- 
amining well with my glass & found the mule and 
old Crop Ear feeding with Buffaloa got to camp 



164 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

April 1856. 

after dark & found my little Black had come in — 
r think Black had a fit in the night & fell in the 
creek Scaring the others off — he has had three 
severe fits since I left F U — Kill'd 3 cows & 1 Bull 

Sat. 26 — Made a good start cross'd the creek took the cut 
& got to the head of the Big bend & noon'd there — 
made about ten miles after dinner & camp'd on a 
small creek & directly opposite little Rocky Moun- 
tain — The Bears Paw presented itself but at a great 
distance kill'd 4 Bulls 

Sun. 27 — Made a fine start & got along well made fifteen 
miles good & took dinner — Started again and made 
about ten miles & camp'd on Milk River kill'd one 
cow & one Bull made about 28 miles 

Men. 28 — Made a good start came above the upper of the 
two Forks & noon'd kill'd a cow Started again & 
made about twelve miles & camp'd in an excellent 
place no BufTaloa in sight but we have plenty of 
meat 

Tues. 29 — Started about the usual time & had got but a short 
distance when we discovered some Indians on horse 
back coming to us — ^they proved. to be Bloods & the 
camp is a short distance ahead — came on to the 
camp & was treated well by those hitherto Scoun- 
drels I staid but one hour they trid to persuade 
me to stay all night — I learned that the Blackfoot 
camp was a short distance ahead I kept along the 
river untill I discovered the Blackfoot & Searces-"** 
camps then I struck out & came on the River about 
five miles above the camps & slept I found two 
young Bloods hid in the bushes they told me they 
were chaced by a party of North Assinaboins they 
wanted to leave in the night but I prevailed on them 
to remain all night with me 



FORT SARPY jOl^RNAL 165 

April 1856. 

Wed. 30 — g^ot up before daylight & started the hills covered 
with Blackfeet & Bloods in search of the Assina- 
boins none of them came to me — I presume they 
thought I was unprofitable Stock & would cost them 
more than it would bring — came on to the upper 
crossing & noon'd. Started Struck the old trail & 
camp'd on Little Beaver Creek. ^^s Water grass & 
camp excellent Kill'd a fine Reaver & several Hares 
& Prairie chickens 

May 1856 

Thurs. 1 — Sent John Bill out for the Horses he lost himself 
without finding the horses waited an hour or 
so & sent out more men they soon returned with 
the horses. Sent out five men to hunt for Bill 
waited an hour or so & the men came in with Bill 
went on to the Cotton Wood's & took breakfast 
Started & kill'd two cows & one Bull — came on to 
the Box Elder & camp'd rain 

Fri. 2 — Rained pretty much all night dried our bedding a 
little & started late — Came to the Spring about two 
O clock — cooked & eat Saddled up & came on the 
Marias at sun set — found it fordable made this day 
forty nine miles — I have been reserving this for one 
days work for my Dutchman in order to try thier 
bottom — a good deal of grumbling & some sore 
legs — rain'd at intervals through the day 

Sat. 3 — Started late forded the Marias came on in the rain 
to the Crokamgena Stop'd wash'd Shirted & eat 
met a Grosventre & Squaw — arrived at the fort 
about 11 a. m. found Mess Dawson Rose & Wray 
all well 

Sun. A — Paid visit to Fort Campbell Seen Bricks Mother 
Father Brothers & Sisters — they are living in the 
Fort & are a fine familv 



166 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

May 1856. 

Mon. 5 — Hricks Father & Mother paid me a visit & pre- 
sented me with a fine Mare heavy with foal & a 
splendid three year old colt — Bought a fine Chest- 
nut Sorrell from Mr Dawson 

Tues. 6 — Making preparations to start to Fort Union in 
charge of a large Band of Horses Mr Rose gave 
me a fine Dark Bay Horse 

Wed. 72*^ — Started from Fort Benton for Fort Union Having 
39 Horse A F Co— 26 Mr Bird— 14 Rivias— 4 Cham- 
bers — 3 Champagne & a number of colts 

Wed. 7 — Came to the Marias cross'd & rested our horses & 
cooked dinner — Started & camp'd on the Miss. — I 
intend passing through the Bears Paw B Cham- 
pagne had a severe fit in the night made 25 miles 

Thurs. 8 — Started late owing to the indisposition of B Cham- 
pagne he is very weak came on & noon'd on Sand 
creek — Started & was soon overtaken by Bricks 
Father he wants to go down with me I persuaded 
him to return pass'd the Grosventre camp none 
came to see us but I am afraid of visitors in the 
night camp'd on Eagle creek^^T made about 30 
miles 

Fri. 9 — a great deal of trouble to find our horses found 
them all at last Started late & had considerable 
trouble with my horses pottered along & camp'd 
on Dog river^^s Some appearance of rain — A good 
many Grosventre pass'd us on thier return from hunt- 
ing and with but little meat report no buflflo close 
My mare had a fine foal made about 10 miles 

Sat. 10 — Some Grosventre came to us last night & more this 
morning gathered up my horses or at least I think 
I gathered them all a great many Grosventres horses 
being with mine it was with difficulty that I got 
them collected tried several times to count them 
but they keep moving so that it is impossible to get 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 167 

May 1856. 

tlie correct count 1 should not be surprised to find 
that I have lost two or three rain'd pretty much 
all day came within about eight miles of the foot 
of the Gap of the Bears Paw Made about 20 miles 
My young colt travels well kill'd an antelope 

Sun. 11 — Gathered up my horses & found I had two missing 
Started out & found them in a gap of the mountain 
Started & proceeded very slow Shocking hilly & 
steep gullies camp'd early on a creek that runs at 
the foot of the Bears Paw Eleven Grosventres over- 
took us among them was a Brother of Bricks — he 
gave me a splendid Black runner I gave him my 
chestnut made about 10 miles — one Grosventre 
kill'd a bufflo Slept with us 

Men. 12 — Started as soon as possible came on to the little 
Rocky Mountain & noon'd had our horses caught 
saddled & was about to start when B. Champagne 
had another severe fit campd at our nooning camp 
— Made 12 miles — horses all right 

Tues. 13 — P\)und all my horses without difficulty Saddled & 
packed up & found B Champagne unable to start 
remaind untill 10 O clock & started went about 
eight miles and campd for the day as Champagne 
was unable to sit his horse campd under little Rocky 
Mt — killd 4 Bulls one of the Co horses got badly 
torn by wolves 8 miles 

Wed. 14 — Champagne very low I do not think we will be able 
to get him to Fort Union alive — Made a travios for 
B Champagne & had got but a short distance when 
it broke Sent back for more poles & repaired it 
went about 5 miles when we came across some 
excellent poles made an excellent travios & started 
campd at the foot of the gap of the little Rocky Mt 
Made 15 miles Champagne very low all night 15 
miles 



168 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

May 1856. 

Thurs. 15 — Started early considering all drawbacks came out 
of the little Mountain came about eight miles when 
every appearance of an approaching storm made us 
pick a good encampment Campd for the day on 
Snake creek fine grass tolerable water & any quan- 
tity of Snakes kill'd two cows & feasted on Marrow 
Bones — Boudin &c Made 8 miles 

Fri. 16 — Started very late say Eight Oclock Champagne very 
low & in great pain you can hear his screams a 
long distance about ten O clock he had another 
spasm fortunately we were near water Stopd about 
three hours in the interim C had another severe 
atack Started from our nooning & travelled well 
for three hours Campd on Cottonwood I intend 
pushing in the morning for the nearest point of 
Miss River in order to have water on hand for the 
poor Invalid. My calculation is to make Milk River 
below the Grand Tour-^^ early tomorrow I am 
afraid Champagne will not last over forty eight 
hours Made 18 miles Grass poor kill'd 2 Bulls & 
2 cows Champagne very low in the night horses 
stampeded 

Sat. 17 — Started late Champagne some better came on the 
dry fork & campd for the day, As it was very hot 
& fatiguing for the sick man Made 12 miles Kill'd 
1 Bull 1 Antelope 

Sun. 18 — Started at our usual time when 1 came to examine 
my horses I found a favorite one missing rode out 
& found him killed from what cause I cannot 
imagine he was lying with his head in the water — 
Came on & struck the Miss River in the bad lands 
campd early grass & watering place good I hope 
to see Mr Dawsons Boats pass to put Mr Cham- 
pagne on board he appears to be some little better 

Men. 19 — I find as the country has become familiar to me 
that I am about twenty five miles above Bute Round 



I-ORT SARPY JOURNAL 169 

May 1856. 

the day was very hot travelled about twelve miles 
& camped on the jfirst fork above round Bute kill'd 
a good Bull 12 miles. 

Tues. 20 — An unpleasant day intensely hot two horses gave 
out in the Travois before 11 A M Noon'd on the 
Miss — after coming about Eight miles — on coming 
directly opposite Bute Round I seen the fires of Mr 
D's boats the must have camp'd there on Sunday 
last My Black that I took up with me had another 
fit I neglected to note in yesterday's news that he 
had a fit & came near killing old man Bird Cham- 
pagne a good deal better he intends trying it on 
horseback tomorrow T think he is too weak to try 
it but he thinks to the contrary Made 16 miles 

Wed. 21 — Found my horses far from camp and as a matter 
of course made a late start about 11 a. m. com- 
menced raining we kept on in the rain untill 12 
when we stopped & put up our lodge cleared up 
about 2 p. m. Started at three & kept on untill Sun- 
down camp'd in the prairie — grass the best we have 
had since I left Fort Benton Champagne worse 
made 15 miles 

Wed. 21— Kill'd two deer & one fat Bull 

Thurs. 22 — Started very late say 9^2 Oclock Champagne very 
low noon'd after making about ten miles — Saddled 
& gathered up my horses & made ten miles more — 
killing two good cows & one Elk Champagne some 
better we are now two & half points above Milk 
River good grass & watering place made 20 miles 

Fri. 23 — Started late & made several stoppages came on to 
the mouth of Milk River & noon'd could not cross 
too miry went up to the little Porcupine^^o & 
camp'd in some old forts grass very good — kill'd 
two Doe Elk & caught thier calves — 15 miles 



170 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

May 1856. 

Sat. 24 — last night B Champagne had another fit this morn- 
ing he is very weak the consequence is a very late 
start say 10^/2 came on to the Porcupine of the 
Miss & camp'd kill'd a very fat Bull this has been 
a very cold day — Made 15 miles 

Sun. 25— a good deal of rain in the night — this morning found 
twenty of my horses about ten miles from camp 
last night they took a regular Stampede Starte about 
noon got but a short distance when another Shower 
came on we kept on at a good pace & got to Wolf 
point-^i in the rain & campd fine grass & water — 
20 miles 

Men. 26 — had considerable trouble in collecting my horses 
that is what is left last night during the rain some 
Indians stole 14 horses belonging to the Am F Co 
One of Mr Birds two of B Champagne & my two 
best horses I think they were stolen by Blkfeet 
or Blood indians I followed thier tracks for fifteen 
miles found where they had made a short stop to 
change horses — they were going at full speed 
nothing less than two of thier nappers will satisfy 
me — Started 11 a m & got but a short distance 
when I found a Beautifull cream mare but old Bird 
chiselled me out of her — let him have her & little 
good may she do him — Camp'd at the Govt Camp 
— Made 15 miles — killd a bull 

Tues. 27 — Started early & had gone one mile when Mr 
Dawsons boats hove in sight — I waited untill they 
came up — put B. Champagne & wife on board took 
out a lad, son of old Birds to help drive the horses 
cross'd River Au Trembe & noon'd where they kill'd 
the Frenchman Kill'd an Antelope deer & two 
Fawns & three cows — Started & seen Mr Dawsons 
boats — campd on the Big Muddy — Made 40 miles 

Wed. 28 — Swam over the big muddy — Stopped on the other 
side a couple of hours to dry off — Saddled up met 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 171 

May 1856. 

Ramsey & some men at the little Muddy, got to 
Fort Union at two in the afternoon — found Mr Daw- 
son there all well — this has been the hardest trip I 
have ever made never did I work so hard both men- 
tally & bodily as I have done this Voyage— made 
36^ miles. 

Thurs. 29— the Folks in the fort all busy except myself— I am 
acting the gentleman 

Fri. 30 — Making preparations to start to hunt my horses I 
lost in my recent trip from F Benton — I hope I shall 
be able to get them — Dress'd Bricks genteely 

Sat. 31 — left Fort Union at 10 a. m. to hunt my horses I am 
acompanied by Chas Couquette Mr Dawson's boats 
left for St. Louis at daylight— Mr L F. Wray left for 
F Benton in charge of a load of goods for that place 
campd at the little Muddy with Mr Wray I intend 
to go with him untill he crosses the Big Muddy then 
leave him & travel fast — Fine day Made 8 miles 



June 1856 

Sat. 1 — Started early & came on the big Muddy 1 p. m. 
crossed Mr Wray's goods safely & camp'd on the 
opposite side caught some forty or fifty fine fish 
killed several ducks commenced raining about nine 
P. m. & continued to rain or rather pour to day- 
light — made 28 miles 

Men. 2 — dried off Started about 10 a. m. commenced rain- 
ing about 2 p. m. & rained constantly during the 
night kill'd one deer — Camp'd where they kill'd the 
Frenchman — 15 miles 

Tues. 3 — Some difficulty in finding our horses found them in 
the hills — laid by all day Still raining hard kill'd 
1 Elk & 2 deer 



172 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

June 1856. 

Wed. 4 — Made an early start left Mr Wray & his waggon 
travelled hard came on to Wolf Point examined the 
tracks of our lost horses followed them on to the 
Porcupine Seen tracks of men with the horses but 
the last rain has washed the sign that it is impossible 
to follow the trail — gave up the pursuit & returned 
to Govt Camp got in there late in the night Kill'd 
an Elk & eat Chouquette & myself had our horses 
hobbled brot them in about ten or eleven O clock 
& picketed them then laid down & in a few minutes 
our horses got frightened & stampeded we followed 
them in the dark but could not find them — I am 
afraid they are stolen 

Thurs. 5 — got up before day Chouquette & myself took dif- 
ferent directions hunted all day without success 
came back to camp hid our saddles &c. packed our 
blankets, provisions &c. & took it on foot. Camp'd 
on River Au Trembe — made 20 miles 

Fri. 6 — Very sore this morning my right hand severely 
poisoned noon'd at Frenchmans came on to Big 
Muddy found it very high kill'd a deer took the 
skin & tied up our clothes guns & blankets Started 
across the Muddy^had got but a few feet when the 
cramp took me in my left arm — being an expert 
swimmer I paid but little attention to it — I told 
Chouquette to keep on with the pack & I would make 
the shore Some way when he got in the middle of 
the stream the cramp took me in the legs I went 
down twice on coming up I laid my left arm on the 
pack & it turned over & fill'd I told C- to keep on 
with the pack & I would manage to get over — he 
became frightened & let go of the pack which sunk 
to the bottom — I came near drowning but thank 
Providence I got out safe but perfectly naked & 
barefooted forty seven miles of hard travelling be- 
fore me the country full of Prickly Pears & Enemies 
nothing to protect my feet nor even a knife to defend 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 173 

June 1856. 

myself — Chouquette dive & brot up a shirt & pr of 
pants — he got satisfied & left Mosquitoes & horse 
flies very bad — I started at a trot & kept on untill 
ten O clock — the night very cool Chouquette gave 
out — we laid down in the prairie — not to sleep but 
to shiver with the cold — made sixty five miles 

Sat. 7 — got up at day break very cold & stiflF Started C's 
teeth chattering like castanets he begged of me to 
stop untill the sun would get up I consented know- 
ing well what I would suffer from the sun as I was 
entirely naked & he had shoes — pants & shirt started 
when the sun got up & came slow — got to little 
muddy about lO^^ a. m. laid down in the willows 
for a couple of hours could not stand the mosquitoes 
Started C ahead to the Fort to send clothing to me 
kept on & met Mr R Denig with a my horse & a 
suit of clothes one mile from the fort arrived at 
1 p. m. horribly sun burnt — made 17 miles 

Sun. 8 — hobbling around feet sore & body awfully Blistered 

Mon. 9 — the Pain excruciating 

Tues. 10— Still suffering 

Wed. 11 — Some little better 

Thurs. 12 — opened the Blisters about 1>2 galls of water came 
from them 

Fri. 13 — Commenced to feel something like myself 

Sat. 14 — the skin commencing to pull of me 

Sun. 15 — took a short ride 

Mon. 16 — peeled like an onion 

Tues. ly^loing nothing of consequence Bouchie & Chouquette 
returned from the Big Muddy bring my rifle &c 
that I lost on the sixth ult — all right that accounts 
for the stains in this book being as it was one of 
drowned articles 



174 FORI' SARP\ J(JL'RXAL 

June 1856. 

I have not wrote up my journal on acount of my 
being buisy in the meantime ten Assynaboins have 
been kill'd by the Sioux — Sir Geo Gore^^^ arrived 
from a two years hunt both company's boats ar- 
rived — A Missionary Doct Macky & Lady came to 
convert the Indians 

July 1856 

Thurs. 24 — Started with Col Vaughan to hunt up the Crows 
Our party consists of Col Vaughan U S I agt Thos 
Campbell — Louis Bompard — David Carrifell Pete 
Martin^o-'' a Spaniard & myself — Cross'd the Miss 
in Sir George Gore's Boats — drank several glasses 
of Mountain dew with Sir George & camp'd at the 
lake with Lieut Warren^^* ^ party kill'd an ante- 
lope Mosquitoes very bad — 8 miles 

Fri. 25 — Started 4^^ M — noon'd at Cotton Wood creek — ap- 
pearance of rain concluded to camp for the night 
Lieut Warrens party came up & campd close to 
us — kill'd 5 elk — 15 miles 

Sat. 26 — Started 3 a. m. Made 15 miles & noon'd Lieut 
Warrens party came up to us. Started again 3 p. m. 
got up to Bufflo's plenty — kill'd 2 cows campd 
above Brazos-^^ made 30 miles 

Sun. 27 — Started ^3 M — kill'd a cow & noon'd campd for 
night below the Big hills made 30 miles Buff scarce 
Deer & Elk plenty 

Men. 28 — Started 4>4 M travelled fast & noon'd at the head 
of the big hills kill'd a cow Started & camp'd at 
the foot of the first Bad lands 35 miles 

Tues. 29 — Started A]^ killd a big horn in the bad lands — noon'd 
on the point below the second bad lands — Started 
Yzl got through the bad lands & campd below 
Powder River horses very tired made about 15 
miles 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 175 

July 1856. 

Wed. 30 — Started 4^4 noon'd at the foot of the cut hill — 
kill'd 2 Antelope — one being the fattest 1 have ever 
seen — Camp'd for the night at the head of Emills 
Prarie^^® good grass no BuflFaloa made 30 miles 

Thurs. 31 — Started 4j4 came on to the 12 mile prarie & noon'd. 
kill'd a deer & camped at the foot of the Bluffs at 
the head of 12 mile Prarie — made 25 miles 

August 1856. 

Fri. 1 — Very cold morning all hands walked to give warmth 
to our bodies kill'd a large black Tail Buck, noon'd 
a short distance below the Rose Bud. the Col's 
getting very tired of his trip Buff & Elk plenty kill'd 
a cow & concluded to remain for the night as our 
horses are very tired Made 18 miles 

Sat. 2 — Started 4^2 O clock noon'd below the Big Porcu- 
pine — campd early opposite nine Blackfoot creek^'*'^ 
& built a raft all ready to cross the first thing in the 
morning. Made 20 miles 

Sun. 3 — loaded our raft & found ourselves & baggage too 
much for her to stand under built another — cross'd 
our horses over on to a sand bar ourselves cross'd 
over the river took up our raft & swam our horses 
over noon'd at OFallons^^s kill'd a cow & found 
an arrow point in her it has been done lately say 
five days campd opposite the Gap — no sign of 
Crows — made 15 miles 

Mon. A — Started 4>4 O clock took the Gap took breakfast 
7^ Started again 9 M pass'd through the pine 
hills & came on the Big Horn 2 p. m. Seen signs 
of Indians took dinner at the mouth of the Big 
Horn & camped about 8 miles above the mouth kill'd 
a large Bear & 2 fine cubs made 30 miles 

Tues. 5 — Started 4^/^ proceeded but a short distance when 5 
Crows on horseback came to us they were on thier 



176 FORT SARPV lOTRXAL 



August 1856. 



way to the black feet but turned & are going back 
with us they say the camp is on the Little Horn 
camp'd for the night at the mouth of the little Horn 
25 miles 

Wed. 6 — got up early made a raft & cross'd the Big horn 6^/2 
Saddled up & took up the little horn noon'd on the 
little horn about eight miles below the Grass lodge 
creek. 2-"'!* Made our breakfast ofif cherries & coflfee — 
Shaved & shirted in order to meet the Crows — we 
expect to get to the camp this evening Got to the 
Crow camp at dusk found Yellow Belly — Bears 
Head — Dogs Head — Iron Head — Gordon, Horse 
guard & several other men of note amongst them 
they appear to be highly pleased & say they will go 
down with Col Vaughan — made 25 miles 

Thurs. 7 — One of the hottest days of the season our tent 
crowded with Indians Col Vaughan sent four men 
to notify Two Face's camp & the other cam])s — 
Covered With Fat arri\'ed from Two Face's camp 
& says the camp will be in tomorrow I seen a little 
Blackfoot boy^®*' that was taken prisoner by the 
Crows he was much rejoiced to see White men Col 
Vaughan is going to ransom him 

Fri. 8 — Two Face's camp arrived paid a visit to Two Face 
with Col Vaughan he speaks well & is highly 
pleased — as regards his annuities & his having 
Traders on the Yellow Stone. Col Vaughan visited 
all the Principal Chiefs & all speak well The Col 
intends to council them tomorrow the four Crows 
arrived from the other camps & sa\- Thin behind 
will meet us on the Rose Bud — they say they are 
glad to turn back 

Sat. 9 — the camp raised & came down the little horn about 
6 miles We had five horses given us to ride our 
own we drove loose — 6 miles 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 177 



August 1856. 



Sun. 10 — raised camp 8>1 O clock Struck out in the Largie-''' 
& camp'd on a litttle Fork — the camp run Buflfaloa 
— I am in hopes from this out we will have fresh 
meat 12 miles 

Men. 11 — Fine sport yesterday a great many Bufiflos were 
kill'd Several were killed amongst the lodges we 
all had a share of the sport — the camp moved on to 
the Rose Bud run Buffaloa on the way plenty of 
meat and any quantity of fresh tongues — made 15 
miles 

Tues. 12 — Remained in camp all day Squaws buisy drying 
meat skins & cherries — Thin Behind has not come 
yet the Col sent for him 

Wed. 13 — Camp raised early this morning & travelled briskly 
camp'd on the Rose Bud day very warm — grass 
good & water excellent. Some of Thin Behind's peo- 
ple arrived they say each Lodge will be represented 
the Col is very anxious to get down to Fort Union 
& intends to make an early start in the morning — 
Made 15 miles 

Thurs. 142*5- — Camp raised 6>^2 O clock — travelled fast untill 11 
a. m. — Camp stopped & run Buffaloa Started again 
4 p. m. — left the camp We are accom])anied by a 
great number of Crows at the present I cannot form 
an estimate — camped on the Rose Bud — Grass most 
excellent. 18 miles 

Fri. 15 — Started 5>4 o clock kept on at a good pace made 
20 miles & noon'd — took the cut for the Yellow- 
stone & camp'd on a small fork about three miles 
from the Yellowstone Kill'd a few cows Made 40 
miles 

Sat. 16 — Started 5^ O clock came on the Yellowstone & 
took down it Crows run Buffaloa & kill'd quite a 
number Cross'd the river & noon'd at the head of 



178 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

August 1856. 

the 12 mile Prarie Crows run Buflfaloa Camp'd at 
the foot of 12 mile Prarie Crows run Buffaloa 
again making- three runs this day — killing in all 
about 80 cows some very fat — Made 36 miles 

Sun. 17 — Started 6 a. m. noon'd below Emmells fork Buf- 
faloa plenty we intend taking out in the Largie 
in order not to raise the Game on the River. Started 
3y2 O clock took out in the bad lands. Camp'd 
on a dry Fork — found some pools of water & camp'd 
Grass & water poor — Made 35 miles 

Mon. 18 — Started at 4i/^ O clock travelled hard pass'd through 
the bad lands the day was very warm & dusty 
making it disagreeable travelling noon'd on a small 
fork — Grass poor our horses look overworked — 
Started 3 p m & came on a small Fork & camp'd 
Grass excellent. I am in hopes that our horses will 
be in better condition in the morning Made 30 miles 

Tues. 19 — Started 20 m of 5 fine cool morning our horses ap- 
pear much refreshed thanks be to the good grass 
last night — Came on & noon'd at a mud hole water 
miserable grass good — Crows run Bufifaloa & kill'd 
about twenty cows Some very fat — camp'd on a 
cotton wood fork Water excellent the first good 
water we have had since we left the Yellow Stone. 
I neglected to mention in yesterday's note that a 
young Crow was bitten by a Rattle Snake Col 
Vaughan applied some Buffaloa grease to the wound 
& the pain ceased immediately — this morning the 
man's hand is perfectly cured the Col passes for a 
great Medicine man Made 36 miles 

Wed. 20 — Started late on account of the horses being far from 
camp, last night we had a fine shower attended by 
Thunder & Lightning the first rain we had since 
we left Fort Union this shower cool'd the air & laid 
the dust making it pleasant travelling plenty of Buf- 
faloa Crows kill'd some very fat Noon'd on a small 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 179 



August 1856. 



fork water & grass good — A young Crow came into 
camp having been gored by a Bull — camp'd for the 
night on a small fork it commenced raining in the 
night & continued to morning 

Thurs. 21 — Started in the rain — came on to the three cotton 
woods all of us very wet 

Fri. 22 — Arrived at Lieut Warrens Camp he crossed us in 
his Boat reached Fort Union in time for Supper 
learned that the small Pox was raging at Fort 
William 

September 185....(?) 

Appendix. 

Additional Entries in Chamber's Diary. (No date) 

Sept. 16 — Friday left F. Benton camped below Spanish Is- 
land263 rain 

Sat. 17 — Windy made two point killd an antelope 

Sun. 18 — Killed a big Horn camped above the Judith 

Mon. 19 — Came to the Judith Made a cabin on our boat 

Tues. 20 — Still at the Judith killed one wolf & two bear 

Wed. 21 — Left Ft Judith caught one small Beaver killed two 
Bulls Set for wolf & Beavers & came one point 
above Dauphins rapids^^^. rain 

Thurs. 22 — Rain Traps killed five beaver One big Horn — one 
wolf rain 

Fri. 23 — Came on & camped at Cow Island, repaired cabin 
put up the ten bulls. 

Sat. 24 — Drizzly day came above the Island killed one large 
buck Wray arrived others killed two black tail deer 
camped 



180 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

September 185....? 

Sun. 25 — Raised traps found one wolf camp'd in point below 
Rig Island kill'd two elk & one Bull stretched skins 

Mon. 26 — Came on and camp'd on point above Emmells Is- 
land265 dressed skins camp'd for the nig-ht killed 
6 deer. 

Tues. 27 — Hunted the points killed 2 elk & six deer rained 

Wed. 28 — Made three points kill'd five deer & three elk 

Thurs. 29 — Came down one point & i)ut out 28 skins to dry 
kill'd one deer & one Bull. 

Fri. 31(?)Dressd skins & rendered grease started about >4 
3 M. 

October 185... (?) 

Sat. 1 — day cloudy at Frenchmans 

Point killd elk 

Sun. 2 — Made five points put out skins killd 

and then left 

Mon. 3 — Came on in the rain Shall put out to dry 

killd seven deer & one red deer 

Tues. 4 — Came one point below the Muscle Shell killd ten 
elk & 2 deer set for wolf & beaver 

Wed. 5 — Raised traps dressed skins a strange dog came 

to our camp fellow must have been lost 

a long time he could scarcely walk 

Thurs. 6 — Made three packs of elk raised trai)s kill'd three 
bear & 2 deer 

Fri. 7 — Made two points kill'd one elk one deer & 

one wolf 

Sat. 8 — Started late made two points Kill'd two elk one 
deer one wolf beaver — put out skins to dry 

Sun. 9 — Heavy wind laid by all day kill'd one wolf & one 
Beaver 



FORT SARPY lOURNAL 181 



October 185 — ? 



Mon. 10 — Made an early start came one point & took Break- 
fast skiff with men in came 
down killed one buck elk 

Tues. 11 — Parted company with the skiff — made a good run 
killed two wolves & two beaver & one Bull & cow 

Wed. 12 — Strong wind came on to the Round Bute & camped 
kill'd one deer 

Thurs. 13 — Made two points killed seven deer & two wolves 

Fri. 14 — Came on to Featherlands house-'''' killed one deer 
& one wolf 

Sat. 15 — Started from Featherlands house in running close 
to a prarie brought to by a war party of Assina- 
boins — Some of them behaved with Our 

women were in a dangerous situation 

Sun. 16 — We remained in camp discovered fresh 

sign of Buck five on their way 

Mon. 17 — Crossed the river 

Tues. 18 — Raised camp made three points when we had to 
lay by for wind kill'd one deer one antelope two 
wolfs & one red fox 

Wed. 19 — Came on two points Dry Wolf sacrificed 

my interest to Morgan. M. made a cache of the 
Traps Ammunition, Tools &c came on & camp'd 
below Dry Fork killed on Beaver & two Elk 

Thurs. 20 — Made a fair run & camped a short distance above 
the 

Fri. 21 — This morning as we were about starting we heard 
crying a party of Indians we met we crossd over 
to them they proved to be Piegans they had 
of their party been killd by the Assinaboins they 
behaved remarkably well never asked for a single 
thing none of them attempted started made 

points killed an elk & two Porcupine 



182 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

October 185 — ? 

Sat. 22 — Run all day camp'd two Points above River Au 
Trembe 

Sun. 23 — Run again a strong head wind met a few Assina- 
boins on their way hunting camp'd on point below 
Quacking Ash heard drums beating & singing we 
pass'd the Assinaboins without seeing them kill'd 
one deer 

Men. 24 — Took Breakfast at Dolphins came on in the point 
above Frenchman's point Seen an Indian in the 
willows he hid himself camp'd opposite French- 
man's Point 

Tues. 25 — Came on to Rolettes houses^*'' had news of the 
Assinaboins to go to F. Union— camp'd 
above the 

Thurs. 26 — A'erv heavv wind the head of Henrys cut 



Wed. 27 — Strong heavy Wind Camp'd above McKenzies old 
house 

Fri. 28 — Made one point and laid by for wind kill'd two Bulls 
Expended for Outfit 

Boat $50oo Amm 50oo $100.00 

Tobac 25oo Coffee 20oo 45.00 

Sugar 20 Bread 8oo 28.00 

Lodge Skin 6oo Elk Boo 14.00 
Caps 250 Candle moulds 2oo 4.50 

Wick 2oo Ladle loo 3.00 

Matches loo Spade loo 2.00 

Salt 5oo Soap 5oo 10.00 

Pepper 2oo 2oo 4.00 

Tongs 150 Whetstone 2oo 3.50 

Flour 1150 11.50 



$225.50 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 183 

October 185 — ? 

Proceeding: of Council held between Col Vaughan 
for the U. S. Govt & the Principal chiefs & head 
man of the Crow Tribe of Indians held on the Little 
Horn Aug:. 10th, 1856. 

In the winter at one time Thirty Horses at 

another Thirty Horses— another five— again five 

in the Spring nine Crows were kill'd— & 19 horses 
stolen— again fifteen horses were stolen— at another 
time two horses — those were stolen from Bears Head 
camp— from Two Face's camp he had at one time 
twenty Horses stolen at another five horses were 
stolen & one Crow killed all those were taken after 
the treaty was made at the Judith in the fall of 1855 
in all 142 head The Big camp led by Knot-on-the- 
Hand & Thin-Behind have stolen 16 head of horses 
at one time at another 23 head— took a boy prisoner 
& his horse— again 15 head The Crows say that 
the Black foot have four prisoners — two girls & two 
boys 



184 FORT SARPY JOURNAL 

EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL OF TRIP IN SEARCH 
OF THE CROWS, JULY, 1856 
July 1856 

Thurs. 24 — left Fort Union for the Crow Camp — call'd at Fort 
William26s — Old Carafel engaged with Col Vaughan 
was cross'd by Sir George Gore's men — proceeded 
as far as Fox River^^^ & camp'd Liet Warren & 
party were camp'd on Fox River on thier way to 
explore the Yellowstone 

Fri. 25 — Started 4>4 m day intensely hot came on to the 
three Cotton Woods and noon'd Appearance of rain 
concluded to remain for the night — Liet Warren 
overtook us — Mosquitoes very bad 

Sat. 26 — Started 3 m — made 15 miles & noon'd Liet Warren 
overtook us — Started again at 3 p m — Liet Warren 
hail'd in sight — got in to Buffaloa killed 2 cows and 
campd at Pirazos 

Sun. 27 — Started 3^2 killd a cow — Noond 11 ni Started from 
our nooning place 2 p m — camp'd for the night at 
the foot of the Big Hills^^o BuflFaloa Deer & Elk 
plenty 

Men. 28 — Started 4^/2 m travelled fast & noond at the head 
of the Big Hills — killd a cow & campd at the foot 
of the Bad lands below Henry's Cache 

Tues. 29 — Started 43^ Entered the Bad lands killd a Big Horn, 
found it difficult travelling & attended with some 
danger Noon d in the Point below the second bad 
lands Started l^/^ p m got through all the Bad 
Lands & camp'd below Powder River Our Horses 
much fatigued 

Wed. 30 — Started 4^4 Noon'd at the foot of the Cut Hills 
kill'd 2 Antelope one the fattest 1 ever seen camp'd 
for the night at the foot of Enimells Prarie 

Thurs. 31 — Started 4^4 came on to the 12 mile Prarie Sz noon'd 
kill'd a deer and campd at the Bluffs 



FORT SARPY JOl'RNAL 185 

August 1856 

Fri. 1 — Very cold mornins;^ took the Lone Tree Cut-'^ ^ot 
off our Horses & walked in order to keep warm came 
opposite the Rose Bud & camp'd early as our horses 
are very tired kill'd a fine black tail Ruck & a fat 
cow — Elk very plenty 

Sat. 2 — Started 4^2 m Noon VI at the PA^ Porcupine campd 
early opposite the nine Blackfoot creek built two 
rafts all ready to cross the Yellow Stone early in 
the morning" 

Sun. 3 — cool morning Started our Horses over put our 
Baggage on the rafts & cross'd the river took Break- 
fast & started 8 m & noon'd at the O Fallon creek 
killd a cow & found an Arrow Point in her it ap- 
pears to be a late wound — the Arrow Point is made 
after the fashion of the Blackfeet's points — camp'd 
for the night at the mouth of the Big Horn Gap 

Mon. A — Started 4^/2 m entered the Gap Breakfasted 7>j m 
Started 9 m & soon entered the hills — This is really 
the most Sterile country on the American continent 
not a spire of grass to be seen Occasionly a few 
stunted cherries Bushes find soil enough in the 
ravine to take root — in a cluster of those Cherry 
bushes we came across a She Bear & her two cubs — 
we dispatched the Trio but found them poor after 
six hours difificult travelling we came on the Big 
Horn river found that a small crow camp had been 
here some time since — Camp'd for the night on the 
Big Horn 

Tues. 5 — Started 4>^ proceeded a short distance when five 
men on horse Back came rushing out of the Timber 
they proved to be crows on thier way to the Black- 
foot country Col Vaughan told them to return they 
did so without a murmur they say thier camp is 
on the Little Horn River — camp'd for the night at 
the mouth of the little Horn River 



186 FORT SARPY jOl'RXAL 

August 1856. 

Wed. 6 — Rose early went to work & made a raft crossd the 
Big Horn & took up the little Horn — noond on the 
little Horn about 12 miles below the Grass Lodge 
creek — got to the Crow Camp about Sun down 
found a Camp of 130 Lodges & saw some of the 
principal men Among which were the Bear's 
Head — Rotten Tail — Dogs Head — Yellow Belly 
Yellow Dog High Pumpkins Mountain Tail — 
Gordon & the Horse guard gave them a present of 
cofiFe Sugar & Tobaco which was very aceptable 
gave them a small talk told them we came to bring 
them to Fort Union to receive their presents — 
they replied that they were willing to go that a 
Trader from the Platte had been to them & left two 
days ago this man's name is John Scott^^'- it ap- 
pears he told them that those that wished to die he 
would advise to go to Fort I^nion & receive the 
Govt i)resents as the Annuities contained the Small 
Pox but those that wished to live & do well would 
come & trade at the Platte — he would insure them 
plenty of Buffaloa & no Sickness Two Face & Thin 
Behind's Camps took his advice & left for the Platte 
Country Col Vaughan engaged four Crows to follow 
& turn them back 

Thurs. 7 — One of the Cols runners returned having overtook 
Two Face's camp he Two Face turned back & is 
highly pleased to do as his Father wishes him — 
Seen a little Blackfoot Boy that was taken prisoner 
in the Spring — Col Vaughan demanded him — they 
promise to deliver him to Col Vaughan at Fort Union 

Fri. 8 — Two Face's camp arrived Col Vaughan visited him 
he says he will follow his father even should he go 
over a precipice Col V visited all the Principal Chiefs 
in thier Lodges they all appear to be highly pleased 
the three men that Started yesterday came in & Say 
that Thin Behind will meet us on the Rose Bud 



FORT SARPY JOURNAL 187. 

August 1856. 

Sat. 9 — Col Vaui^han held a council with the Chiefs & Head 
men the talk was highly Satisfactory to both Parties 
the camp raised & came down the L Horn 

Sun. 10 — Travelled with the camp the Crows run Huffaloa 
&: kill'd about 60 cows 

Mon. 11 — Camp moved on to the Rose Bud 

Tues. 12 — W'aitin^: for Thin Behind to come up 

Wed. 13 — Camp raised early this morning Thin Behind Sz a 
good representation from his camp arrived each 
Lodge is represented 

Thurs. 14 — travelled with the Camp untill 11 m & noon'd 
Started again at 4 p m left the camp & travelled 
about 10 miles & camp'd for the night we are ac- 
companied by a large number of Crows 

Fri. 15 — Started early Struck out for the Yellow Stone the 
Crows kill'd a great many BuiT camp'd on Box Elder 
a short distance from the Yellow Stone River 

Sat. 16 — Made an early start came on the Yellow Stone 
forded the river & campd at the foot of 12 mile 
Prarie the Crows killd over Sixty very Fat Cows 
to day 

Sun. 17 — Came on to Enimells Fork & took out in the Large — 
Camp'd on Dry Fork 

Mon. 18 — campd on Willow creek Tues. 19 campd on Cotton 
wood — crows killd 40 cows Wed 20 campd on the 
Mamalls-"''' Thurs 21 rain'd all day campd on the 
Yellow Stone 

Fri. 22 — Arrived at Fort Union 



APPENDICES 



i 



i 



APPENDICES 191 

Fort Clarke 
j^j. 5jj. Septr 29th 1855 

I had the honor a short time since of apprising you of my 
return to this place, and of the condition of some of the Indians 
under my charge, yesterday a party of Yanctonias"^""* of Big 
Head" 'Band arrived here, they are a party of a large war 
party that have just returned from an excursion to the Red 
River Half Breeds^^^ They came to me they say for the pur- 
pose of knowing when I will be ready to deliver their Chief and 
principle men their Gov. presents, at the same telling me they 
have just returned from the excursion above, and that they have 
brought in 300 head of Horses stolen from the above people, 
also rising forty Head of Cattle — in telling their story they of 
course make the Half Breeds the aggressors, but from their 
former conduct towards these people and from what I can learn 
from their contradictory statements, there is no doubt that they 
started and with full intent to commit this depredation ; These 
Half Breeds have always been represented as a frugal industrious 
and virtuous people, and they are doubtless brave, and would 
have long since resented the many acts of Hostilities com- 
mitted on them by the Yanctonias, but the Priests of their 
village have always prevented them from doing so — Gov. 
Stephens as you will see in his report speaks of his having met 
with this people on their Hunts and appears to have been highly 
l)leased with them, and seem to advise the right for them to 
hunt on our Territory, as certainly a great number have been 
born and reside Avithin the American line. 

This outrage no doubt has thrown upwards of 100 families 
of these people destitute of the meanes of prosecuting the hunt, 
by which their principal subsistence is derived, and in my 
opinion a sufificient number of U' Troops ought at once to pro- 
ceed to their village now at a place called Long Lake, and 
demand the restoration of the propert}^ stolen, which ought at 
once to be sent back to the rightful owners. I trust and hope 
that your opinion will coincide with mine, and that I shall hear 
that the suggestion has been carried out 

I have the honor to be 

Sir your obt St 

Alfred J. Vaughan 

Ind. Agt. 



192 APPENDICES 

Fort Union 

July 1856 

Sir 

I had the honor of apprising you by the return of the St 
Marys of all matter pertaining to my official duties since she 
left, the entire nation of Assinaboines having assembled at this 
place showing by every act and action the most unbounded 
gratitude to their Great Father for the presents which they 
annually receive, they are a kind nobl and generous people 
showing every wish and inclination to abide their Treaty stipu- 
lations and heed their Great Fathers advice. I do assure you 
sir, it affords me much pleasure to have the means at my com- 
mand to bestow upon a people struggling from their barbourous 
and bemuddled condition to the habits maners and customs of 
the Anglo American, they remained amongst us five days, all 
was peace and harmony. I shall leave on the 24th for the 
crows, I learn they are at the foot of the Mountain some 400 
miles distant, I hope I may succeed in prevailing on them to 
accompany me in, to receive their Two years Annuity present 
as well as succeed in returning safe, for it is as you are apprised 
a dangerous country to pass through. The English Gentle- 
man^'^^ ^vhom you granted a pasport, to pass in and through 
the Ind country will return to your city in a month or so, 
having been in the Ind country from the time you granted him 
a pasport up to the present time the pasport you find was 
granted him the 24th of May 1854 from my construction of the 
intercourse laws he has most palpably violated it. he buil from 
his own confession and that of many of Employees which was 
forty three in number a fort in the crow country some 100 feet 
square and inhabited the same nine months carrying on trade 
and intercourse with the Crow tribe of Ind trading them all 
kinds of Ind Goods Powder & Ball he states, also his men that 
he killed 105 Bears and some 2000 Buffalo Elk & Deer 1600 
he states was more than they had any use for having killed it 
purely for sport. The Inds have been loud in their complaints 
at men passing through their country killing and driving oflf 
their game, what can I do against so large a number of men 
coming into a country like this so very remote from civiliza- 
tion, doing & acting as they please, nothing I assure you 
beyond apprising you of the facts on paper. Should I return 
from the crow country safe I will avail myself of the earliest 
opportunity of apprising you of all the particulars of my trip 

Very respectfully your 

obt St 

A. J. Vaughan 

Ind agt 



APPENDICES 193 

U. M. O.-^' 1856 

Ledger St. Louis Pierre Choteau Jr. and Company. 

Balance due men remaining- in the country from 1855. Trans- 
ferred July 31. 1856 



FORT UNION. 




Alexander Rose 


$300.13 


George Weipert 


349.13 


Vincent Mercure 


13.88 


Joseph Boismenn278 


40.37 


William Keiser 


54.45 


Leandre Belleveau 


372.52 


F. G. Riter 


197.75 


James Chambers 


307.90 


Charles Troudelle 


172.75 


Joniche Barra 


197.25 


Thomas Dull 


150.50 


Vincent Mercure 


213.10 


J. Gourdereau 


312.25 


J. Lorian 


100.00 


Joseph Howard 


10.90 


T. Susnard 


88.27 


Baptiste Racine 


190.38 


Pierre Chaine 


72.00 


Charles Rondain (Mercier)^' 


''•' 110.85 


L. Bomparte 


72.67 


Joseph Ramsay 


36.85 


P. Alvarez 


16.86 


Hugh Monroe 


507.76 


Jacob Smith 


13.88 


Henry Mills 


200.00 


FORT UNION. DR. 




Angus Picotte 


4.18 


Pierre Cadotte 


24.75 


L. Dauphin 


12.00 


J. F. Wray 


39.50 


J. Dagneau 


10.45 


Major Owens 


32.52 



194 APPENDICES 

PIERRE CHOTEAU JR. & CO. 
ST. LOUIS LEDGER BOOK. Auj?. IL 1856 
U. M. O. 
P.alance to Michel Champagne 1855. $1564.50 



U. M. O. 1856 Ralance due to men remaining in tlie country. 
BENTON. 

Alexander Rose $195.25 

Vincent Mercure 517.10 

J. Muller 62.57 

B. F. Racine 179.53 
Hugh Munroe 634.51 
George AA'ippert CWeippert) 407.38 

UNION. 

F. G. Riter 626.75 

C. Rondeau 340.00 
C. Trudell 150.75 
Pierre Chaine 358.00 
Thomas Campbell 141.75 
L. Bompart 134.17 
J. Dagneau 13.55 
J. Barro 268.00 




CHARLES MERCIER (Rondin) 



APPENDICES 



195 



Inventory of Stock the property of P. Chouteau Jr. & Co. U. M. O. on hand at 
Fort Alexander 20th May 1851 

30 pr. 3 pt Sky blue Blankets S. 310 93 " 

8 pr. 3 pt Indo blue Blankets ' 229 18 32 

13 pr. 23/2 pt Indo blue Blankets ' 258 33 54 

29 pr. 3 pt White Blankets N. Y. 500 145 " 

MVz pr. 3 pt Hud Bay Blankets S. 293 51 27 

13H pr. 2V2 pt Scarlet Blankets ' 251 33 89 

Wt. pr. 3 pt Scarlet Blankets ' 378 5 67 

184 Yds Scarlet Cloth '60 110 40 

2 ps Green Cloth 44 yds ' 68 29 92 

22 Fancy Vests F. 50 11 " 

6 Fancy Shawls '100 6 " 

1 pr. Cassinette Pants '275 2 75 

3 Used Rifles ' 800 24 " 

7 New Rifles N. Y. 850 61 50 

2 Belgian Guns F. 400 8 " 

60 lbs Blue pound Beads N. Y. 50 30 " 

21—2 gl. Tin Kettles F. 65 13 65 

4—1 gl. Tin Kettles " 28 1 12 

1—5 gl. Tin Kettle " 150 1 50 

5/12 doz. Fancy Bridles " 800 3 25 

7 doz. Com. Bridles - " 500 35 " 

5/12 doz. Cock Feathers N. Y. 275 1 14 

4J^ lbs. Chrome Yellow F. 25 1 12 

14 lbs. Thread "60 8 40 

^ lb. Silk " 750 1 88 

8 C Gun Flints N. Y. 30 2 40 

1 7/12 Gro. O. C. Buttons " 150 2 11 

Vi Gro. Vests F. 75 38 

^ doz. Socks " 275 1 VJ 

3 Indian Axes "80 2 40 

Vi, doz. pr. Brogans " 1900 14 25 

IJ^ Gro. Clay Pipes N. Y. 33^^ " 50 

^ C Fish Hooks F. 60 " 15 

y2 doz. Ward Scalping Knives N. Y. 150 " 75 

Yi. doz. Cotton Hdkfs F. 100 " 50 

6 qrs. Cap Paper '20 1 20 

4 Sticks Sealing Wax '3 "12 

4 Stock Locks '78 3 12 

1 Pad Lock ' 75 " 75 

15 lbs. Tobacco ' 6j^ " 98 

Yi doz. Collin's Chopping Axes ' 1250 8 Zl 

1 doz. Small Scissors ' 200 2 00 

1 pr. Tailors' Shears '400 4 00 

Carried Forward 376 01 243 66 157 20 



196 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Alexander Brot forward 

1 pr. Steelyards F. 162j/^ 

1 Pat. Balance N. Y. 350 

1 Telescope F. 1500 

V2 doz. Tin Cups ' 60 

1 lb. Sturgeon Twine ' 75 

10/12 doz. 12 in Flat Files ' 400 

7/12 doz. Bustard Files ' 150 

1% doz. Pitsaw Files ' 225 

H doz. 6 in Flat Bastard Files ' 150 

H doz. Scythe Stones ' 75 

4 Lances ' 30 

12 lbs. Hoop Iron ' dy^ 

50 lbs. 6 oz. Cut Nails ' 5 

298 lbs. 12 oz. Cut Nails ' 5 

40 lbs. Bar Iron ' ^y^ 

16 lbs. Gun Powder ' 17 

122 lbs. Balls ' 6 

5 lbs. Blister Steel ' 20 

3 lbs. Black Pepper ' 12^ 

20 lbs. Chocolate ' 15 

1 doz. Hickory Axe Handles ' 175 

V2 doz. Fur Hats ' 1800 

1 Sword ' 200 

2 Iron Cannon 1 @ 60$ 1 @ 15$ 

3 Bot. Chapman's Mixture $1.00 1 oz. 

Castor Oil 10c 

1 lb. Salve 50c J^ lb. Blue Moss @ 100 

1 Suimint 12c 

H lb. Borax 25c & 4 Boxes Capsules 

@ 15c 

Ya, lb. Indigo @ 75c ^ lb. Sulphur @ 

20c y2 lb. Sugar Lead @ 25c 

2 ozs. Oil Vitriol @ 10c 1 oz. Laudan- 

um @ 25c 

1 oz. Jalap \2y2 1 oz. Tart. Emetic 1 

oz. Calomel @ 25c 

1 lb. Blue Vitriol 50c 2 oz. Alum for 6c 

1 lb. Epsom Salts 

1 lb. Pitch Plaster 

275 lbs. Coffee F. 10J4 



376 01 



290 lbs. Sugar. 

^ Bbl. Flour 

1 bu. Dried Apples. 

16 lbs. Rice 

1 gl. Molasses 

1 bu. Corn _ 



6H 
575 
225 

38 
200 



13 66 


157 20 




1 63 


3 50 






15 " 




30 




75 




3 Z2, 




88 




3 75 




" 50 




37 




1 20 




75 




2 50 




14 90 




1 80 




2 72 




7 32 




" 38 




3 " 




1 75 




9 " 




2 00 




75 " 




1 10 




1 12 




" 11 




" 36 




" 33 




" 50 




" 56 




" 08 



" 25 
28 87 
18 85 



APPENDICES 



197 



1 Bbl. Pork 

2J4 doz. Salted Buffalo Tongues. 



925 
400 



376 01 

Advance on Sterling 90% 338 41 

Advance on Sterling N. York 17j^% 



Carried Forward 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Alexander Brot Forward 
Commissions 5% 

Freight on 5774 lbs. @ 3c pr. lb... 

The following Articles in Use &c at their Estimated Value 

20 Chopping Axes @ 100 

2 Broad Axes @ 250 

2 Jack planes @ 1.30 2 Fore planes 
@ 1.50 

2 Smoothing planes @ 1.30 & 2 Hand- 
saws @ 1.00 

2 Foot Adzes @ 1.50 & 1 Writing 
Desk @ 2.50 

2 Iron Hay Forks @ .50 

1 Brace & 36 bitts @ $5.-1 Old do. 

2.50 

2 Claw Hammers @ 75c 41 qtrs Augrs 

@ 10c 1 Square .33 

6 Drawing Knives @ 75c 

1 Rule 50c 2 prs. Compasses @ 50c.... 

1 Spoke Shave 50c 6 Caulking Irons 

@ 25 

6 Files @ 3c 9 Chisels @ 16c 

8 Chisels @ 16c 1 Bench Screw 1.50 

1 Wrench .50 

2 Whip Saws $9. 2 X Cut do. $4. & - 

1 Howell .25c 

2 Hoes @ 30c 1 Spade .50c 3 Fire 

Shovels @ 50c _ 

1 Blacksmith's Bellows 

1 Anvil $12.50 1 Vice $5. 1 Sledge $2.50 
1 Hand Hammer @ 75c 2 pr. Tongs 

@ 50c 

1 Splitting Chisel .25c 2 Cold Chisels 

@ 20 

2 Punches @ 12Hc 1 Screw plate & 

Taps $2 

1 Heading Tool 25c 1 Sma. :-Hammer 
.50c 





9 25 
10 " 


247 16 

43 25 


388 71 
714 42 
290 41 




$1393 54 




1393 54 

69 68 

1463 22 

173 52 

$1636 44 


20 " 

5 " 




5 60 




4 60 




5 50 
1 " 





7 50 



5 93 


4 50 


1 50 


2 " 


1 62 


3 28 


13 25 


2 60 


10 " 


20 " 


1 75 


" 65 


2 25 


" 75 



81 28 



198 APPENDICES 

1 Brace & Bitts 2.50 1 Saw 1.00 3 50 

2 Screw Drivers @ 25c 2 Drills @ 

12H 

1 Tire Sett 50c & 2 Old files @ 3c 

100 lbs. Old Iron $3. 1 pr. Ball 

Moulds $10 

6 Old Beaver Traps @ $2.00 1 Cast 
Pot 1.00 

2 Cast Ovens @ 1.25c 1 Sheet Iron 

Stove $6.- 

2 Tea Kettles @ 50c 1 Coffee Pot 62.. 
2 Sheet Iron Kettles @ 70c 1-2 gal. 

Tin Kettle .50c 

2 Fry Pans @ 75c 1 Corn Mill @ $6.- 

1 Coffee Mil @ 1.00 4 Large Pans @ 

56c 

3 Small Pans @ 20c 6 plates @ 12^c 

6 Saucers @ 10c 

2 Sugar Bowls @ 20c Yi doz. Knives 

& Forks 

3 Tin Spoons @3c 2 Iron do. @ 2c 2 

Dippers @ 12j4c 

12 Candlemoulds 75c & 1 Grid Iron 

1.00 

1 Stone Jug 25c ^ doz. Candlesticks 

@ $4.-' 

3 Tables $3.- 1 Chair 1.25c 2 prs. 

And Irons @ 1.00 

3 Riding Saddles @ $5.- 3 Pack do. 

@ 2.50 

1 Sett Double Harnes $7.50 2 prs. 
Hames @ $2.00 

4 Scythes & Sneathes @ 1.50 2 

Double Blocks @ $2.00 

Carried Forward 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Alexander Brot forward 
1 Cart $20. 1 Cart Body $5. 1 Single 

Harness $5 30 " 100 32 

Live Stock 

8 Indian Horses @ $25.- 200 " 

2096 97 
Reduction 27% on Articles in Use & 

Stock on $460.53 124 34 

1972 63 
Add Error in price of 8 pr. 3 pt 
Indigo Blue Blankets @ 339 in- 
stead of 229 page 1. with advance 

& commission) difference 14 98 

$1987 61 



" 75 




" 56 




13 " 




13 •• 




8 50 




1 62 


78 93 


1 90 




7 50 




3 24 




1 95 




1 02 




" 46 




1 75 




2 25 




6 25 




22 50 




11 50 




10 •• 




70 32 


1796 65 


70 3J 


1796 65 



APPENDICES 



I'/J 



Inventory of Stock the property oi 
at Fort Benton 4th May 1851 

8 ps. Green Baize 71^ Yds 

80 Yds White Linsey 

6 ps. Furniture Check 268J4 yds 

8 ps. Red Flannel 318 yds 

8 ps. White Flannel 2502 yds 

1 ps. White Flannel super 44 yds 

2 ps. N. W. Striped Cotton 69 yds.... 
6 ps. Apron Check 305 yds 

8 ps. Unbd Sheeting 3062 yds 

6 ps. Hard Times 104 yds 

6 ps. Amn Linsey 303 yds 

3 ps. English Linsey 104 yds 

1 ps Red Lindsey 41^* yds 

14 ps. Bed Ticking 620 yds 

4 ps. Cloaking 156 yds 

44 ps. Fancy Calico 1703 yds 

11 ps. Fancy Calico 222 yds 

2 ps. Salempore 40 yds N. 

3 ps. Jeans 99 yds 

1 ps. Amn Cloth 29 yds 

I ps. N. W. Stripe 223 yds 

9 yds Grey Amn Cloth 

9% Yds Woolen Jeans 

91/^ Yds Tweed 

II Yds Red Jeans 

12 Yds Blue S. List Cloth 

16 Yds Grey List Cloth 

11 Yds Scarlet List Cloth 

2H Green List Cloth 

3 Yds Cassinett 

30 Yds Tweed 

\]/2 Yds Comn Carpeting 

8 doz. Muskrat Caps 

1 7/12 Russia Hats 

222^ prs. 3 pt White French Blankets N 
60 prs. 3 pt White English Blankets 

20 prs. 3 pt H. Bay Blankets 

20 prs. 3 pt Indigo Blue Blankets 

6H prs. 3 pt Fine Sky Blankets 1/49 
2^ prs. 3 pt Fine Sky Blue Blankets 

SVz prs. 3 pt Scarlet Blankets 

72^ prs. 2^ White French Blankets 
Sy2 prs. 21^ H. Bay Blankets 

Carried Forward 



Pierre Chouteau Jr. & Co. U. M. O. On hand 



F. 
Y. 


28 
20 
11 
24 

22/. 
25 

10^2 

10 

8 
15 
10 
13 
18 
11/2 
55 
9/2 

8/2 
11 




F. 


35 
45 
10/ 
50 
30 
25 
35 




S. 


62 


7 44 


" 


63 


10 08 


" 


68 


7 48 


» 


68 


1 70 


F. 


60 

25 

55 

900 

1725 




Y. 


425 




S. 


261 


156 60 




293 


58 60 




331 


66 20 


F. 


450 
325 
450 




s 


230 


166 75 




220 


18 70 



4 40 



945 63 



20 02 


16 " 


29 54 


76 32 


56 36 


11 " 


7 24 


30 50 


24 52 


15 60 


30 30 


21 32 


7 52 


71 30 


85 80 


161 79 


18 87 


34 65 


13 05 


2 39 


4 50 


2 77 


2 38 


3 85 



1 80 

7 50 

•• 82 

72 " 

27 31 



493 55 



950 03 



29 35 
8 12 

15 75 



910 14 



200 APPENDICES 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Brot Forward 

OH prs 2H pt. Green Blankets S. 250 

27 prs. Rose Blankets F. 175 

20 Blue Woolen Shawls '' 75 

2 1/12 doz. Blue Cotton H'dkfs " IQO 

1^ doz. Turkey Red H'dkfs " iQO 

7/12 doz. Portrait H'dkfs " 60 

1 10/12 doz. Blk Silk H'dkfs N. Y. 450 

Vi doz. Red Woolen Caps F. 379 

2 Small Table Covers " 400 

V2 doz. Packs Playing Cards " 150 

3 Large Cotton Shawls " 30 

3 Large Woolen Shawls " 250 

29 Small Woolen Shawls " 75 

8 Tweed Coats Saint Louis " 450 

8 Skyblue Coats Saint Louis " 30O 

1 B. Pilot Over Coat » 450 

1 1/12 doz. Boys Wool Hats " 500 

24 Spanish Gourds » 12^ 

4 Scarlet Chiefs Coats " 559 

1 Blue Chiefs Coat " 45O 

3 Hard Times Coats " 2OO 

2 Sheep Grey Coats " 250 

1 Skyblue Blanket Coat » 425 

2 Boys Scarlet & Blue Coats " 170 

3 Bocking Coats " 120 

1 Boys Green Coat " iQO 

1 Boys Bocking Coat » 50 

1 Black Cassinette Coat " 275 

3 Boys Comn Blkt " 50 

1 pr. Blue Pants " 250 

12 pr. Tweed Pants " JOQ 

1 pr. Boys Grey Pants " 50 

1 pr. Blk Summer Pants " 62^ 

5 pr. Leggins " 79 

6 pr. Leggins for Children " 25 

4 Womens Blanket Dresses " 350 

2 Small Wht Blanket Coats " 200 

1 In. Blue Blanket Coat " 275 

17 Boys Blue Blanket Coats " 80 

1 Amn Linsey Coat " 120 

1 Comn White Coat " 400 

1 Boys White Coat " 75 

2 Boys Red Linsey Coats " 60 

1 pr Red Linsey Pants " 52 

63 lbs Red pound Beads N. Y. 65 

Carried Forward 



493 55 

1 25 



950 03 



8 25 



910 14 

47 25 

15 " 

2 08 

1 67 

" 35 

1 26 



494 80 



40 95 



999 2Z 1206 82 



" 75 


" 90 


7 50 


21 75 


36 " 


24 " 


4 SO 


5 42 


3 " 


22 " 


4 50 


6 " 


5 " 


4 25 


3 40 


3 60 


1 " 


" 50 


2 75 


1 50 


2 50 


12 " 


" 50 


" 63 


3 SO 


1 SO 


14 " 


4 " 


2 75 


13 60 


1 20 


4 " 


" 75 


1 20 


" 62 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Brot forward 

146 lbs Blue pound Beads N. Y. 

126 lbs Blue pound Beads small 

160 lbs White pound Beads 

8 Bu: Small Barleycorn Beads F. 

33 Bu: Snake Beads N. Y. 

79 lbs Loose Beads F. 

1 1/12 Card Necklace Beads 

4 Bu: Cut Glass Beads N. Y. 

15 lbs Red Pigeon Egg Beads 

37 lbs Black Pound Beads 

6 lbs Assorted Beads 

10^ lbs Blue Garnishing Beads 

12^ lbs White Garnishing Beads 

J^ Bu: Blue Agate Beads 

8 Rifles F 

57 N. W. Chase Guns S. 

29 Belgian Guns N. Y 

5 Double Barrel Guns F. 

30 lbs Chinese Vermillion N. Y 

31/2 M Horse Pistol Flints 

1 M Rifle Flint 

15^ doz. Common Scalping Knives-.. 

90J4 doz. Butcher Knives 

155 White Powder Horns F. 

21 lbs Rosin Soap 

25 lbs Chocolate 

1 5/12 doz. Mustard 

3 5/12 doz. Cups & Saucers 

1 5/12 doz. Dinner Plates 

1 1/12 doz. Soup Plates 

3— 5 gl Tin Kettles 

10^ 4 gl Tin Kettles 

45_ 1 gl Tin Kettle 

69— 3 gl Tin Kettles 

2 Nests Tin Kettles 

18 lbs Sheet Iron Kettles 

24 lbs Brass Kettles N. 

3H doz Tin Plates F. 

6 doz small Tin Plates 

10/12" Large Tin Pans 

2 Skimmers 

1 Coffee Pot 

101 Spotted Sea Shells 

25 California Shells 

20 d California Broken 

Carried Forward 



>ICES 




201 


494 80 


999 23 


1206 82 


50 


73 " 




50 


63 " 




30 


48 •• 




\62y2 




13 " 


25 


8 25 




30 




23 70 


• 150 




1 63 


16 


" 64 




' 75 


11 25 




■ 20 


7 40 




' 25 


1 50 




'56^ 


5 91 




'5614 


7 03 




' 150 


" 75 




'. 800 




64 '• 


. 356 202 92 






■. 350 


101 50 




.1100 




55 " 


■. 150 


45 " 




' 300 


10 50 




' 300 


3 " 




• 125 


19 59 




' 125 


112 81 




. 50 




77 50 


4 




" 84 


' 15 




3 75 


• 375 




5 31 


" 75 




2 56 


" 125 




1 77 


' 125 




1 36 


' 160 




4 80 


' 150 




15 " 


• 30 




13 50 


' 125 




86 25 


' 379 




7 58 


" 18 




3 24 


Y. 37/2 


9 " 




'. 200 




7 " 


' 100 




6 " 


" 300 




2 50 


"12H 




" 25 


" 50 




" 50 


"12^ 




12 62 


" 175 




43 75 


■■ 75 




15 " 



697 72 1528 36 1675 23 



202 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Brot forward 
10/12 doz. 14 in Flat Bastard Piles.... F 

3 5/12 doz. Pitsaw Files 

4 ys doz. Hardsaw Files 

2J4 doz. Assorted Armorers Files 

1 11/12 doz. Rat Tail Files 

5/12 doz. Mill Saw Files 

8/12 doz. Wood Rasps 

ys doz. Elkhorn hdle Knives 

4 doz. Turlington Balsam 

3 Bot. Castor Oil 

5 lbs Borax 

1 Bot. Magnesia 

6 doz. Capsules 

7 lbs Epsom Salts 

34 doz. Chapmans 

3 Bot. Liquid Blue 

^ lbs Lamp Black pr. 

1 Medicine Chest 

% lb Nutmegs @ 140 % lb Allspice @ 

7 lbs Fine Iron Wire 

10 lbs Kettle Wire 

48 Battle Axes 

6 Trap Springs 

3 Mowing Scythes 

5y2 doz. Brass Cap Plates 

12 doz. Silver Cap Plates 

3 doz. Belt Plates 

^ doz. Sword Belt Plates 

7 doz. Brass Hair Ornaments 

49 prs Tin Wrist Bands 

Ys doz. Large Tin Oscoles 

2 prs Brass Wrist Bands 

3 Gro. Lge Kettle Ears No. 4 

12 doz. Tin Kettle Ears 

30 M Kettle Rivets 

34 Box Sheet Tin 

ly doz Razors in Boxes 

1/6 doz Shaving Boxes 

5/12 doz P. C. Looking Glasses 

^ doz Brass Oscoles 

Vi doz Rifle Locks 

3 doz German Silver Fine Combs N. Y. 

31/3 Fine Ivory Combs 

]9y3 Crambo Combs 

33^ Nest Wampum Moons 

Carried Forward 



697 72 



1528 36 1675 23 



600 




5 " 


225 




7 69 


100 




4 33 


175 




3 94 


150 




2 87 


300 




1 25 


350 




2 33 


600 




2 " 


50 




2 " 


33^ 




1 " 


25 




1 25 


50 




" 50 


160 




9 60 


6 




" 42 


1000 




2 50 


100 




3 " 


12 




" 12 


200 




2 " 


25 




" 41 


10 




'• 70 


14 




1 40 


50 




24 •' 


37y2 




2 25 


75 




2 25 


175 




9 63 


150 




18 " 


150 




4 50 


150 




1 12 


100 




7 " 


40 




19 60 


450 




1 50 


40 




" 80 


300 




9 " 


25 




3 " 


SO 




15 " 


1175 




2 94 


540 




8 10 


125 




" 21 


48 




" 20 


350 




2 63 


2400 




12 " 


100 


3 " 




105 


3 50 




33 


6 38 




112/. 


3 94 





697 72 



1545 18 1873 27 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Bret forward 
1 M Needles N. Y. 

3 C Fish Hooks F. 

1/6 Gro. Indian Awls S. 

1/6 Gro. Gun Worms 

J/^ doz. Tailor Thimbles F. 

I pr. Green Goggles 

S ps. Assd Ribbon N. Y. 

^ lb Sewing Silk F. 

7/12 doz. prs. Spurs " 

II Snaffle Bridle bitts 

4 Curb Bridle bitts 

lYs doz. prs. Scissors 

14 doz. prs. small Scissors 

12 prs. Iron Stirrups 

1 Small lup Lock 

3 M Percussion Caps 

4]/i M Percussion Caps damaged 

5 Sheets Sand Paper 

5/12 doz. Scythe Stones 

20 Brace Bitts 

14 doz. Collins Chopp-g Axes 

1 pr. Fine Boots 

1 pr. Comn Boots 

2 pr. Brogans " 

1 pr. Women's Shoes 

2 Boxes Blacking " 

181^ lbs All Col- Thread 

1 lb Black Thread 

9% lbs Cotton Balls 

1^ Ream Letter Paper " 

^ Ream Cap Paper " 

SYs doz. Cock Feathers N. Y. 

6 Small Blank Books F. 

10 Gro. Suspender Buttons " 

1/6 Gro. O. C. Buttons 

5 Gro. Shirt Buttons " 

2 Blank Books 4 qr 

8 lbs Arsenic " 

13 lbs Bar Lead 

11 lbs Candlewick " 

2 Horse Halters 

1 Bridle 

1 Spanish Saddle Bocking Cover 

7 lbs Amn Vermillion " 

162 lbs Canot Tobacco 

Carried Forward 



CES 






203 




697 72 


1545 18 


1873 27 


ISO 




1 50 




60 






1 80 


64 


" 11 






39 


" 06 






25 






•' 13 


46 






" 46 


37y2 




1 87 




750 






1 88 


804 






4 69 


30 






3 30 


87 






3 58 


500 






6 67 


275 






" 92 


50 






6 " 


30 






•• 30 


60 






1 80 


10 






" 45 


m 






" 06 


75 






" 31 


10 

1250 






2 " 

3 12 


425 






4 25 


150 






1 50 


100 






2 " 


75 






" 75 


12J^ 






" 25 


60 






11 10 


60 






" 60 


60 






5 55 


250 






3 75 


250 






1 88 


275 




9 17 




6J4 






" i7 


21 






2 10 


100 






•' 17 


10^ 






" 52 


80 






1 60 


120 






9 60 


12 






1 56 


20 






2 20 


100 






2 " 


75 






" 75 


550 






5 50 


35 






2 45 


7 






11 34 



697 89 



1557 72 1982 53 



204 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Bro't forward 

177 lbs N. W. Twist Tobacco F 

4596 lbs Tobacco 

76 Sacks Balls 1900 lbs 

70 lbs Pig Lead 

19 lbs Balls 

40 lbs Powder 

5 lbs Shaving Soap " 

3 Powder Canisters " 

9 Powder Measures " 

4 Scoops " 

2 Cotton Shirts " 

1 Blue Cloth Saddle Cover 

1 Scarlet Cloth Saddle Cover 

7/12 doz. Belts 

6 Indian Axes 4M lbs " 

1 Indian Axe 3^ " 

6 doz. Grottes " 

617 Arrow Points " 

7]4 lbs Beeswax " 

614 lbs Verdigris " 

2 lbs Saltpetre " 

13 Barrels Sugar 2429 lbs 

114 Barrels Flour " 

14021^ lbs Coffee 

7 Bushels Salt 

3 Bushels Ree Corn " 

8 Gl Molasses " 

20 lb Sugar 

1 Bushel Dried Apples " 

2 lbs Black Pepper '' 

1^ Barrel Beans " 

% doz. Ink " 

2 doz. Steel Pens " 

1 Lancet 75c 1 Tooth puller 

1 Sand Box " 

2 C Wafers 

1 lb Blue Moss " 

15 Muskets " 

1 pr. Ball Moulds 10 Balls 

1 pr. Steelyards No Pea 

1 Satters Cir: Spring Balance N. Y. 

1 Satters Cir: Spring Balance 50 lb.... " 

1 Satters Cir: Spring Balance 25 " 

3 Small Flags F. 

14 doz. Snaffle Bridle bitts 

Carried Forward 



697 


89 1557 72 


1982 53 


. 12/. 




22 13 


6^2 




298 74 


6^ 




114 " 


3K2 




2 45 


6 




1 14 


17 




6 80 


25 




1 25 


50 




1 50 


6J4 




" 56 


25 




1 " 


50 




1 " 


162J^ 




1 63 


187K 




1 87 


300 




1 75 


100 




6 " 


87J/. 




" 88 


37y, 




2 25 


l'/2 




9 25 


23 




1 67 


371/2 




2 44 


17 




" 34 


6^ 




157 88 


575 




8 62 


my2 




147 26 


43 




3 01 


190 




5 70 


38 




3 04 


6^ 




1 30 


225 




2 25 


■ 12K 




" 25 


520 




8 75 


75 




" 19 


75 




1 50 


150 




2 25 


25 




" 25 


10 




" 20 


100 




1 " 


350 




52 50 


400 




4 " 


50 




" 50 


350 


3 50 




350 


3 50 




250 


2 50 




600 




18 •' 


400 




2 " 



697 89 1567 22 2881 63 



APPENDICES 



205 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Bro't forward 

14 Beaver Traps & Chains F. 300 

2 — 3 pdr Cannons " 6600 

1 Fort Bell " 2000 

Advance on Sterling 90% 

Advance N. York 17^% 

5 pr Ct Commission 



Freight on 19730 lb @ 3c pr pound-. 



10 Broken Beaver Traps @ 150 

7 Scythes @ 50c 4 Sneathes @ 50c.... 

2 X Cut Saws @ 2.50 2 Pit Saws @ 500 

4 Pit Saws " 200 

1 Cast Iron Kettle 125c 1 Old Coffee 

Pot " SO 

16 Pack Saddles @ 250 9 Indian do " 150 

2 Small Grind Stones @ 75c 1 Rock- 

ing Chair $-^ 

5 Old Chairs @ 50c 1 Corn Mill & 

Fly Wheel 690 

2 Amen Boxes & Canisters @ $2 

1 Screw Ram Rod 25 16 Chopping 

Axes @ 100 

6 Water tight Casks @ 50c 1 Water- 

tight Box 100 

4 Shovels @ 50c 1 Spade 50c 1 Brok- 
en do 25 

4 Ox Yokes Ironed @ 2$ 4 Do No 

Irons @ 100 

1 Sett Harness for 4 Horses @ 2000 

1 Sett Harness for 2 Horses " 1000 

4 Extra Collars " 300 

2 Setts Parfleche Harness for 4 Horses "1500 
2 Setts Parfleche Harness for 2 Horses " 750 

1 Bull Harness " 500 

2 Waggons " $80 

1 Buggy $10. 1 Ox Waggon $25. 

1 Cart $20 

1 pr. Cart Wheels No tires 6$ I Wheel 
Barrow $3 — 

3 Log Chains @ $5. 7 Caulking Irons 

@ 25c 4 Press Irons @ 25 



697 89 


1567 22 


2881 63 
42 " 
132 " 
20 " 


697 89 


1567 22 


3075 63 


628 10 




1325 99 




274 26 


1841 48 






6243 10 






312 16 




6555 26 






591 90 




7147 16 




15 " 






5 50 






15 " 






8 " 






1 75 






53 50 





4 50 



9 40 
4 " 



16 25 



2 75 

12 " 

20 " 

10 " 

12 " 

30 " 

15 " 

5 " 



55 " 
9 " 
17 75 



206 APPENDICES 

2 Wheel Barrows @ $3.00 6 Stoves @ 
32$ 1 Large do. 10$ 

1 Scow 20$ 2 Wash Stands @ 2.50.... 

2 prs. And Irons @ $1.00 1 Ea Shovel 

& Tongs @ $1.00 

2 Old Spades @ 50c 1 Large Chest $3. 

1 Toboboard & Knife 100 

1 pr. Pincers 50c 7 Iron Cd Water 

Buckets @ 100 

1 Iron Crane $1.00 2 6 gl. S. I. 

Kettles @ 120 

2 Lge Ovens & Lid $1.50 2 Com. size 

do & Lids 125 

1 Frying Pan $1.00 1 Skillet $1.00 1 

Lge Grid Iron 100 

2 Flesh Forks @ 12^c 3 Pot Hooks 

25c 1 Lge Knife 50c 

3— 2 gl Tin Kettles @ 60c 1— 3 gl 

do @ 80c 3— 4 gl do @ 100 

1 Strainer 20c 4 Ironbound Buckets 

@ 100 

Carried Forward 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Brot forward 

4 Coffee Pots „.. 75 

1 Lge Tin Tea Pot 125. 11 Tin Plates 

@ 1254 

8 Assd Tin Pans @ 30c 3 Lge Oval 
dishes @ 120 5 Com Tin do. 25.... 

1 Skimmer 20c 39 Candlemoulds @ 

614 2 Coffee Mills @ 75 

5 Soup Plates @ 10c 1 doz dinner do. 

120. 7 Knives & forks @ 10c 

8 Tin Table Spoons @ 3c 2 Iron do 
@ 6c 5 Tin Dippers @ 15c 

3 Tin Saucers @ 12^ 1 Sugar Bowl 

25c 1 Cream Jug 25 

2 Iron Tea Spoons @ 3c 4 Tin do. @ 

3c 8 Cups & Saucers @ 10 

1 Flour Sieve 7Sc 1 Mustard 25 1 Pep- 
perbox 25 

1 Bread Bowl 15c 1 Stove & pipe 10$ 
1 Dinner table & benches 4$ 

10 Tin Cups @ 6c 4 Candlesticks @ 

25c _ 1 60 556 50 



48 " 

25 " 




3 " 




5 " 




7 50 




3 40 




5 50 




3 " 




1 50 




5 60 




4 20 




517 10 


7147 16 


517 10 


7147 16 


3 " 




2 63 




7 25 




4 14 




2 40 




1 11 





1 


00 


1 


25 


14 


IS 


1 


60 



APPENDICES 207 

Tinners Tools 

1 Vice & bench 6$ 3 Soldering Irons 

@ 1.25 9 75 

5 Hammers @ 75c 1 pr. Old Scissors 

25 1 pr. Bench Shears 100 

1 Bar for Tongue 50c 1 Fron 100 

1 Square Anvil 1.50 1 Creasing Iron 

50c 2 setts Hammers @ 50c 

1 Grooving Iron 50c 1 punch 25c 4 

Cold Chisels @ I2i^ 

3 prs. Pincers 50c 1 Soldering Stove 

100 3 Bigons (?) $3 

Tailors Tools 

1 pr. Shears 50c 2 prs. Scissors 30c 1 

Candlestick 25c 

2 Pressboards @ 25c 1 Thimble 6c 56 1 91 

Blacksmith's Tools 

2 Anvils @ 1250 1 Sledge Hammer 

2.50 

1 Hand Hammer @ 75c 1 Nail do. 75c 
1 pr. Bellows 15$ 

1 Rivitting Hammer @ 75c 1 Bench 

vice 4$ 6 pr. Tongs @ 50c 

2 prs. Pincers @ 50c 1 Splitting 

Chisel @ 25c 2 Cold do. 16c 

2 Hand vices @ 50c 1 Drill Stock & 

bitts 2$ 1 2 foot rule 30c 

5 Lge used Files @ 6c 2 Screw 
Wrenches @ 50 

4 Screw plates & 5 setts dies @ 2.50 

6 do. @ 100 

1 2/4 Auger 20c 1 Drawing Knife @ 
75c 1 Spike Gimblet 125^ 

1 Hand Saw File 6c 1 sett Hammers 

75c 2 square punches @ 25c 

3 Round Punches @ 12^c 2 prs. 

Clamp @ 100 1 Old Hand Saw 50c 

2 Eye Wedges @ 25 3 square files 6c 

1 Shoeing Hammer 50c 

1 Old Gun No Lock 2$ 4 Heading 

Tools @ 25c 

1 Stamp Al $1.00 1 Small do. AlC 

SOc 3 pokers @ 25c 

3 prs. Waggon Cast Boxes @ 50c 1 

Tire $1.50 

3 Hand Saws @ $1.00 1 Tenor Saw 
$1.75 1 Wood do. $1.00 



5 " 
1 50 


3 " 


1 25 


11 50 


1 35 
56 


27 50 


16 50 


7 75 


1 57 


3 30 


1 30 


16 " 


1 08 


1 31 


2 88 


1 18 


3 " 


2 25 


3 " 


5 75 



208 



APPENDICES 



2 Iron Squares @ 50c 1 foot Adze 
$1.50 1 Morticing Chisel 1.00 

1 Hammer 75c 1 Nail Hatchet 1.00 2 

Braces & bitts @ 5$ 

4 Gages @ 25c 4 Sporting Chisels @ 
16c 1 Oil Stone 25c 

2 Jack planes @ $1.30 2 Smoothing 

do. @ $1.30 1 Wood Square 25c 

1 Rabit plane @ 1.30 2 pr. Pincers @ 

50c 1 Nail Wrench 25c 

2 Drawing Knives @ 75c 2 Wood 

Rasps @ 10c 6 files @ 6c 

1 Scribe UVzc 1 Saw Set 25c 9 

Augers 36 Qtr 360 

2 Broad Axes 2$ 2 Beading planes 

@ $1.50 

Carried Forward 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Benton Brot forward 
1 Sash & Grooving plane $1.50c 1 
Tongue & Grooving plane 1.50 

3 Morticing Chisels @ 16c 3 Gouges 

@ 16c 

3 Gimblets @ 654c 1 Grind Stone 
$1.50 1 Carpenters tool Chest 
$3.50 



3 50 

11 75 



5 45 




2 55 




206 




3 97 




7 " 




132 54 


7737 57 


132 54 


7737 57 



96 



5 19 



141 69 



Live Stock 
8 Horses .. 
5 Mules - 
3 Bulls 

2 Oxen 

3 Cows 

4 Calves ... 
12 Hogs ... 

7 Pigs 

1 Cat 



Sundries 

24 Merchandise Boxes. 

36 Bale Cloths 

40 Cow Skins 

1 Writing Desk 



Reduction 27% on Articles in use &c 
on 1513.60 



@ 2500 

4000 

2500 

2500 

2500 

500 

500 

200 

500 



@ 100 
" 100 
" 50 
" 250 



200 ' 




200 • 




75 • 




50 ' 




75 ' 




20 • 




60 ' 




14 ' 




5 ' 


699 " 


24 ' 




36 ' 




20 ' 




2 5 


3 82 50 




8660 76 




408 67 



$8252 09 



APPENDICES 



209 



221 


13 


24 


31 


7 


26 


22 


27 


102 06 


25 


19 



111 78 

53 04 

7 35 



Inventory of Stock, the property of Pierre Chouteau Jr. & Co. U. M. 
hand at Fort Union 15th May 1851 

58^ prs. 3 pt Scarlet Blankets S. 378 

6y2 prs. 3 pt Green Blankets ' 374 

2 prs. 3 pt Skyblue Blankets ' 363 

8^ prs. 2H pt Skyblue Blankets ' 262 

1 pr. 4 pt Skyblue Blankets F. 450 

iV/i prs. 2J^ pt Indigo blue Blankets.. S. 324 

11 prs. 2y2 Scarlet Blankets ' 229 

5 prs. Wrapper Blankets F. ZYlYi 

2 Cotton Rugs ' 'SIVj 

}i Yd. Venetian Carpeting ' 65 

207 Yd. Blue S. L. Cloth S 54 

78 Yd. Green S. L. Cloth ' 68 

1214 Yd. Scarlet S. L. Cloth ' 60 

28^ Yd. Mixed Satinette F. 50 

10^ Yd. Blue Satinette ' 58 

56 Yd. Jeans ' 33 

71^ Yd. Fancy Jeans ' 40 

405 Yd. Plaid Woolens ' 25 

457^ Yd. Plaid Linsey ' 18 

92 Yd. White Flannel ' 25 

93y2 Yd. Red Flannel ' 23 

40^ Yd. Green Flannel ' 21 

275 Yd. Salempore N. Y. 11 

204 Yd. Cotn Check F. 10 

II6714 Yd. Fancy Calico Average ' 12 

86614 Yd. Blue & White N. Y. 12i^ 

300 Yd. Blue & White ' UVs 

4841^ Yd. Blue & White F. 8^ 

776 Yd. Blue & Orange ' 24 

101 Yd. Victoria Plaid ' 20 

1 Large Fort Flag N. Y. 8800 

1 Fort Streamer F. 1000 

7 Sup. Cloth Surtouts $5/8 & 2 ' 925 

1 Blue Chiefs Coat ' 575 

1 Ermantine Coat ' 390 

8 Blue Chiefs Coats not made ' 400 

7 Scarlet Chiefs Coats not made ' 500 

1 Ea Kersey 200c & Cassinette Coats ' 200 

1 Used Summer Coat ' 200 

6 Summer Vests ' 50 

13 Fine Casse Vests ' 275 

1 pr. Fine Cloth Pants ' 300 

1 pr. Satinette Pants ' 225 

Carried Forward 



O. on 



4 50 



16 63 
•• 75 
• 49 





14 12 




6 19 




18 48 




28 70 




101 25 




82 30 




23 " 




21 51 




8 56 


30 25 






20 40 




140 07 


108 28 




^7 50 






42 40 




186 24 




20 20 


88 " 






10 " 




58 50 




5 75 




3 90 




32 " 




35 " 




4 " 




2 " 




3 " 




35 75 




3 " 




2 25 



574 39 



264 03 



930 94 



210 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Brot forward 

1 pr. Jeans Pants F. 

1 pr. Gar Leather Pants ' 

3 doz Calico Shirts ' 

1/6 doz Hickory Shirts ' 

lyi doz Flannel Shirts ' 

7/12 doz Plush Caps 

7/12 doz Fine Cloth Shirts 

}i doz Glazed Cloth Caps ' 

% doz Woolen Cloth Caps ' 

10/12 doz P. L. Hats 

1/12 doz White Wool Hats 

10/12 doz Cotton Socks ' 

ys doz Woolen Socks ' 

1/6 doz Woolen Mitts 

1 doz Woolen Gloves Comn ' 

^ doz Satin Stocks ' 

Vi doz Silk Stocks F P 

1 Old Shawl 

1 Damaged Table Cover ' 

4 pr. Red Epaulettes ' 

12 yds. Red Cord 

V/s doz. Mens Brogans ' 

7 prs. Mens Boots 1849 

8 prs. Mens Boots 1850 

11 prs. Garnd Mockasins ' 

80 lbs Blue pound Beads N. Y. 

58 lbs Comn purple Beads ' 

361^ lbs Blue Pigeon Egg Beads F. 

137 lbs White Pigeon Egg Beads N. Y. 

27 lbs Red Pigeon Egg Beads ' 

17^ lbs Seed Beads F. 

10^ lbs Red pound Beads N. Y. 

4 lbs Loose pound Beads F. 

6 lbs Seed pound Beads Loose ' 

21J4 Burd Blue Agate No. 10 N. Y. 

29 Burd Blue Agate No. 9 F. 

41 Burd White Agate No. 4 

9 Burd Sma Blue Barleycorn N. Y. 

120 Burd Sma Red Barleycorn ' 

20 doz. Sma White Barleycorn F. 

31 doz. Large White Harleycorn ' 

2 doz. Blue Necklace ' 

71/2 M Grain Wht Wampum ' 

7 lbs Purple MK Wampum ' 

236 in Wampum Hair Pipes ' 

Carried I'orward 



574 


39 264 03 


930 94 


. 125 




1 25 


600 




6 " 


600 




18 " 


650 




1 08 


1000 




13 33 


300 




1 75 


1050 




6 13 


300 




2 25 


300 




" 75 


450 




3 75 


1400 




1 17 


200 




1 67 


250 




" 83 


275 




" 46 


250 




2 50 


950 




7 13 


800 




4 " 


100 




1 " 


200 




2 " 


100 




4 " 


3 




" 36 


1950 




26 " 


2331^ 




16 33 


400 




32 " 


50 




5 50 


50 


40 " 




25 


14 50 




60 




21 90 


75 


102 75 




75 


20 25 




111 




19 15 


65 


6 83 




, 25 




1 " 


50 




3 " 


156 


33 IS 




125 




36 25 


75 




30 75 


50 


4 50 




50 


60 " 




35 




7 " 


20 




6 20 


25 




" 50 


438 




32 85 


90 




6 30 


5 




11 80 



574 39 



546 01 



1266 88 



APPENDICES 211 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Brot forward 574 39 546 01 1266 88 

3 Sea Shells F. 12^ " i7 

18 C St Lawrence Shells '50 9 " 

28 30 2>y 

95 California Shells $1 $2 $3 F. 106 75 

Its Too "75" 

\H lbs Sewing Silk F. 750 

4H lbs Holland Twine ' 70 

5 lbs All Cold Thread ' 60 

10^ doz Spool Cotton ' 16 

^ lb Ball Cotton ' 40 

6 lbs Sturgeon Twine ' 65 

5 lbs Candlewick ' 20 

34 lb Twist ' 550 

50 Turkey Wings ' 4 

2 Rolls Scarlet Gartering ' 40 

J4 Roll Saddle Web ' 170 

1/5 doz. Clothes Brushes ' 600 

14 doz. Painters Brushes ' 600 

18^ Gro Gun Worms S. 39 

1 Scythe Stone F. 6^ 

1 Gro. Bone Coat Buttons ' 75 

35 Gro. Suspender Buttons ' 21 

414 Gro. Orange Coat Buttons N. Y. 150 

3^ Gro. Over Coat Buttons F. 200 

AYz Gro. Pearl Shirt Buttons ' 5 

4 Gro. Coat Moulds N. Y. 15^ 

Sundry loose Buttons Equal to 1 Gro. F. 

1/6 Gro. Bullet Buttons ' 237^4 

H Gro. Vest Buttons ' 200 

Yi doz. Brass Hooks & Eyes ' 250 

5^ Gro. Ind. Awls S. 64 

714 doz. Crambo Combs N. Y. ii 

\% doz. Ivory Combs ' 105 

1/6 doz. Boxwood Combs S. 67 

% doz. Tuck Combs F. 208 

]/2 doz. Perfumery ' 400 

Ys doz. Paste Blacking ' 125 

21 Gro. Brass Finger Rings S. 46 

SY2 Papers Hawk Bells N. Y. 37Y2 

5 doz. Brass Cap Plates F. 238 

% Thumb Wrenches ' 75 

10 8/10 M Percussion Caps ' 60 

IH M Brass Tacks ' 60 

5/12 doz. Hickory Brooms ' 175 

8 M Assd Sewing Needles ' 150 

3 doz. Baling Needles ' S7Y2 

11/12 Tap Borers ' 58 

Carried Forward 594 83 559 59 1471 14 







12 19 






3 15 






3 " 






1 80 






" 10 






3 90 






1 " 






1 37 






2 " 






" 80 






" 43 






2 " 






1 50 


7 31 


6 75 
" 62 


" 06 
•• 75 
7 35 

7 " 
" 22 

1 " 
" 40 
" 50 
" 83 


3 36 


2 39 

1 75 




" 11 




" 52 
2 " 
" 41 


9 60 


2 07 


11 90 
" 19 

6 48 
" 90 
" 73 

12 " 
1 12 

" 54 



212 



APPENDICES 



Bro't forward 



F. 



t'. M. O. 1850 Fort Union 
9 Assiniboine Lances 

1 Medicine Pipe Stem 

2 lbs Pins ' ___ 

2 C Gun Flints g 

2 Red Stone Pipes p 

1 1/6 doz. Shaving Brushes ' 

Vi doz. Shaving Boxes ' 

1 7/12 doz. Snuff Boxes 

1/6 doz. Tobacco Boxes 

4 Cases Razors 2 ea 

7 Cases Razors 1 ea ' 

\y2 doz Comn Razors ' 

}i doz Cloak Clasps » 

IH C Large Fish Hooks ' 

H C Good Fish Hooks .......".' 

H doz. Grattes 

1/6 doz. Pocket Compasses 

Vi doz. Nail Gimblets ' 

10/12 doz. Bead Reticules N. Y. 

^ doz. Silver Tray Bells ' 

2 doz. Zinc > 

1/6 doz. Pocket Ink Stands p. 350 

6 pr. Single Ball Moulds ' 50 

20 pr. Silver Ear Bobs N. Y. 8 

1 doz. Buckles p 

IH doz. Scissors 

1 pr. Shears 

Vi Gro. Wood Screws 

2 C Fly Hooks >vf 

Wa doz. Thimbles 

3 1/12 doz. Compn Medals 

5/12 doz. Copper Powd. Flasks 

Ys doz. Cow Bells 

Vi doz. Axe Handles 

20 Gourds 

6 Hickory Bows 

4 Maple Gun Stocks 

4 ps. Maple for Ox Yokes 

1 Sett Tuning Chisels 

1 Sett Tuning Gouges 

V2 doz. Socket Chisels 

21 Boatpole Spikes & Rings 

3 pr Hooks & Hinges 

3- 9 in Wards Stock Locks 

2- S in Wards Stock Locks 



30 
100 
131 

12J^ 
100 
175 
125 
150 

58 
45 
40 
540 
100 
100 
60 

i7y2 

150 

75 
300 
250 

75 



594 83 



25 



559 59 



2 50 
1 25 
1 50 



1 60 



1471 14 
2 70 

1 " 

2 62 

2 " 
2 04 

" 83 
2 2,7 

" 09 

1 80 

2 80 
8 10 
" 75 

1 50 
" 30 
" 19 
" 25 
•• 50 



58 



Carried Forward 



F. 12 




" 12 


' 283 




3 07 


' 41^ 




" 41 


' 50 




" 17 


Y. 50 


1 " 




' 10 


" 17 




F. 787 




24 27 


' 1050 




4 37 


' 787 




2 63 


' 175 




" 58 


' 15 




3 " 


' 12^ 




" 75 


' 40 




1 60 


' 200 




8 " 


' 450 




4 50 


' 450 




4 50 


' 900 




4 50 


' 50 




10 50 


' 17 




" 51 


' 300 




9 " 


' 250 




5 " 



595 



567 6! 



1592 04 



APPENDICES 



213 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Brot forward 

2- 6 in Stock Locks 

1 doz. Cupboard Locks 

1 5/12 doz. Trunk Locks 

5/12 doz. Pad Locks 

Yz doz. N. W. Gun Locks 

66 Qtrs c Augur 12 Augrs 

1 Ea Shovel and Tongs 

1 pr And Irons 

1 Foot Adze 

^ doz. Chopping Axes 

1 5/12 doz. Plane Irons 

1 Dble Ironed Smoothing Plane 

1 Coopers Joiners Plane 

3 Saws 1/100. 1/125. 1/75 

1/6 doz Spades 

3J4 pr. Butt Hinges 

1 10/12 doz. Brass Hinges 

1 Ea 20 Chisel 6J4 Gimblet & 12^ 

Tapborer 

5 doz. Green Hdl Spear pi Knives N. 

ZYz doz. 9 in Cooks Knives 

106 doz. 5 in Butcher Knives N. 

1514 doz. Warrs Scalping Knives 

2 7/12 doz. Knives & Forks 

5/12 doz. Single Pen Knives 

lYi doz. Single Pocket Knives N. 

1^ doz. Cartouche Knives 

2 Dragon Swords 

3 Pockamogans 

lYz doz. 14 in Flat Files 

2M doz. 10 in Hf Round Files 

1 doz. 12 in Hf Round Files 

V/i doz. 9 in Hf Round Files 

1/6 doz. 8 in Hf Round Files 

AYz doz. Pitsaw Files 

1 doz. Rat Tail Files 

5/12 doz. House Rasps 

1 1/6 doz. Wood Rasps 

2 doz. Armourers Files 

7 Earthern Dishes No. 2 1/80 No. 3 

4/40 No. 4 2/60 Dishes 

10/12 doz. Coffees 

Yz doz. Sugars 

2 doz. Soups 

1/6 doz. Dinner Plates 

12^ doz. Kettle Ears Average 

23VS doz. Tin Cups 

Carried Forward 



595 08 



567 61 



F 


200 




150 




100 




900 




2400 




10 




100 




125 




275 




1250 




600 




162^ 




350 




900 




17 




175 


Y 


. 250 


F 


. 437/2 


Y 


. 106 


' 


150 


F 


. 225 


' 


300 


Y 


. 700 


F 


\ 90 




225 




200 




600 




325 




325 




275 




250 




225 




150 




400 




237/2 




175 




75 




600 




125 




125 




30 




60 



12 50 



112 36 
22 88 



11 67 



1592 04 
4 " 
1 50 
1 42 
3 75 
16 " 
6 60 



" 39 
16 06 



3 82 

1 25 

1 57 

4 50 
6 " 

10 " 
8 94 

3 25 

4 13 
" 42 
10 50 

1 50 

1 67 

2 76 

3 50 

3 60 
" 62 
2 " 

2 50 
" 21 

3 80 
14 " 



595 08 



727 02 1765 35 



214 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Brot forward 

Ys doz. Wash Basins 

4 doz. Large Pans 

27^ doz. Medium Pans 

5/12 doz. Scoops 

H doz. Candlemoulds 

1/12 doz. Strainers 

1 5/12 doz. Dippers 

1/6 doz. Powder Canisters 

2 5/12 doz. Small Pans 

7/12 doz. Powder Measures 

1/6 doz. Small Coffee Pots 

7/12 doz. Lanterns 

1/12 doz. Gratters 

2^ doz. Spoons _ 

lys doz. Iron Tea Spoons 

2 Tin Kettles 3 Galls Ea 

191 Tin Kettles 2 Galls & Cover 

436 Tin Kettles 2 Galls No Handle 

120 Tin Kettles 1 Galls & Cover 

349 Tin Kettles 1 Galls No cover 

162 Tin Kettles J^ Galls 

y^ doz. Mirrors with Drawers N. 

7 1/12 doz. Pocket Mirrors f 1 

10 doz. Pocket Mirrors f 2 

1^4 doz. Small Gilt Mirrors 

17 7/12 doz. Pap. Covered Mirrors 

Average 

14 1/12 doz. Brittania Mirrors No. 3.. N. 
14 doz. Brittania Mirrors No. 4 

8 doz. Large Gilt Mirrors No. 1 

10^ doz. Large Gilt Mirrors No. 2... 

396/ lbs 12d Cut Nails 

601 lbs Wro't Spikes 

54 lbs Old Nails 

22/ lbs Rough House Bells 

1 doz. Sheep Shears 

24 Beaver Trap Springs 

1 Beaver Trap Chains 

12 Squaw Axes 2/ lbs 

74 lbs Iron Wire 

77 lbs Iron Wire Very large N. 

25 lbs Brass Wire Very large 

6/ lbs Small Wire 

90 lbs Cast Wheel Boxes 

2 Gro. Clay Pipes N. 

78 Powder Horns 

Carried Forward 



595 08 



F. 450 


' 300 


' 240 


• 300 


' 75 


' 350 


' 300 


' 600 


' 120 


' 75 


' 450 


' 450 


' 150 


' 37 y2 


' 37y2 


' 125 


• 65 


' 62/ 


' 30 


• 28 


' 20 


Y. 162/ 


F. 45 


' 45 


' 62/ 


' 48 


Y. 362/ 


• 425 


F. 500 


' 300 


5 


• 12/ 


3 


' 40 


' 500 


' 62/ 


' 50 


' 80 


' 12 


Y. 16 


S. 24 


F. 36 


' 4/ 


Y. SSVs 


F. 50 



27 02 


1765 35 




1 50 




12 " 




65 60 




1 25 




" 38 




•' 29 




4 25 




2 90 




■■ 44 




" 75 




2 62 




" 13 




" 94 




" 50 




2 50 




124 15 




272 50 




36 " 




97 72 




32 40 




5 31 




4 50 




1 09 




8 44 


51 06 




59 50 






40 " 




32 25 




19 82 




75 19 




1 62 




8 90 




5 " 




15 " 




" 50 




9 60 



6 12 



601 20 



12 32 



67 



39 



851 38 2703 65 



APPENDICES 



215 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Brot forward 

1 Iron Beam & Wooden Scales F. 1000 

1 pr. Copper Scales & 2 setts Weights ' 2000 

2 Patent Balances N. Y. 350 

1 pr. Steelyards 520 lbs F. 625 

1 pr. Steelyards 200 lbs ' 162>4 

4 pr. Steelyards ' 162i/^ 

90 lbs Steel ' 20 

21 lbs Square Iron ' 4^ 

76 lbs Hoop Iron ' 6J4 

530 lbs Nail Rod Iron ' 7 

902 lbs Bar Iron ' 4^ 

3 doz. Windo Glass ' 30 

1 Painters Stone & Muller ' 550 

27 Belgian Guns N. Y. 450 

13 Belgian Guns used F. 300 

2 N. W. Guns used ' 450 

1 Dble B'r'l Percussion Gun ' 1500 

1 Old fine Gun ' 500 

6 Good Rifles ' 900 

2 Used Rifles ' 800 

8 Old Rifles ' 400 

29 U. S. Muskets N. Y. 300 

1 Brass Swivel Mt'd F. 9000 

1 Repeating Rifle ' 2000 

\y2 pr. Brass Brl Pistols N. Y. 438 

1 pr. Iron Brl Pistols ' 550 

4 pr. Old Pistols F. 150 

1- 3 pounder Iron Cannon ' 6600 

1- 4 pounder Iron Cannon ' 6600 

2 Setts Rammers & Wipers N. Y. 500 

8 Powder Horns F. 50 

5021 lbs Bullets ' 6 

280 lbs Pig Lead ' S'A 

A29y2 lbs Small Bar Lead ' 12 

40 lbs Grape Shot N. Y. 6 

6 Canister Balls 4 lbs Ea— 24 lbs ' 10 

24 Canister Balls 3 lbs Ea— 72 lbs ' 10 

i?, Cannon Ralls 3 lbs Ea— 99 lbs ' 5^^ 

M Bag Shot F. 135 

12 Canister Rifle Powder ' 17 

Sundry Fire Works valued at 

2273 lbs Gun Powder ' 17 

i7 lbs Chrome Yellow ' 30 

83 lbs Amn Vermillion ' 35 

63 lbs Chinese Vermillion N. Y. 180 

Carried Forward 



601 20 



851 38 


2703 65 




10 " 




20 " 


7 " 






6 25 




1 62 




6 50 




18 " 




" 94 




4 75 




:^7 10 




40 59 




•• 90 




5 50 


121 50 






39 " 




9 " 




15 •• 




5 " 




54 " 




16 " 




32 " 


87 " 






90 " 




20 " 


6 57 




5 50 






6 " 




66 " 




60 " 


10 " 






4 " 




301 26 




9 80 




51 54 


2 40 




2 40 




7 20 




5 44 






1 01 




2 04 




5 " 




386 41 




11 10 




29 05 


113 40 





601 20 



1219 79 4069 02 



216 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Bro't forward 

20 lbs. Verdigris F. ZTV^ 

iVi kegs SpaBro. in Oil ' 250 

26 lbs Yellow Paint Oil ' 6 

\y2 Box Water Colours for 

1 doz. Camel Hair Pencils 

3 1/6 doz. Playing Cards 3-150 & 

1/6-100 F. 

1 Copying Press ' 1200 

1 Cap Copying Book ' 300 

1 Letter Copying Book ' 225 

1 Copying Brush ' 63 

2 Bot. Copying Ink ' 75 

1 Hydrometer N. Y. 500 

41^ Sheets Oil Paper F. 25 

Wi Rhm Cap Paper ' 250 

H Rhm Wrapping Paper ' 300 

2 Qrs Envelope Paper ' 30 

1 Qr Blank Engagements ' 100 

4 Qrs Bills of Lading ' 100 

1 Qt Black Ink ' lIVz 

Yi doz. Ink Powders ' 100 

3— 1 Qr Blank Books ' 40 

3 doz. Steel Pens ' 75 

3 Ink Stands 1-75 1-50 1-100 

2 Wafer Boxes ' 25 

1 Patent Ruler ' 87^ 

1 Brass Mtd Telescope 1000 

1 Military Drum N. Y. 750 

1 Electrical Machine ' 500 

1 Magic Lantern & Paintings ' 5000 

1 Gro. Vials ' 150 

1 Clyster Syringe F. 250 

2 Cut Glass Decanters ' 175 

1 Spy Glass wanting Repairs * 800 

1 Case Scalpels ' 600 

1 Case Pocket Instruments ' 1500 

1 Tourniquet ' 150 

2 prs. Pullicans ' 150 

1 Spring Lancet ' 125 

2 Thumb Lancets ' 25 

1 pr. Shears ' 42 

1 Mortar & Pestle ' 175 

1 Apothecaries Scales & Weights ' 250 

4 oz. Sulph. Quinine ' 425 

^ doz Bain's Pile Lotion ' 2000 

7/12 doz Roger's Liverwort & Tar ' 800 

Carried Forward 



601 20 



601 20 



1219 79 


4069 02 




7 50 




6 25 




1 56 




4 50 




" 25 




4 67 




12 " 




3 " 




2 25 




" 63 




1 SO 


5 " 






1 12 




3 75 




1 50 




" 60 




1 " 




4 " 




" 38 




" 67 




1 20 




2 25 




2 25 




" 50 




" 87 




10 " 


7 50 




5 " 




50 " 




1 50 






2 50 




3 50 




8 " 




6 " 




15 " 




1 50 




3 " 




1 25 




" 50 




'• 42 




1 75 




2 50 




17 " 




5 " 




4 66 



1288 79 4215 80 



APPENDICES 217 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Bro't forward 601 20 1288 79 4215 80 

VA lbs Assafetida @ 25c 7/12 doz 

Capsules @ 160 1 31 

7% lbs Tumeric @ 12c H Gro. Vial 

Corks @ 12c " 98 

1% lbs Beeswax @ 25c 1% lbs Indigo 

@ 50c " 94 

114 lbs Glue @ 18c 1 lb Logwood 

@ 6c " 28 

1 10/12 lbs Arrowroot @75c 10^ lbs 

Ep. Salts @ 6c 2 " 

2A lbs Cinnamon @ 3Sc J4 lb Jalap 

@ 50c 1 " 

1 Vial 01. Cinnamon 25c 3^ doz C 

Pills @ 125 4 63 

1 lb Lampblack 12c V/2 lbs Blue 

Moss @ 100 1 62 

10 lbs Borax @ 25c 1^ doz. Ess. Lem- 
on @ 35c 3 08 

K lb Wafers @ 50c H lb B. Pitch @ 

25c " 32 

2 lbs Pearl Sago @ 25c 2 oz. Gentian 

@ 25c 1 " 

eVs lbs Sulphur @ 36c 5/12 doz Ol 

Spruce @ 300 

2 oz. Opium @ 50c 1 lb Cloves @ 60c 
^ lb Carb: Soda @ 75c ^ lb Manna 

@ 110c 

4^ lbs Columba @ 33^ 2 oz. Senna 

@ 10c 

10/12 doz. Lee's Pills @ 100c 3 1/16 

doz. Turlington @ 50c 

1/6 doz. Ess. Peppermint @ 30c 7/12 

oz Opodeldoc @ 75c 

^ lb Vitriol @ 20c V2 lb Lozenges 

@ 70c 

1 lb Beaznig @ 50c A Gum Arabic 

@ 40c 

2 lbs Red Chalk @ 12c ^ doz Lamp- 

wick @ 12^ 

^ lb Ipecac @ 50c ^ lb Aloes @ 

37y2 

2 P Syringes @ 9c 2 lbs Chalk @ 5c 
y2 lb Sealing Wax @ 80c 1 doz. 

Cayenne @ 100 

Vs doz. Dally @ $2. 54 lb Elm Bark 

@ 37!^c 

J^ lb Ginger Root @ 14c 5 lbs Gum 

Lac @ 40c 



3 65 


1 60 


" 84 


1 78 


2 41 


" 49 


" 40 


" 70 


" 32 


" 57 


" 28 


1 40 


1 62 


2 07 



218 



APPENDICES 



1 lb Bal: Copaiba @ 50c 1 lb Cam- 

omile @ 60c 

3% lbs P. Bark @ 50c 20 lbs Com 

Emery @ 12j/^c 

lyi lbs Copperas @ 12i/$c 2 lbs fastic 

@ 25c 

H lb Quill Bark @ 50c 2^ lbs Gr'd 

Emery @ 12^c 

2 lbs Pruss. Blue @ 100 1 lb Spd In- 
digo @ 75c 

1 1/6 Ol Spruce @ $3.- ^ doz. Lg Ol 
Spruce @ $4.00 

1 lb Mercl Oint. @ 119c 1 lb Basilican 

@ 50c 

1/6 doz. Chapman @ 400c 11/12 doz. 
Seidlitz @ 250c 

2 lbs Spts. Camphor @ 40c 1 Bot. 

Nitric Acid @ 100 

1 Bot Ol Stone @ 81^c 1 Bot. Oil 
Spike @ 7Sc 

1 Bot British Oil @ 75c ^ doz. Castor 
Oil @ 400c 

25 lbs Saltpetre @ 17c 14 lbs Brim- 
stone @ 17c 

7 lbs Logwood @ 6c 9 lbs Camwood 
@ 25c 

1/2 lb Spunk @ 75c 1 Demijohn @ 
200c 

73 Junk Bottles & Jars @ 20c 

3 lbs Rappee Snuff @ 20c 

Sy2 lbs Spa. Tobacco F. 35 

7640 lbs Plug Tobacco F. 6^ 

301 dz Cut Tobacco F. 10 

•^ Box Shaving Soap F. 175 



1 10 
4 12 
" 69 
" 56 

2 75 
4 83 

1 69 

2 89 
1 80 
1 56 

1 75 
6 63 

2 67 

2 37 
14 60 

" 60 

2 98 

496 60 

30 10 

1 08 



Carried Forward 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Bro't forward 

442 lbs Rosin Soap 

1 Box Raisins 

V/2 Bbl Beans 

1J4 Bu. Dried Apples 

1^ Bu. Dried Peaches 

1 Bbl Flour 

7/8 Bbl Rosin 

7/s Bbl Tar 

XYs doz. Mustard 

14 lb Nutmegs 



601 20 



601 2U 



1288 78 
1288 79 



4 
338 
500 
225 
225 
575 
225 
225 
325 
140 



4350 46 

4350 4o 
17 68 
3 38 
7 50 
3 38 

3 94 
575 

1 97 
1 97 

4 33 
•• 35 



APPENDICES 



219 



1% lbs Cloves 

9 lbs Pepper 

31 lbs Cheese 

24 lbs Saleratus 

23 Gls. Molasses 

82 lbs Rice 

265^ lbs Tea 

203 lbs Coffee 

1473 lbs N. O. Sugar 

4^ Gls. Vinegar 

6?^ Sacks G. A. Salt 

69 lbs Rock Salt 

80 B Ree Corn no freight 

Sundry Medicines omitted in place for 

Advance on Sterling 90% 

Do on New York \1V2% 

Commission 5 pr Ct 

Freight on 35,747^ lbs @ 3c pr 
Pound 



28 










" 35 


' 12^2 










1 12 


' 10 










3 10 


' 61/. 










1 56 


' 38 










8 74 


' 4J/2 










3 69 


' 50 










13 25 


' lOH 










21 31 


6^ 










95 74 


• 30 










1 42 


' 130 










8 67 


2 










1 38 


' 200 










160 " 
12 37 




601 


20 


1288 79 


5215 41 




541 


08 






1142 28 








225 


54 


1514 33 








7872 02 












393 60 












1072 43 



$9338 05 



The following Sundries & Articles in use at Estimated value 

Skins &c 51 Painted Parflesches @ 25c 

40^ Dressed Cow Skins * 50 

280 48 Apishimos 280 26-lOOc & 22-50c 

2 Porcupine Skins @ 100 

3 Dressed Cabrie ' 50 

Sundries 793 lbs Rendered Grease ' 5 

4 pr. Snow Shoes ' 100 

4 Setts Amn Leather Harness 

(waggon) for 

4 Double Cart Harnesses Complete ' 600 

1 Sett Buggy Harness ' 500 

2 Bull Harness setts ' 500 

Sundry pieces of Harness equal to 

2 setts ' 400 

3 Sett Dog Harness ' 100 

Carried Forward 



20 


25 


Z1 


" 


2 


" 


1 


50 



39 65 



73 50 



108 65 9411 55 



220 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Von Union Bro't forward 
1 Halter 75c & 1 Old Amn Saddle 

250c 

23 Pack Saddles Complete 

4 Spa Riding Saddles Complete 

43 Old Pack Saddles 

8 Spa. Saddle Trees 

2 Bear Skin Saddle Covers 

1 Small Cast Stove & pipe 

1 Cooking Stove & pipe 

1 Lg Sheet Iron Stove & pipe 

1 Sma. Sheet Iron Stove & pipe 



4 Cast Ovens @ 125c & 500 lbs Old 
Iron @ 3c 

3 Sma. Grindstones @ 75c & 1 Old 
Joiner @ 150c 

2 Padlocks @ 75c 2 Iron Rakes @ 
100 4 Log Chains @ $2 

3 Caulking Irons @ 25c & 1 Broken 
Handsaw 25c 

1 Old Watering Pot @ 25c 2 Oil 
Cans @ 50c 1 Lantern @ 37j4 

2 Used Kettles @ 60c 3 Trowels 
@ 100 3 Tackle Hooks @ 100 

12 lbs Wheel Boxes @ 8c & 2 Foot 
Adzes @ 100 

7 Old Broad Axes for $5.— 2 Spades 
@ 50c 3 Picks @ 100 

1 Branding Iron $2.50 3 Hoes @ 30c 
& 4 frones @ 100 

1 Good Broad Axe $2.— & 1 chisel 
16c 

1 Stone Drill & primer @ 100 1 doz. 
Candlemoulds 75c 

2 pr Iron Hobbles @ 100 & 1 pr. 
Handcuffs @ 100 

1 Cramping Chain 150c & 1 Lg Boat 
Ring @ 50c 

1 pr. Good Bra.ss Ball Moulds 24 B. 
@ 1050 

4 pr. Tolerably good Ball Moulds 
24 B. @ 950 

2 pr. Broken Ball Moulds 24 B. @ 
500 

1 pr. Iron Ball Moulds 6 B. @ 930 



@ 250 
500 
150 
50 
200 
800 
1000 
600 
400 



108 65 9411 55 

3 25 
57 50 
20 " 
64 50 

4 " 
4 " 
8 " 

10 " 
6 " 
4 " 294 90 



20 " 


3 75 


11 50 


1 " 


1 63 


7 20 


2 96 


9 " 


7 40 



2 16 

1 75 

3 '• 

2 " 

10 50 

38 " 

10 " 
9 30 



64 44 



6 " 




1 75 




3 " 




4 75 


92 21 


1 Z7 




5 50 




4 50 




" 55 
1 50 




5 " 

1 " 

20 " 





APPENDICES 221 

1 pr. Brass Buckshot Ball Moulds 

@ 600 

5 Padlocks no keys @ 25c 1 T. N. 

Hook 25 1 Slate 25 

1 Potash Kettle $2 1 Iron Hay 
Fork @ 1.00 

2 Shaving Benches @ 2.— 1 Speak- 
ing Trumpet @ 75c 

1 Lg funnel 37^c 1 Tobacco Cut- 
ter 100c 

1 Leather Port Manteau $2.50 & 1 

Old Trunk $3.— 

4 Setts Hoop Moulds @ 100 & 1 Old 
Axe 50c 

1 Funnel 12^ Dipper 10c Pan 20c & 
Knife 12J/^ for Molasses 

1 Indian Bow & 2 Arrows for 

2 Large Double Tackle Blocks @ 
250 

1 Large Single Tackle Blocks @ 100 
200 lbs Cordage various sizes @ 10.. 
Sundry Paint Kettles, Brushes, Oil 

Cans, Caps & Paints Estimated at 80 

1 Coopers Hammer @ 100c & 2 S. 

J. Kettles @ 50c 2 " 51 42 

1 Jack Plane 125c 1 pr Match planes 

@ 100 

1 Ea Ladle 10c Scoop 10c & 25c 

Inkstand 

1 Gimlet 6^c 1 Cast Pot 125c 1 Nail 

Wrench 50c 

Carried Forward 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Brot forward 
1 Old Smiths Bellows $2.— & 1 

Small do. $2 

1 Trap Spring and Chain @ 100c 1 

Round Adze 75c 

14 Moulding & Beading Planes 

nearly new @ 75c 

1 Lg Gouge @ 75c & 3 Crooked 
Drawing Knives @ 50c 

2 Single Mattresses @ $2. & 2 Try- 
ing Squares @ 25c 



225 




" 45 




1 81 




4 51 


9914 52 


4 51 


9914 52 


4 " 




1 75 




10 50 




2 25 




4 50 





222 APPENDICES 

4 Augurs 24 Qtrs @ 10c & 1 Hoop ^ 53 

Driver @ 125^ 

4 Drawing Knives @ 75c & 3 Tap ^ ^g 
Borers @ 12i/^c 

5 Chisels @ 16c 1 Saw Sett I2/2C & ^ „ 
2 Old Files @ 4c 

1 Water fountain & Fossit 1.00 & 
1 Tool Chest $5.— 

2 Old Pitsaws @ $2 1 - 6 qr Stone ^ „ ^^ ^^ 



Saw $2. 



6 " 



7 50 



5 Used Scythes & 5 Sneathes for.... 

3 Rakes @ 25c 2 Lanterns @ 37i/^c 

3 Funnels @ I2^c 

1 Canteen 50c 3 Tin Cups @ 654c 

2 Candlesticks @ 25 

8 Very Old Axes @ 30c 3 Used 

Spades @ 50c 

14 Used Axes @ 75c 1 Round Adze 
@ 100 "- 

2 Old Liquor Cases @ $2.— 1 Cast 
Pot @ 125 ■■"-■- 

1 Tin Pan 25c 2 Candlemoulds @ 

614c ~ 

1 - Qt Measure 25c 36 lbs Cast 

Wheels Boxes @ 8c 

1 Small Iron Vice Broken 150c 1 

Milk Pot 50c 

4 Sheet Iron Camp Kettles @ 120c.. 

3 Ploughs @ $6.- 1 Harrow $3.- 

58 lbs Red Earth @ 8c 4 Used ^ ^ ^ ^y 

Kettles @ 70c 

32 pr Horse Shoes @ 50c & 19 pr ^3 12 

Ox Shoes @ 375/2 

1 Old Shovel @ 50c & 1 Old Axe ^ „ 

@ 50c IQQ »» 

5 Single Carts Iron Tire @ 2000 ^^ „ 

1 Truck Cart Iron Tires @ 3000 ^5 »» 

1 Hay Cart Iron Tire @ 2500 ^^ „ 

3 Ox Carts Iron Tire @ 2500 ^2 » 

4 pr Cart Wheels @ 800 20 " 

4 Hay Cart Bodies @ 500 ^ „ 

2 Single Cart Bodies @ 30O ^^ „ 

1 Old Dearbourne Repaired @ 1000 

1 Buggy Complete with 2 Bodies ^^ „ ^^^ 12 

val. at 



1 19 


3 90 


10 50 


5 25 


" 38 


3 13 


2 " 


480 


21 " 



APPENDICES 223 



1- 4 Horse Waggon F. P. @ 6500.... 
1- 4 Horse Waggon F. W. @ 7000.. 
4 Ox Yokes @ 200 

1 Wheel Barrow @ 500 

2 Ox Sleds @ $3. & 4 Horse Sleds 
@ $2 

4 Dog Trains @ 400 

1 Scow $20.- & 1 Skiff $10.- 

1 Covd Mackinaw Boat 

Furniture 

1 Book Case $2.- 1 Writing Table 

$4- 

1 Cloth Covd Desk SSOc & 2 Dining 

Tables @ 750c 

1 Round Table $3.- 2 Half Round 

do. @ $2.- 

Carried Forward 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Bro't forward 

1 Mess Table $5.- & 2 Kitchen Do 
@ $2 

1 Comn Table $1.- & 1 Sofa $5.- 

1 Cloth Covd & padded Sofa New 

1 Maple Bureau 

1 Pine & Maple Sideboard New 

1 Pine Cupboard 

1 Walnut Cupboard $10 1 Pier 
Glass $3.- 

1 Sma Desk $2 

2 Turned Bedsteads & Hangings @ 
$15.- 

1 U. S. Chart $10.- 1 Towel 25c 

1 Looking Glas 150 1 Tin Post Of- 
fice $2.- 

4 Large Landscape Oil Paintings @ 
$10 

1 Arm Chair 1.50 17 Chairs @ 75c 
4 Do. @ 100 

3 prs. And Irons @ 100 1 Brittania 
Pitcher 50c 

1 Tobo Receiver 100c J/2 doz Sconces 
@ 150 

2 Tin Shovels @ 50c 2 pr. Brass 
Candlesticks @ 100 

1 Turned Washstand $2.- 1 Comn 
Do. 100 



65 " 




70 " 




8 " 




5 " 




14 " 




16 " 




30 " 




20 " 




6 " 




20 50 




7 " 


26150 




10663 53 




10663 53 


9 " 




6 " 




20 " 




21 " 




20 " 




6 " 




13 " 




2 " 




30 " 




10 25 




3 50 




40 " 




18 25 




3 50 




1 75 




3 " 




3 " 





224 APPENDICES 

1 Sma Cupboard $2.- 1 Comn Bed- 
stead @ 150c 3 5Q 

Tinners Tools 

Sundry Tinners Tools val. at 

Tailors 

1 pr Tailors Shears 150c 1 Goose 

150c Lapboard 50c 

Blacksmiths 

1 Large Screw plate 250c & 5 pr. 

Tongs @ 50c 

1 Bench Drill $2. & 1 Drill Bow & 

Plate 150 

1 Scraper 25c 1 Iron Saw 50c 1 

Brace 75c 

1 - 2 in Augur 80c 3 punches @ 25c 

26 files @ 3c 

1 Wrench 62^c 1 Buttress 50c 1 
Slick 100 

1 Large Ice Trench 100c 1 pr Iron 
Shears 100 

2 Tire Wrenches @ 50c & 4 Gun 
Lock Tools @ 50c 

1 Compass Wheel 75c 12 Heading 
Tools @ 25c 

26 Mandrils & punches @ 25c 1 
Anvil 12 50 

1 Bellows $15.- 1 Bench Vice $5.- 
2 Draw Bores @ 50c 

1 Sledge $2.50 1 Flout 100c 1 Ram- 
rod Bitt 50 

Carpenters 

1 Bench Vice $5.- 2 Joiners Planes 
@ $2.- 

3 Fore Planes @ 130c 3 Jack Planes 
@ 130c 

5 Smoothing Planes @ 75c 1 Pat. 
Plough & Bitts $5.- 8 

1 Pat. Plough & Grooves 100c 1 pr 

Match planes 100c 2 

12 Moulding Beading & Sash planes 

@ 50c 

6 Caulking Irons @ 25c 1 Iron 
Square 62J/2 

1 - 2 ft Rule 33c 2 trying squares @ 
25c 

2 Drawing Knives @ 75c 1 Small 
Broad Axe 100 



20 " 


3 50 


5 " 


3 50 


1 50 


2 33 


2 13 


2 » 


3 " 


3 75 


19 " 


21 " 


4 " 



9 " 

7 80 

8 75 



6 " 
2 12 
" 83 
2 50 



213 75 
20 " 

3 50 



67 21 



3 75 




" 43 




43 18 


10967 99 


43 18 


10967 99 



APPENDICES 225 

9 Gages @ 25c 10 punches @ 12J/^ 

& 1 Screw Driver 25 

1 Gimlet 6c 1 Scribe 12 1 Oil 

Stone 25c 

Carried Forward 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Bro't forward 
1 Comp: Saw broken 25c 46 Chisels 

& Gouges @ 16c 7 61 

3 Spike Gimblets @ 12^c & 1 pr 

Nippers 50c " 88 

1 pr. Compasses 50 & 1 Trying 

Compass 50c 

3 Mallets @ 25c & 2 Nail Wrenches 

@ 75c 

1 Bench Tool 100c & 2 Handsaws 

@ 100c 3 " 57 92 

1 Tenor Saw 100c 1 Brace & Bitts 
$6.- _ 

2 Round Adzes @ 75c 1 Morticing 
Adze 75c 

2 Bevel Squares @ 25c 1 Wheel 
Gouge 100c 

1 Foot Adze 150c 1 Wheel sett 75c 

2 Large & good Broad Axes @ $2.- 

1 Wheel Hub $2 

2 Chopping Axes @ 100c 2 Claw 
Hammers @ 75c 

3 good Pitsaws 1-400 1-350 1-200 & 

2 X Cutsaws @ $3 

54 Qtrs Augurs @ 10c 1 Boat Hook 

& Chain 100c 

1 Old Screw plate 100c 2 Small Do. 
& Dies @ 250c 

2 Wrenches @ 62^^ 9 files @ 3c 1 
Grindstone 150c 

1 Old Grindstone 100c 1 Crow Bar 
100c - 

1 Level 125c 2 Work Benches @ 
$2- 

1 Turning Machine Complete Im- 
proved 10 " 70 67 

Kitchen 

1 Corn Mill & Fly Wheel 

2 Funnels @ 20c 1 Ice Cream Churn 
100c 



2 25 


3 " 


7 " 


2 25 


1 50 


2 25 


6 " 


3 50 


IS 50 


6 40 


6 " 


3 02 


2 " 


5 25 


10 " 


6 90 


1 40 



2 25 



226 APPENDICES 

1 Large Earthern Dish 150c 1 Me- 
dium Do. 75c 

28 Candlemoulds @ 6^c 2 Flour 

Sieves @ SOc 2 75 

1 Dipper 20c 23 Plates @ 20c 2 

Sugars @ 50c 5 gQ 

2 Creamers @ 37Hc 2 Salts @ 25c 

1 Pepper Box 25 j 50 

1 Bowl 15c 1 Sett Castors 350c 8 

Tea Spoons @ 3c 3 39 

22 Table Spoons @ 6c 34 Knives 

& Forks @ 10c 4 72 

2 Graters @ 12^^ 1 Soup Tureen 

$5.- 2 Table Cloths $4 9 25 

2 doz. Saucers @ 120c 3^ doz. Cups 
@ 75c 

4 - 4 GI. Tin Kettles @ 120c 1 - 8 

Gl. Tin Do 150c 6 3O 

3 - 3 gl. Tin Kettles @ 87j^c 2 - 2 

gl Tin Do 50c 3 ^3 

1 - 1 gl Tin Kettles @ 37Hc 1 - ^ 
gl Tin Do 25c 

2 Cast Ovens @ 125c 18 Medium 
pans @ 20c 5 jq 

7 Large pans @ 30c 1 Flour pan 50c 2 60 

7 Large Tin Plates @ 30c 1 Tin 

Waiter @ 100c 3 jq 

1 Cullinder 100c & 1 Sauce pan 50c 1 SQ 

2 Long Hdl Fry Pans @ 75c 1 

Flesh Fork @ 121^ 1 53 

2 pr Pot Hooks @ 50c 1 Grid Iron 

@ 100c 2 " 

2 Skimmers @ 20c 1 Lg Coffee Pot 

150c 

2 Small Coffee Pots @ 62i^c 2 pr 

And Irons @ 100 4 25 

1 Lantern 37Hc & 2 Potash Kettles 
@ $2.- 

2 Camp Kettles @ 120c & 1 Butcher 
Knife 25c 

9 Tin Cups @ 6%c 2 Butter Plates 

@ 20c .. 96 

2 Hand Bells @ 37Hc 2 Tumblers 

@ 12Hc 1 .. 

2 Sausage Stuffers @ 75c 1 Glass 

Mustard 12^ 1 63 



4 84 



62 



1 90 



4 37 
2 65 



Carried Forward 



87 54 11096 58 



APPENDICES 



U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union Bro't forward 
1 Spade 75c 1 Wood Saw 100c 1 

Chop Axe 100c 

1 Iron Bound Bucket 100c 1 Cof- 
fee Mill 7Sc 

1 Cleaver 25c 1 Tin Roaster 250c 
1 Basin 50c 



Dairy 
28 Milk Pans 50c 5 Very 


large 




Pans @ 60c 






2 Cream Kettles @ 60c 1 Churn $2.- 




2 - 4 gl Kettles @ 80c 3 Cheese 




Moulds @ 100c 






2 Strainers @ 25c 1 Skimmer 


25 




Live Stock 






4 Mules 


@ 40.00 


4 Indian Horses 




2500 


3 Train Dogs 




500 


7 Working Oxen 




2500 


1 Black Bull 




2500 


1 Red Stag Bull 





2500 


2 Large Young Cut Bulls 




2500 


11 Milch Cows 




2500 


4 Heifers 




1500 


3 - 2 yr Old Bull Calves 


1500 


6 - 1 yr Old Calves 




1000 


7 Small Calves 




500 


4 Hogs 


500 


2 Pigs 


150 


Forts 






3 Forts viz: Union Benton & Alex- 




ander for 








Add Error in extension of 1 - 4 
pounder Cannon on pages 6 and 
5 pr Ct Commission 





227 


87 54 


11096 58 


2 75 




1 75 




3 25 


95 29 


17 " 




3 20 




4 60 




" 75 


25 55 


160 " 




100 " 




15 " 




175 " 




25 " 




25 " 




50 " 




275 " 




60 " 




45 " 




60 " 




35 " 




20 " 




3 " 


1048 " 




3000 " 



15265 42 



6 30 



Reduction 23% on Articles in Use 
Live Stock &c Less 148.50 on 
Skins & New Furniture say on 
this Amount $3785.17 

E & O E. 



15271 72 



1561 



13710 72 



228 APPENDICES 



28 21 


8 94 


16 " 


8 SO 


6 50 


60 30 


6 " 



63 



Fort Union 15th May, 1851 
Outfit 1850 
Supplement to Fort Union Inventory taken 10th June 1851 
2 prs 2 pt White Blankets @ 403 

1 doz. Fancy Bridles dbl rein ' 894 

2 Used Rifles > qqq 

1 Used Rifles Supr ' 550 

1 Good Percussion Gun ' 650 

1 Medicine Cupboard & Complete Asst 

Medicine omitted in F. U. Inv. $60 

& Comn 

1 C. S. Pitsaw new 6 ft 

1 90 ft Mackinaw Boat Covd & partly 

rigged 

1 Mounted Brass Swivel 

1 Sett Tinners Machines 87.55 & Pipe 

Roller & Compn q- 

176 lbs Blackfoot Vermillion O 8 1 ^ S 

5 Used Guns [ZZ '400 20 » 

1 U. S. Musket $3. & Powder Horn 50c , ca 

-1 ii 17 

34 California Shells. #1 ^2 p~ 3j 25 

Its Too "75" 

2 Indian Shirts > ^qq , „ 

1 Raw Hide Boat Covering sewed 14 

Skins '100 

1 New - 100 Bu: Corn Bin 

1 New Pine Cupboard & Dresser 

1 Tin Canister for Powder 

The following Articles which bear reduction viz: 

7 Indian Horses @ 2500 

1 Indian Horse in safe hands with 

Blackft Indian - 2500 25 

1 Mule , 4QQQ 

1 Spa. Saddle no stirrups ' 300 7 

1 ps. Skin 50c 2 Canteens 100c 1 Tin 
plate UYi 

2 Tin Cups 12Hc 1 Kettle 38c 1 Cast 

pot 37c 

1 Packsaddle 250 5 Sacks 125c 

1 Axe 50c 1 lb Tobacco 12c 

1 Pine Yawl '' ' 

1 Shingling Hatchet 50c & 2 Tarpau- 
lins for $20 

1 Keel Camboose & Kettles. .. „ .? 



14 
10 


., 


10 


" 


" 


50 



175 



1 63 

" 87 

3 75 

" 62 

10 " 



478 71 



APPENDICES 229 



2 Keel Boat Sails $20 & 10 

4 Chopping Axes $4.- 3 Camp Kettles 

$3.60 

1 Spike Gimblet I2i^c 1 Augur 40c 

1 Handsaw 100 

1 Drawing Knife 75c 1 Jack Plane 

130c 

1 Tool Chest $3.- 2 Caulking Irons 50c 

1 Iron Anchor $15. & Chain Cables 

$20 

2 Double Blocks $4.- & 3 Single Do. 

$3.- 

1 Marking Pot & line 25c 1 Chisel 16c 
17 Pole Sockets $17.- 1 pr. Lodge 

Skins 50c 

VA pr. Cart Tire 65 lbs @ 3c 

1 Chop. Axe 100c 1 Handsaw 100c 1 

New S. Chisel 25c 

1 Drawing Knife 75c 1 - ^ Augur 30c 

Carried Forward 

U. M. O. 1850 Fort Union (Suppmt) Bro't forward 
1 Caulking Iron 25c Sundry Boat 
Ironing $6.- 



Reduction 27% on $404.46. 



Less Kettles Tool &c Shipped per 
Mackinaws viz: 

2 Drawing Knives 150c 6 Camp Ket- 
tles 720c 3 Tin do. 220c 1 Hatchet 
50c Oak & Nails 100c 12 40 

2 C. Irons 50c 3 Spoons 18c. 3 Cups 
22c. 3 pans 60c. 1 file 40c 9 lbs Sugar 

99 7 lbs Coffee 112 4 01 

6 lbs flour 48. 1 Bbl Pork $15.30. 1 
Mallet 25c. 9 Bu: Corn 188. 1 Qt 
Salt 8c 

3 lbs Powder 82c. 6 lbs Balls 60. 1 
Sack 25c 



30 " 




7 60 




1 53 




2 05 

3 50 




35 " 




7 " 
" 41 




17 50 
1 95 




2 25 
1 05 




398 21 


478 71 


398 21 


478 71 


6 25 


404 46 


404 46 
109 20 


295 26 



773 97 



Reduction 27% on 1440c. 



34 11 
1 67 




52 19 
3 89 


48 30 



725 67 



230 APPENDICES 

Add 2 Mules $80. 2 Saddles F. P. $10. 
1 Indn Horse $25. Packsaddle E. 
B. 2S0c. 27% off 85 78 



811 45 
Deduct 8 Horses stolen at Fort Alex- 
ander by Indians @ $25. Less 27% 146 " 



665 45 



The Chopping Axes. Guns & Grindstone sent down by Mackinaws are to be re- 
turned to F. U. per Steamer, therefore are not deducted here. 



APPENDICES 



231 



SAINT LOUIS JULY 8th 1852 

Shipt N Yk in Co with R. Campbell 1852 

To R & W Campbell 

The following returns of Harvey 2.si Primeau & Co 

13828 Buffalo Robes 

262 Buffalo Robes damaged 

19 Buffalo Robes pieces 

2002 Buffalo Calf Robes 

33 Buffalo Calf Robes damaged 

265 Buffalo Calf Robes Red 

242 Elk Skins Gray 2780 

26 Shaved Skins Robes 207 

2 Red Skins Robes 22 

4 Red Skins Robes Fawn 7 3016# 

97 Shaved Antelope Skins 142 

168 Gray Antelope Skins 404 

23 Gray Big Horn Skins 78 

2 Shaved Big Horn Skins 5 629 " 

115 Grey deer Skins No. 1 537 

226 Grey deer Skins No. 2 732 

78 Grey deer Skins No. 3 188 

2 Grey deer water damg 7 1464 

7 Red deer No. 1 15 

8 Red deer No. 2 17 

3 Red deer Fawn 3 35 

146 Shaved deer No. 1 304 

114 Shaved deer No. 2 151 

31 Shaved deer No. 3 29 484 

1 Blk Bear No. 3 

2 Grizzly Bear No. 4 

2 Grizzly Bear Cub 5 SKINS 

57 Pole Cat 

56 White Rabbit 

5 Common Rabbit 

2 Swan 

180 Red Fox 117. 44.19 

953 Prairie Fox 646. 289.18 

2 Wolverines No. 2 

12 Raccoons O. 8. 4. 

4 Mink 

128 Muskrat O. 63. 65 Kitts 

6 Lynx 

1 Martin 



Dr 



292 J^ 40446 90 
200 524 " 

100 19 " 

292^ 5855 85 
200 66 " 

25 66 25 



20 603 20 



121^ 78 62 



14 204 96 



20 7 " 



25 12 10 



50 


2 50 


10 


5 70 


10 


5 60 


2 


" 10 


25 


" 50 


100 


180 " 


25 


238 25 


150 


3 " 


20 


2 40 


40 


1 60 


4 


5 12 


75 


4 50 




" 75 



48333 90 



232 APPENDICES 

Shipt N Yk in Co with R. Campbell 1852 Dr 

To R & W Campbell Amount brought forward 48333 90 

9 Wild Cat 30 2 70 

164 Badger 59. 60. 44 25 41 " 

1 Otter 1 50 

179 Beaver Skins No. 1 264 

187 Beaver Skins No. 2 234 

86 Beaver Skins No. 3 _ 127 

3 damaged Skins 

1 piece Skin 6 631# 250 1577 50 

49956 60 

Our half 24978 30 

34 dys Int. on No. 376 our dft. on N 

Yk 5000 payable 1 Aug 28 33 

123 dys Int on $8006.63 164.15 192 48 

25170 78 



SAINT LOUIS JULY 8th 1852 

R & W. Campbell Dr To Office New York 

No. 376 our dft. @ 22 days date their favor 5000 " 

No 377 our dft @ 4 mos. date favor from 30 June 8170 78 

13170 78 
SAINT LOUIS AUGUST 13th 1856 

P Chouteau Jr. & C No 4 Dr To Upper Miss O 1855 

purchased by them returns of the Outfit Cash 1 Aug 1856 

34243 Buffalo Robes 4.00 136972 

546 Red Calf 30 163 80 

2284 Prairie Fox 25 571 

Carried Forward 137706 80 



APPENDICES 233 

SAINT LOUIS AUGUST 22" 1856 

P Chouteau Jr & Co No. 4 Dr To Upper Miss O 1855 

Amounts brought forward 137706 80 

152 Red Fox $1 152 

1240 large Wolf " 1240 

321 small Wolf 50 16U 50 

16 Badger 50 20 10 25c 4 00 

28 Badger 10 6 12 7 40 

4 Wild Cat ^^V^ 1 50 

11 Wild Cat >^0 ^ 30 

2 Cross Fox $2 4 

4 Large Dog 50 2 

49 Pole Cat ^Va 3 07 

2 Raccoon 50 1 

52 Muskrats 60 30 15 5c 2 60 

11 Mink 6 3 2 4 80 

61 White Rabbits 5c 3 05 

16 Common Rabbits 80 

18 Grizzly Bear $3 54 

4 Cub 50 2 

5 deer Skins 12 lbs 25 3 

11 Elk Skins 127 lbs 25 31 75 

2 Shaved Elk 18 

19 Red Elk 177 

4 Fawn Elk 12 

5 Gray Elk 72 279 25 69 75 

238 Gray Deer 870 16^/^ 145 " 

45 Red Deer 104 35 36 40 

5 Shaved Deer 11 35 3 85 

40 Gray Elk 4«1 20 96 20 

21 Red Elk 181 

1 Shaved Elk 9 

16 Fawn 31 220 20 44 20 

117 Gray Antelope 318 

10 Summer 17 

23 Shaved 28 

5 Big Horn 12 375 MV^ 46 88 

26 Shaved Buffalo 172 

18 halves & pieces 82 254 12^ 31 75 

1787 Skins Beaver 2415 $2 4830 

22 Raw Buffalo Hides 1 25 27 50 

6 dressed Cow Skins 1 50 9 

29 half Skins 75 21 75 

80 11/16 lbs Cartoum 2 75 221 88 

129 Buf Hides 3693 lbs. 12^ 470 86 

2 Sheep Skins 15 30 

326 5/12 perfect Buffalo Tongues $4 00'^ 1468 87 

17 6/12 damaged & Calf $3 52 50 

146964 26 



234 APPENDICES 

U. M. O. 1854 EARNINGS 1854 

PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. SAINT LOUIS (ledger) 

PROFIT 

Culbertson 1 share $2591.29 

Kipp 1 share 2591.29 

M. Clark Vi of 1 share 1295.64 

Galpin 282 y^ of 1 share 1295.64 

Hodgkiss 283 i^ of 1 share 1295.64 

Denig H of 1 share 1295.64 

(These may be the figures for 1853) 

U. M. O. Statement Dec. 1, 1857 

(Evidently 1855 statement but not entered until Dec. 1, 1857) 

PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. Dr. on U. M. O. 1855. 

A Culbertson 1 share or 1/12 $627.73 

James Kipp 1 share or 1/12 627.73 

C. E. Galpin H of 1 share or 1/24 313.86 

E. T. Denig Vz of 1 share or 1/24 313.86 

A. Dawson Yz of 1 share or 1/24 313.86 

W. D. Hodgkiss Vz of 1 share or 1/24.. 313.86 
Interest to 31st December 1857 on the following accounts. 

Culbertson 13.17 

Kipp 60.23 

Galpin 40.69 

Denig 40.69 

Dawson 346.24 

Hodgkiss 260.83 

Accounts transferred to credit of following parties. Dec. 1, 1857. 

Culbertson 2280.20 

Hodgkiss 5017.44 

Galpin 2606.14 

Kipp 160.87 

Dawson 6200.1 1 

U. M. O. 1856 EARNINGS 1856 

PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. SAINT LOUIS (ledger) Nov. 25, 1856. 

Dividend Dec. 31, 1856. $60,000.00 

Culbertson 1 share $5000.00 

Kipp 1 share 5000.00 

Galpin ^ of 1 share 2500.00 

Denig V2 of 1 share 2500.00 

Hodgkiss V2 of 1 share 2500.00 

Dawson Vi of 1 share 2500.00 

To profit & loss, our share 40000.00 



$60000.00 



APPENDICES 235 

Culbertson, balance of interest 245.05 

Galpin, balance of interest 431.39 

Hodgkiss, balance of interest 248.93 

Dec. 31, 1856. Opening of new books. 

Balance cash each transferred to their books. 

Culbertson 11521.63 

Galpin 10933.70 

Hodgkiss 7728.47 

Kipp 1942.05 

Dawson 5652.11 

U. M. O. 1857 EARNINGS 1857 
PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. SAINT LOUIS (ledger book) 

Dividend Nov. 1, 1857 $7532.65 

Chouteau 8 shares 5021.75 

Culbertson 1 share $627.73 

Kipp 1 share 627.73 

Galpin Yi of 1 share 313.86 

Denig Yz of 1 share 313.86 

Dawson Yz of 1 share 313.86 

Hodgkiss V2 of 1 share 313.86 

U. M. O. 1858 EARNINGS 1857-8 
PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. SAINT LOUIS (ledger) May 8. 1858. 

Partial dividend due following persons Pierre Chouteau Jr. & Co., No. 5. $20000.00 

Culbertson 1 share $1666.67 

Kipp 1 share 1666.67 

Dawson ^ of 1 share 833.33 

Galpin ^ of 1 share 833.33 

Hodgkiss ^ of 1 share %7>Z.IZ 



236 APPENDICES 

U. M. O. Inventories '^^* 1852 

PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. SAINT LOUIS (ledger) July 1, 1852. 
Following inventories due. 

FORT PIERRE $34744.47 

FORT PIERRE supplement 916.02 

FORT UNION 14717.11 

FORT BERTHOLD 4759.21 

FORT BENTON 7369.89 

FORT CLARK 7365.58 

FORT COTEAU DAURION POST 3231.11 

FORT ALEXANDER en Cache 532.28 $73635.67 

U. M. O. Inventories 1853 

PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. SAINT LOUIS (ledger) Aug. 14, 1854. 
$112,323.25 total. 

U. M. O. Inventories 1856 

PIERRE CHOUTEAU JR. & CO. SAINT LOUIS (ledger) Aug. 23, 1856. 

Inventory U. M. O. 1855 of goods remaining on hand from outfit, 1855. viz. 

Fort Benton $ 4686.82 

Fort Union 19154.93 

Fort Berthold 1552.81 

Fort Clark 9885.84 

Fort Pierre 1405.00 

$36685.40 



1 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 

The biographical sketches of Charles Mercier, Louis Rivet and George 
Weippert were written by Col. W. F. Wheeler of Helena, Montana, from 
notes taken in interviews with these "old timers" in 1884. He was com- 
missioned by the Historical Society of Montana to visit the employes 
of the American Fur Company still living in Fort Benton and vicinity 
and obtain their stories. The trip from Helena to Fort Benton was made 
by boat down the Missouri river to the falls, by portage around the falls 
and by boat the remainder of the trip to Fort Benton. He wrote of his 
experiences, "I saw each person and took down in writing the story of 
his life, from the day of his earliest recollection and during his residence 
in Montana, to the present time. All were men of limited education, one 
was blind, and Mr. Rivet could not read or write, yet their recollection of 
dates and events would seem almost miraculous for accuracy. In the old 
times before steamboats began to arrive at Fort Benton they received letters 
and newspapers but once a year, in the spring or summer, when their new 
supplies of goods for trading arrived from St. Louis. Their memories were 
therefore only_ burdened with events and occurrences that came under their 
own observation and in their narratives very little discrepancy will be 
found." 

Col. Wheeler did not have the knowledge we have today of the correct 
dates as to the building of the posts on the Upper Missouri and therefore 
could not check the years given him by the "old timers" for accuracy and 
certain of the dates were from one to two years earlier than the actual event. 

The remainder of the "Notes and References" were compiled by Mrs. 
Anne McDonnell, assistant librarian of the Historical Society of Montana, 
who wishes here to acknowledge her great debt to Mrs. Annie E. Abel, 
editor of the Fort Clark Journal, 1834-1839, whose notes and references on 
the people and events of the LTpper Missouri Outfit were of immense value 
in the editing of these journals. Space and time did not allow for the correct 
acknowledgement of the authority for every statement made. The Journal 
of Rudolph F. Kurz was also very useful since the time of his journal, 
1851-1852, was nearer the period of the Fort Benton and Fort Sariiy journals. 

FORT BENTON. 1847-1864 

1 Fort Benton was the successor to Fort McKenzie which was 
abandoned in the spring of 1844 and the property moved down 
to the mouth of the Judith river where Chardon built Fort F. A. C. 
which was named for him. This was not a desirable location for 
the Blackfoot trade and Culbertson who had been in charge at Fort 
John on the Platte river for some time was sent in the fall of 
1845 to take charge of Fort Chardon. He burned Fort F. A. C. and 
moved up to a point across the river and above the site of old Fort 
McKenzie and occupied a trading post which had been built by the opposi- 
tion firm of Fox, Livingstone & Company which was known as Fort Cotton. 
This opposition company had sold out about this time to the P. Chouteau, 
Jr., and Company and their buildings became the property of that company. 
Fort Cotton had not been in existence very long and was named for a Mr. 
Cotton, one of the traders of Fox, Livingstone & Company. The location 
is known as Cotton Bottom today but few of the old timers know why. 

Culbertson named his new fort Honore in honor of Honore Picotte, agent 
for the U. M. C, but Picotte wrote him on March 12, 1846, as follows: 
"I am flattered and thank you for your good opinion of me in giving my 
name to your Fort, but, I request you to substitute Lewis in the place of 
Honore, which is much more suitable and appropriate." (Chardon Journal 
at Ft. Clark.) And in this year, 1846, the name was changed to Fort Lewis. 



240 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

From Father Point's journal we learn that Fort Lewis was moved May 
19, 1847, across the river and several miles below to a location more suitable 
for trade and habitation. Culbertson told Bradley that the fort was chris- 
tened Benton in honor of Senator Thomas H. Benton of Missouri on 
Dec. 25, 1850, at a Christmas Day celebration at the fort but it was known 
as Fort Benton in the ledgers of P. Chouteau, Jr. and Company as early as 
1848. Probably a formal christening was made on the day Culbertson 
named. The new fort was built of logs but later the log buildings were 
replaced with adobe structures which were a number of years, 1850-1860, 
in building. The P. Chouteau, Jr. & Company about 1864 sold out to the 
Northwest Company which occupied the buildings for a few years. The 
U. S. soldiers stationed at Fort Benton were housed in the old fort from 
1869 to 1874, when quarters in the town were rented for the accommodation 
of the army people. 

ALEXANDER CULBERTSON. 1809-1879 

2 Alexander Culbertson was born in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, May 
16, 1809, the son of Joseph Culbertson and his first wife, Mary Finley. The 
Finleys and the Culbertsons were families of Scottish-Irish extraction who 
settled in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, prior to the Revolutionary War. 
The memory of the four Culbertson brothers who emigrated from Ireland 
is perpetuated in such place names as Culbertson Postoffice, Culbertson's 
Row and Culbertson's Mill. 

Alexander was with his uncle, John Craighead Culbertson, in the Florida 
Indian campaigns and from there went to New Orleans, thence up the 
Mississippi river to St. Louis and made his entrance into the fur trade on 
the St. Peter's river in Minnesota territory. An abstract of returns made 
by traders in that territory, Sept. 1, 1830-Sept. 1, 1831, included the name 
of A. Culbertson. It must have been a profitable experience for he made 
a trip home in 1832 to visit his people. His career on the Upper Missouri 
began the next year when he and a fellow townsman, Edwin T. Denig, 
made a trip up the river on the steamboat Assiniboine in 1833, which was 
the year that Prince Maximilian visited Fort Union and Fort McKenzie. 
Denig remained at Fort LTnion while Culbertson went up to Fort McKenzie 
with David D. Mitchell, where he stayed until he went down with the returns 
in the spring of 1836. During that time he had been in charge during the 
absence of James Kipp, and three years later he received the recognition 
given the chief traders, an interest or share in the Upper Missouri Outfit. 
This may have been one or one-half of one share of the twelve shares of 
that company. In January, 1840, he succeeded Kenneth McKenzie at 
Fort Union when the latter retired from active duty with the U. M. O. 

Culbertson was sent in the late summer of 1843 to take charge of Fort 
Laramie on the Platte, where the business had fallen oflf. as he was con- 
sidered the best man in the service to regain the trade for the company. 
He was back at Fort Union in January, 1844, when he sent Denig and 
Larpenteur on a trading expedition to the Woody Alountains and appears 
to have managed the affairs of both forts for a period. In the early summer 
of 1845 he went east to New York to confer with Chouteau, who urged 
him to re-establish a post in the Blackfoot country as the Chardon fort at 
the mouth of the Judith river was not a success. While in New York 
Culbertson visited with Audubon, whom he had entertained at Fort Union 
in 1843. Upon his return to the LTpper Missouri he proceeded by boat to 
Fort Chardon which he took over from Harvey, burned the buildings and 
moved the property up the river to old Fort Cotton on the south side of 
the Missouri river and above old Fort McKenzie. He named the new post 
Fort Lewis, but since the location was not suitable for trade purposes the 
fort material was moved across the river and a few miles down in the 
spring of 1847 and Fort Benton established. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 241 

The next year, 1848, Culbertson succeeded Honore Picotte as agent of 
the Upper Missouri Outfit and his responsibilities increased with his pro- 
motion, for the agent was in charge of all the forts on the Upper Missouri 
and Yellowstone rivers. At times he was on his way to I-'ort Laramie 
overland from Fort Pierre, then in keelboat on his way to the Crow post 
on the Yellowstone, or down the river in the spring, by mackinaw or 
steamboat, to St. Louis with the returns. He traveled thousands of rniles 
in all manner of conveyances to visit the various forts, to meet the Indians 
in their camps; entertained distinguished visitors of all professions, and 
attended to the business of his employers at all times. His knowledge of 
the Indians and the western country was considered superior to anyone 
of that time and his ability as a horseman and buffalo hunter was never 
equalled for years. 

In all his years in the west Culbertson never lost contact with his family 
in Pennsylvania, cousins and nephews visited him at his home in the 
mountains, presents of robes, buffalo tongues, and strange souvenirs of 
the west were sent to his father and uncles in the old home. His half- 
brother, Thaddeus, a young divinity student from Princeton University 
who was ill with tuberculosis, made a trip to the mountains with him in 
the summer of 1850. In his journal, Thaddeus wrote many times in the 
most aflfectionate and appreciative terms of the kindness of his older brother 
who spared no effort to make the trip a pleasant and profitable one for 
Thaddeus, who busied himself taking scientific notes for a paper which 
was pubhshed in the Smithsonian Institution reports. 

As the years passed the fur trade operations moved farther up the river 
and the forts on the upper river became the more important in the trade. 
Fort Union was first with Fort Benton second in importance. Then 
gradually the business disappeared from Fort Union and Benton took first 
place. The government made treaties with the Indians of the West and 
established agencies for the Upper Missouri Indians. Governor I. I. 
Stevens of the Survey for a Pacific Railroad planned a treaty with the 
Blackfoot and Gros Ventre Indians through whose territory the survey 
was to be made. Since Culbertson was considered an authority on these 
Indians and had their friendship and regard he went at the request of 
Governor Stevens to Washington, in the fall of 1853, to urge upon congress 
an appropriation for treaty making funds. He spent the winter of 1853-54 
in Washington lobbying for this appropriation and his knowledge of the 
Indians proved of immense value in securing the $80,000.00 finally allotted 
for that purpose. His "company" had an interest in securing contracts 
for the transportation of Indian goods in their boats wliich a year or two 
later was an important item in tlieir business. The "company" ledgers, 
1856, in St. Louis show that he was allowed $1600.00 for his expenses in 
Washington. 

The years 1850-57 were those of his greatest earnings, and with living 
expenses at the forts very low his money accumulated rapidly during this 
time and he began his investments in property in Peoria, Illinois. His 
uncle, Dr. Samuel D. Culbertson of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, had 
bought farm property near Peoria and this may have been responsible for 
Alexander's purchase of a farm on the outskirts of Peoria in 1854, for 
which he paid $3500.00. At that time this sum would buy a very sub- 
stantial piece of property. He established a home here for Natawista and 
the children. His niece. Anna Culbertson, who lived with the family, had 
charge of the home and the children, who were not away at boarding 
school, during the absence of Alexander and his wife. 

Later, in 1858, he bought another 160 acres a few miles out of Peoria and 
built the beautiful home known as "Locust Grove," where he maintained 
a grand style of living. This home was elegantly furnished; on the walls 
were large paintings by Stanley painted to order. The grounds were 
landscaped by an English gardener, and stables built for the fine horses 



242 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

that Culbertson and his wife both loved. One team of driving horses 
exhibited at all the county fairs always carried off the blue ribbon. This 
style of living was expensive and called for servants, gardeners and stable- 
men. His daughters were educated either at a convent in St. Louis or at 
the Moravian Seminary for Women in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, with no 
expense spared for all the extras of the finishing school, drawing, music, 
languages and dancing. There are people still living in Peoria who have 
a dim recollection of the stories of the fabulous wealth of Major Culbert- 
son, of casks of gold coins in the basement, etc., but in a few years it was 
difficult for the cook to collect her wages, and tradesmen's bills went 
unpaid. 

Culbertson had made investments in projects promoted by his good 
friend, Senator Thomas H. Benton and others, in which he lost huge sums, 
his generosity to relatives and friends cost him heavily and the money 
spent on the Peoria property brought no returns. By 1866, he had made 
a trust deed to a Thomas G. McCulloch of his Peoria real estate for a 
consideration of $1.00. The deed provided that McCulloch, a remote con- 
nection by marriage, was to operate the property and pay the net proceeds 
to Culbertson as long as he lived. In the event of his death the proceeds 
were to be paid to Natawista during her lifetime and after her death to 
Fannie and Joseph. Perhaps the other children were not mentioned be- 
cause they were considered of age. Janie died in 1860 and Julia was married 
in 1865. 

The purpose of the trust deed was to escape Culbertson's creditors who 
were numerous. In the fall of 1869, 33 creditors filed claims against the 
property, and Culbertson, according to the record, could not be found in 
the county. He was in Montana, for he was a witness to the Blackfoot, 
Gros Ventre and Crow treaties of 1868 and the census of 1870 for Fort 
Benton included him, Natawista, Fannie and Joseph. 

He was said to have retired from the fur trade in 1859 to make his home 
in Peoria, but each year he made a trip up the river accompanied by Nata- 
wista. He was considered by the people who met him to be in charge of 
the "company" business on the Upper Missouri and probably was until 
1862. In that year Dawson was congratulated by his friend, Robert Morgan, 
on having supplanted Culbertson and being at last "king of the Missouri." 
By this time the company interests had changed, Fort Union was sold and 
the only post owned by the Choteau firm was Fort Benton and the business 
had changed from trade with the Indians to a transportation and mer- 
chandise business with the white people coming into the country and 
government contracts for military and Indian freights, goods, etc. 

After his return to the mountains he traded in a small way and acted as 
interpreter at various Indian agencies. Natawista went to live with her 
people on the Blood reserve in Canada, Jack and Joe were with their father 
at Fort Belknap or Fort Peck, and his daughters were in the east. In the 
late seventies he went to the home of his daughter, Julia (Mrs. George H. 
Roberts), in Orleans, Nebraska, where he died Aug. 27, 1879. 

Perhaps the accounts of his large fortune were exaggerated, but it was 
wealth for that time. His losses may be blamed on his ignorance of 
the business methods in his new environment, his generosity and prodigal 
style of living. Perhaps, too, overindulgence in liquor lessened his ability 
to care for his business during those years in Peoria. 

He is best described in the words of Father De Smet, written in 1851: 
"Mr. Alexander Culbertson, superintendent of the forts on the Missouri 
and Yellowstone rivers, is a distinguished man, endowed with a mild, 
benevolent and charitable temper, though if need be intrepid and cour- 
ageous." Again, in 1856: "I shall never forget the unbounded kindness 
and charity I have received from our good and great friend the major." 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 243 



MRS. ALEXANDER CULBERTSON 

3 Natawista Iksana or Medicine Snake Woman was the daughter of the 
Blood Indian chief, Men-Es-To-Kos or Father of All Children. Her 
brothers, Eagle Ribs, Red Crow and Grey Eyes, were also head men of 
that tribe and Little Dog was a first cousin. She was married when a young 
girl to Alexander Culbertson according to Indian custom. This marriage, 
about 1840, was of immense value to Culbertson in his business dealings 
with this tribe which lived north of the border in Canada and traded with 
the British fur companies who did their best to keep these Indians hostile 
toward the Americans. Besides these advantages in this marriage it was 
a happy one in its other relations. She was a beautiful woman with an 
active interest in all her husband's movements and accorded the respect 
and honor given to the wife of an important man by the people who met her. 

The first accounts of her are those of Audubon in his journal kept at 
Fort Union in the summer of 1843, when she was about 18 or 20 years old. 
He called her an "Indian princess," which was really her rank. Perhaps 
Indian girls were trained as is European royalty today in all manner of 
work and sport. Natawista made the parfleshes which she decorated with 
dyed porcupine quills and the feathers of the golden eagle which she killed 
herself. She brought Audubon six mallard ducks which she had caught 
by swimming after them in the Missouri river. She was, so Audubon 
wrote, "a most graceful and expert swimmer, besides being capable of 
remaining under water a long time." 

Natawista loved to ride and dressed up for Audubon in her Indian cos- 
tume, mounted her horse and rode astride with her long hair flying loose 
in the breeze. She and her Indian maid raced with the men for over a 
mile with a display of magnificent riding that could not be equalled. Kurz 
saw her at Fort Union in 1851 and regretted that he could not paint her 
picture, but she had cut off her long, lustrous black hair in token of grief 
for her young brother's death. Kurz, who had the artist's eye for beauty, 
described her as "one of the most beautiful Indian women. . . . She would 
be an excellent model for a Venus, ideal woman of the primitive race; a 
perfect 'little wife'." 

A passenger on the steamboat Iowa in a journey up the Missouri river 
in the summer of 1849 described her as "the daughter of a Blackfoot chief 
and married to a director of the Fur company, is well known in the Upper 
Missouri region, because of the happy influence she exercises there." He 
referred to the fact that because of her understanding of and relationship 
to the Blackfoot Indians she was influential in maintaining peace between 
these Indians and the white traders. No one appreciated the value of this 
influence more than Governor I. I. Stevens who gave her credit for inspir- 
ing the Indians with confidence in Stevens and his party. 

In his report of Sept. 16, 1854 (Ex. Docs. Senate, 33rd Cong. 2nd Sess. 
Rept. of the Sec. of the Interior, Doc. No. 86) he wrote: 

"I deemed it highly advisable to secure the services of Mr. Culbertson, 
one of the principal partners of the American Fur Company, as special 
agent. ... I placed the more reliance upon the favorable influence which 
Mr. Culbertson might place upon the Indians, as he had married a full- 
blooded Blackfoot woman. Mrs. Culbertson, who had fully adopted the 
manners, costume and deportment of the whites, and who, by her refine- 
ment, presents the most striking illustration of the high civilization which 
these tribes of the interior are capable of attaining, rendered the highest 
service to the expedition, a service which demands this public acknowledge- 
ment. Upon joining Mr. Culbertson at Fort Union, I found him and his 
wife full of anxiety as to the reception which we would meet from the 
Blackfeet. They both feared that some rude or careless act from any 
member of the party might be a signal for a declaration of war. Full of 



244 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

these apprehensions, Mrs. Culbertson, whom it was intended to leave at 
Fort Union, declared to her husband her resolution to accompany him 
with the expedition to Fort Benton. She said to him 'My people are a 
good people, but they are jealous and vindictive. I am afraid that they 
and the whites will not understand each other; but if I go, I may be able 
to explain things to them, and soothe them if they should be irritated. I 
know there is great danger; but, my husband, where you go, will I go, and 
where j^ou die will I die. ..." I had arranged that the tent of Mr. Culbert- 
son should be pitched outside the line of sentinels so as to be readily ac- 
cessible to the Indians. I soon perceived the advantages to be derived 
from Mrs. Culbertson's presence. She was in constant intercourse with 
the Indians, and inspired them with perfect confidence. On this portion 
of the route, and afterwards when we were with the Gros Ventres, she 
heard all that the Indians said, and reported it through her husband to me. 
It is a great mistake to suppose the Indian to be the silent, unsociable 
people they are commonly represented to be. I found them on ordinary 
occasions the most talkative, gossiping people I had ever seen. The men 
and women were fond of gathering around Mrs. Culbertson to hear stories 
of the whites. One evening I heard shouts of merry laughter from one 
of these groups. Upon inquiring the source of merriment, I learned that 
Mrs. Culbertson was telling stories to her simple Indian friends of what 
she saw in St. Louis. As she described a fat woman whom she had seen 
exhibited, and sketched with great humor the ladies of St. Louis, it was 
pleasant to see the delight which beamed from the swarthy faces around 
her." 

Governor Stevens and others agreed that she did not speak English but 
otherwise had acquired the dress and manners of the white people. She 
was the mother of five children. Jack. Nancy, Julia, Fannie and Joe. 
Nancy, who was born in 1848 at Fort Union, was drowned in the Missouri 
river near there some time after 1851 as she was baptized July 20, 1851, at 
Fort Union by Father De Smet. Fannie said that it was Nancy's death 
that caused her father to establish a home for his family at Peoria. Culbert- 
son had at least one Indian wife before he married Natawista, for Maria 
Culbertson who was baptized at Fort Lookout by Father De Smet on 
Nov. 5, 1846, was 11 years old at that time. Janie, who was married in 
1858 or 1859 and who died in 1860, was probably not the daughter of Nata- 
wista. Janie was in school at the Moravian Seminarj^ for Women in 
Bethlehem. Pennsylvania, in 1850, but children were sometimes sent away 
to school at a very early age. 

Fannie was born at Fort Union about 1850 and Joe, the youngest child, 
was born in Peoria, Jan. 31, 1859. After he had settled in Peoria, Culbert- 
son began to think of arranging matters so that his children would be 
legalized according to the laws of the country, and to marry their mother, 
Natawista, in order to protect her rights to his property. The Peoria Daily 
Transcript, Sept. 12, 1859, had the following account of their wedding 
according to the laws of the church and state: "An interesting marriage 
ceremony. — A marriage ceremony of a peculiar and interesting character 
was performed in this county on Friday last (Sept. 9, 1859). The parties 
were Major Alex. Culbertson and Natawista, daughter of the chief of the 
Blackfoot Indians. Major Culbertson is the well-known Indian trader 
and was married to his present wife according to the Indian ceremony 
some sixteen or seventeen years ago, but having latelj'^ severed his con- 
nection with the American Fur Company, and settled down to an agri- 
cultural life near the city, he was anxious that the ceremony might be 
performed according to civilized rites. The parties have three very inter- 
esting children, the eldest of whom is about fifteen years of age. 

"The marriage was performed after the ceremony of the Catholic church 
by Father Scanlon of St. Joseph, Missouri. A very large number of invited 
guests were present on the occasion — the marriage having taken place at 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 245 

the Major's residence. Among them was Capt. James Kipp, a veteran of 
eighty years, one of the first members of the American Fur Company, and 
an associate of Major Culbertson since the latter's connection with the 
fur trade. Like the Major. Kipp has lately severed his connection with 
the company and has settled down to spend the remainder of his days at 
Parksville, Mo. Father Scanlon is an old intimate friend of the Major's 
and one who had interested himself in the Catholic Mission established by 
his church among the Blackfoot nation. 

"Mrs. Culbertson is a lady of fine native talent. She is said to have 
rendered great service to Governor Stevens and Major Cummings (now 
governor of Utah) at the time they visited the Blackfoot country and made 
the treaty of the Judith between the Government and the nation to which 
she belonged." 

From some of the stories told to her relatives by Anna Culbertson, niece 
of Alexander, we learned something of Natawista's life in Peoria. She 
loved jewelry, but only the stones of color such as rubies and emeralds. 
When autumn came she would have a teepee set up on the lawn, take 
off her white woman's clothes, don the blanket garb of the squaw and 
spend the Indian summer in her teepee. Some reports indicate an in- 
dulgence in fire-water which to Natawista in accordance with Indian 
custom would be a very natural thing. She loved fast horses and one 
story was an account of "her having a team of half-broken horses harnessed 
to a carriage and when the horses ran away and smashed the carriage she 
clapped her hands in glee. 

From the accounts of contemporary travelers who met the Culbertsons 
on the steamboats going up the Missouri river Natawista appeared to be 
with her husband whenever he made a trip to the mountains. Dr. E. J. 
Marsh traveled with her on the Spread Eagle in 1859 and said, "she dressed 
like a white ladv, and is said to be a very fine woman. I was introduced 
to her but as she cannot speak English. I can say nothing to her." In 
1R6.3 she and her husband with little Toe were passengers on the Robert 
Campbell for Fort Union. It was on this trip that occurred the incident 
known as the Tobacco Gardens AfTair when several employes of the 
Robert Campbell were killed bv a party of Sioux Indians near Tobacco 
Gardens creek. Natawista's sharp eyes detected the Indians in the 
bushes along the river bank and she knew them to be hostile Sioux and 
enemies. She understood the Sioux language and could tell from the talk 
of the Indians who hailed the boat that they intended mischief, but <igainst 
her protests the captain sent a yawl ashore to the Indians who proceeded 
to kill the men who landed in full view of the men on the steamboat. 

The 1870 census of Fort Benton gave her age as 45 years and it must 
have been soon afterwards that she went north to live with her people. 
Henry Robson of Fort Benton saw her on the Blood reserve in 1881, where 
she was known as Madam Culbertson. She died there many years later 
and is buried in the mission cemetery. 

Jack was probably the oldest of her children. Julia. Nancy, Fannie and 
Joseph came in the order named. Tack died sometime in the 80's in Willis- 
ton. N. D. Tulia married George H. Roberts. May 9, 1865. at her father's 
home in Peoria and later lived in Nebraska. They moved to Idaho in \^S^. 
where Roberts was elected the first attorney-general of the state of Idaho 
in 1890. He died in 1922 and his wife lived until 1929, when she died at 
the home of her daughters in Boise, Idaho. 

Joseph lived in Montana from the time he came with his father in the 
60's and until his death in 1923 was employed at various Indian agencies 
on the Missouri river. He was survived by several children. Fannie, who 
attended the Moravian Seminary in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, rnarried 
Louis S. Irvin. a lawyer, about 1880 and lived in Montana and California 
until her death in Great Falls, Feb. 5. 1939. Both Julia and Fannie were 
intelligent and well educated women who lived all of their lives with white 



246 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

people as their equals in every way. Natawista's children were a credit 
to her and evidence of a splendid inheritance from both parents. 

4 Fort Union, 1829-1866. Fort Union was the most important and had 
the longest existence of all the trading posts of the Upper Missouri Out- 
fit. Its erection was begun late in 1829 under the supervision of Kenneth 
McKenzie, located on the north bank of the Missouri river about three 
miles above the mouth of the Yellowstone river. McKenzie was in 
charge of the post and agent of the Upper Missouri Outfit until he re- 
tired in 1839. 

Many famous visitors were entertained at this post, Maximilian. Catlin, 
Audubon and De Smet. Several of the visitors as well as the employes 
such as Kurz, Larpenteur and others have written their impressions and 
recollections of the fort and its people. One of the best accounts is that of 
Rudolph Friederich Kurz who was there from 1851 to 1852. He kept a de- 
tailed journal illustrated by excellent sketches which picture the Indians, the 
white employes, the buildings, animals and many of the details of the daily 
Hfe of the fort. 

At the time these journals were kept, 1854-56, E. T. Denig was in charge 
of Fort Union and after his departure in 1856, to make his home in the 
Red River settlement in Canada, he was succeeded by F. G. Riter. In the 
60's, Hodgkiss, Meldrum and Larpenteur were in charge of the fort, but 
the business declined and by 1866 the buildings and material were being 
moved to Fort Buford for use in the construction of the army post. 

There have been a number of brief sketches of Fort Union published, 
but its vivid and interesting story should some day be told in full. 

5 Hunter. Each post kept a hunter whose duty was to kill game for the 
fort provision. The hunter at Fort Benton was Cadotte. 

6 Dobbie (adobe bricks). The adobe bricks used in building, vvhich were 
made of the local mud and wild grass, about 6x4x15 inches in size. 

■7 Bercrier (Bercier). This is probably the man mentioned by Chittenden 
in "Early Steamboat Navigation on the Missouri River," vol. 1. p. 46, who 
was killed by the Blackfoot Indians on the Teton river near Fort Benton 
in 1865. An Antoine Bercier had been with the fur trade for many years 
and according to one account is said to have been the man killed in 1865. 

Granville Stuart mentions, June 25, 1862, "Barcier and others arrived 
from Benton." This is the person, no doubt, for whom the Bercier's Springs 
were named where Harkness camped for dinner, Aug. 13, 1862, between the 
Dearborn river and the Bird Tail Rock on his journey from Deer Lodge 
to Fort Benton. 

WHITE MAN WITH GOLD 

8 This was probably the incident described by Lieut. Bradley in a letter, 
Sept. 21, 1875, to the Helena Herald in which he told the story as he heard 
it from Culbertson who gave the year as 1856. "In the month of October 
a stranger appeared at the fort, coming by the trail from the southwest, 
now the Benton and Helena stage road; he was evidently an old moun- 
taineer, and his object was to purchase supplies. Producing a sack, he 
displayed a quantity of yellow dust which he claimed was gold, and for 
which he demanded' ?^1 000.00, offering to take it all in goods. Nothing was 
known at the fort of the existence of gold in the adjoining country and 
Major Culbertson was loth to accept the proffered dust, having doubts of 
its genuineness. Besides, even if it was gold, he was uncertain of its value 
in this crude state, when an employe of the fort, a young man named Ray 
(Wray?) came to the aid of the mountaineer, and by his assurances as to 
the genuinf^ness of the rrold and the value of tlic quantity offered, induced 
Major Culliertson to accept it. Still doubtful, however, ho made it a 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 247 

private transaction, charging goods to his own account. The mountaineer 
was very reticent as to the locality where he obtained the gold, but in 
answer to numerous questions, he stated that he had been engaged in 
prospecting for a considerable period in the mountains to the southwest, 
that his wanderings had been made alone, and that he had found plenty of 
gold. Receiving in exchange for his gold dust a supply of horses, arms, 
ammunition, blankets, tobacco, provisions and other supplies, he quietly 
left the fort on his return to the mountains. Major Culbertson never saw 
or heard of him again, and was ignorant even of his name. The following 
year he sent the gold through the hands of Mr. Chouteau to the mint and 
in due time received as the yield thereof $1,525.00, the dust having proved 
remarkably pure gold." (Leeson's History of Montana, 1885, page 210.) 
L. V. Mercure, who was present when the man brought the gold dust to 
Fort Benton, told Bradley that he recognized the man several years later 
at one of the gold camps as John Silverthorne. F. H. Woody said that 
Silverthorne came to Montana in 1856 from Salt Lake City, but thi.s date 
may have been incorrect. There was a discovery of gold near Colville in 
1854 on the Kootenai river and it is possible that some of this gold might 
have found its way to Fort Benton. 

» Coal Makers. This is a reference to the charcoal made for use in the 
blacksmith shop. 

PERSONAL HISTORY OF MR. GEORGE WEIPPERT, 

CHOTEAU COUNTY, MONTANA 

By Wm. F. Wheeler 

10 George Weippert was born in Quebec, 1820. His father was a Hol- 
lander and his mother was of French descent. He received a common school 
education, and at an early age went to St. Louis, Mo., where he clerked 
in his brother's store for some years. He left that place in 1839, at the 
age of nineteen, and came up the Missouri river to Old Fort Union in the 
employment of the American Fur Company as a clerk. He remained in 
their employment 27 years, until they sold out to the Northwest Fur Com- 
pany in 1866. He has never been out of Montana during the whole period 
since his arrival here. 

He has always been a constant companion of Charles Mercier. He re- 
mained at Fort Union for about one year, and then came up to Old Fort 
McKenzie (Ft. Brule) and there retained his position as a trading clerk 
until it was burned and abandoned. He accompanied Bourgeois Chardon 
to the mouth of the Judith river and came with him up to the Cotton Fort, 
above the present town of Fort Benton, and remained there during the two 
years the American Fur Company occupied it as a trading post. During 
this time it was christened by the company Fort Henry (Honore), and they 
occupied it until the spring of 1847. a period of two years, when all the 
material of the whole post was floated down to the present site of Fort 
Benton. The timbers with some additional ones hauled from the Highwood 
Mountains were used in the construction of New Fort Benton, which was 
gradually replaced by adobe buildings, some of which are still standing in 
1884. 

Mr. Weippert gives the following account of the tragedy that occurred 
in the fall of 1843 and in the spring of 1844 at Old Fort McKenzie, and 
which caused the burning and abandonment of that post. He said: In 
the fall of that year (1843) a war party of the Rlackfoot Indians came to 
the fort, and wanted to trade for ammunition, knives, etc.. as they were 
going on an expedition against the Crows, hereditary enemies. It was the 
custom of the company to give war parties of Indians who traded with 
them, and who stopped at their trading post to visit them, a feast or good 
dinner, and also to supply them with five rounds of ammunition for each 



248 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

gun in the party. All this was done, but the Indians demanded double the 
usual quantity, which was refused. At this they took umbrage, and in 
the morning when they left drove off the cattle that belonged to the fort 
and, as was claimed, killed two of them. 

The cattle had been driven up from Fort Union, and the head trader and 
chief clerk were charged for each one $100. No excuse for their loss would 
be accepted by the company at St. Louis, and the trader and clerk were 
held responsible for their loss, and consequently they felt very indignant 
at the Indians for killing them, as they believed wantonly. 

A negro employee, named Tom Reese, started after the Indians to try 
and bring back the cattle that they were driving away, and in the pursuit 
made a show of bravado and made many threats. The consequence was 
he was shot dead when he endeavored to carry his threats into execution. 
This angered Mr. Chardon, the head trader, and Mr. Harvey, the chief 
clerk, very much and they swore that they would have revenge and pay- 
ment in full for their loss. 

In the next spring, at the last trade, before the time for the annual ship- 
ment of furs, etc.. to St. Louis, two chiefs appeared at the fort and an- 
nounced that on the next morning a large party of their people would be 
there to make a big trade, as they had 500 buffalo robes and other furs, 
and they wished to make arrangements for the trade. They were invited 
into the fort and feasted and locked securely in a room until their com- 
panions should appear in the morning to begin the trade. They had no 
suspicion of foul play. They were not of the party that had killed the 
cattle or the negro Reese the fall before, and had no reason to expect any 
harm to themselves or friends, but they were to be woefully undeceived, 
as the sequel will show. 

Bourgeois Chardon was habitually too drunk to take much control of 
affairs at the post, and Harvey, the chief clerk, who was ambitious to stand 
well with his employers and wanted to become head trader, treacherously 
obtained leave from Chardon to fire the cannon when the Indians should 
appear at the gates of the fort in the morning to trade. This could only 
be done on great occasions by the permission of the head trader. This 
permission thus obtained, gave Harvey the opportunity to carry out his 
plan of revenge against the Indians for shooting the cattle and killing the 
negro, the past fall, although they were not the same Indians who committed 
these deeds but unfortunately belonged to the same tribe. 

Harvey had the cannon loaded to the muzzle with all kinds of missiles, 
and in the morning when the Indians in quite a large body had come up 
in a line along the fort in front of the gate and asked for their two chiefs 
who had been detained over night, they were told they were all right and 
would come out as soon as they had breakfasted. While standing in this 
position, Harvey trained the loaded cannon in the bastion so as to rake 
through the line when fired, and ordered a young Irishman to fire the piece. 
He, to his everlasting honor, refused, saying it would be murder. Harvey 
knocked him down and touched off the cannon himself. 

Mr. Weippert saj's that according to his recollection four Indians fell 
dead or mortally wounded, and seventeen others were more or less wounded. 
The survivors ran away as fast as possible, and mounting their horses fled 
for their lives, leaving the 500 robes and the other furs and skins where 
they had unloaded them. 

Harvey rushed out of the fort and with an axe crushed the heads of the 
Indians who had fallen and scalped them. Mr. Weippert said that he was 
told by some of the employees that Harvey then licked the blood from his 
axe, saying, "I will serve all the dogs so." He did not witness this scene, 
but has often heard those who claim to have witnessed it tell the story. 

.^fter tin's Harvey went back into the fort and souglit tlic two chiefs he 
had detained over night. He intended to kill them, Init they had mystcri- 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 249 

ously escaped. He was furious over the fact, but could not find out how 
the escape was effected. 

Harvey then ordered his men to bring in the robes the Indians had left 
in their camp. But they were so horrified none obeyed. He could not force 
or persuade them to do this. He finally said he would give them $2.50 for 
each robe they would bring in. This offer was accepted and the robes were 
brought into the fort, and he counted them into the store room of the 
company. In this cruel manner he was revenged. 

Mr. Weippert said Harvey was afterwards called to account for this 
bloody deed by the company, and on examination of the affair by the head 
of the company at their office in St. Louis, he was dismissed from their 
service. 

(Note: This was honorable to the company, at least, and was about all 
they could do, for there were no courts between St. Louis and Fort Benton. 
W. F. W.) 

A few days after this occurrence, owing to fear that the Indians would 
take revenge for the murder of their friends and the loss of their robes, and 
from the determination of the employees to leave the fort and go down 
the river, Chardon and Harvey determined to burn and abandon it. Thence- 
forth it was called the "burnt fort" or Fort Brule. 

Chardon and Harvey moved everything down to the mouth of the Judith 
river, and there built a fort which was named Fort Chardon. This they 
occupied during the year and then removed up to Fort Cotton, above the 
present city of Benton, which the company had bought from the inde- 
pendent traders, Fox, Livingston, Cotton and others. 

Mr. Weippert remained in the employment of the American Fur Com- 
pany until they sold out to the Northwest Fur Company. He worked for 
the new company for a year or so as a trading clerk, and afterwards for 
I. G. Baker & Co. until 1876. He then went into the restaurant and saloon 
business for himself at Fort Benton. 

In 1880 his eyesight was destroyed by an accident, and since that time 
he has been totally blind. He feels this affliction severely on account of 
his former active life. He cannot read the papers and not one of his old 
companions is left to converse with. He lives with his son-in-law (Daniel 
Blivens) and daughter, a halfbreed woman on Highwood creek, 20 miles 
from Benton, who do all in their power to make his last years pleasant. 
Five grandchildren console him with their prattle, but he pines for the 
companionship of his old associates, most of whom are dead or live far 
away from him. His health is generally good, but he complains frequently 
of utter loneliness. He expects to die here, and says this sketch will be 
the only memorial that he ever lived. 

(Note: Weippert's name was spelled in various forms, Weipert, Whip- 
pert and Wippert. He died at the home of his son-in-law, Dan O. Blevins, 
on Highwood creek near Fort Benton, Jan. 12, 1888.) 

ALEXANDER ROSE 

1^ Chambers and Rose are the mystery men of these journals for we have 
no record of either prior to the period covered by these diaries. The first 
record we have of Alexander Rose is in the report of the Stevens' Survey 
when Governor I. I. Stevens wrote that "Mr. Rose, Mr. Culbertson's store- 
keeper, was to accompany Lieut. John Mullan as an interpreter to the 
camp of the Flathead Indians on the Musselshell river." He was evidently 
familiar with the language of that tribe. From the same source we learn 
that he was in charge at Fort Benton when Lieut. Doty of the Stevens' 
expedition visited there in June, 1854, and he was still in charge September 
of that year. This was probably during the absence of Culbertson and 
Dawson. When Major John Owen visited Fort Benton. July 1, 1856, 
Rose was in charge. 



250 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

Rose was also familiar with the Blackfoot language since he was sent 
by E. A. C. Hatch, agent for that tribe, to bring the Blackfoot and Blood 
Indians to Fort Benton for a council meeting. 

The Hosmer Journal of distances on the Missouri river lists a Rose's 
Point, same as Spread Eagle Point, between Wolf Point and Fort Union. 
This must have been the location which Chittenden said was marked on 
all the steamboat maps of the Upper Missouri as "Rose's Grave" but 
which he said was opposite the mouth of the Milk river. Chittenden as- 
sumed it was the grave of Edward Rose, but since he was killed in the 
Yellowstone country it may have been the grave of Alexander Rose. 

His son, Charley Rose, better known by his Indian name of Yellow Fish, 
said his father died many years ago at Fort Benton. Joseph Brown of 
Browning said Charley Rose was of Cree blood and adopted by the Black- 
foot. was interpreter for the government, but in his old age had forgotten 
the English language. He died at Heart Butte, November, 1935, aged 83 
years, and is survived by a son, William Rose, who lives at Heart Butte. 

It is possible that Alexander Rose came from Canada to the Upper 
Missouri between 1851-1853. The Canadian archives list an Alexander 
Rose, tavern-keeper in the Province of Ontario, 1801, who may have been 
the father of this man. 

Rose kept the Fort Benton Journal from May 12 to October 17, 1856, 
and his entries show him to have had an average education for that time. 
Since there is no mention of him in the poll lists of 1864 he had either died 
or left the country prior to that date. 

12 Three Butes (near Fort Benton). The Three Buttes of page two 
were near Fort Benton but the Buttes mentioned Aug. 9, 1855, were the 
Sweet Grass Hills of today. East, West and Gold Buttes. The Blackfoot 
Indians told Governor Stevens "Providence created the hills for the tribe 
to ascend and look for buffalo." 

13 Mountain (Highwoods). The mountains were the Highwood Moun- 
tains southeast of Benton, where the timber used at the fort was obtained. 

14 Gros Ventres. The name Gros Ventres ("big bellies") was given by 
the French to two distinct tribes of Indians. One tribe, the Hidatsa, were 
known as the Gros Ventres of the Missouri, and the other as the Gros 
Ventres of the Prairie. The latter were a detached band of the Arapaho, 
who, according to F. V. Hayden, because of a feud became separated from 
their friends, crossed the Rocky Mountains and associated themselves with 
the Blackfeet. Their former hunting grounds were on the tributaries of 
the Saskatchewan. 

LOUIS RIVET. 1803-1902 
Personal History of Louis Rivet or "Revy" by Wm. F. Wheeler. 

■'•'> Louis Rivet, or "Revy", as he is always called, was born at St. Louis, 
Mo., in 1803. He never had the advantage of a single day's school in his 
life and never learned to read or write. He was of French Canadian 
descent. 

St. Louis, according to his earliest recollection of it, was almost an Indian 
village, and was an Indian trading post. The white inhabitants were mostly 
Spanish and French, with but a few Americans. He was raised by an 
uncle on his mother's side, named Roubidcau. He worked as a laborer in 
clearing up the woods, hauling logs, building cabins and any kind of work 
that ofifered. When he was about fifteen years old, a Mr. Wiggins started 
a ferry at St. Louis, at first using skifTs, which young Rivet rowed for him 
for several years. Afterwards Mr. W. replaced the skiflfs by a keel boat 
which was propelled by a sort of tread-mill wheel, upon which two men 
at a time tramped for an hour when they were relieved by two others. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 251 

After using these keel boats for two or three years Mr. Wiggins procured 
a horse boat, employing from four to eight horses to get sufficient po\yer 
to propel it. The city was growing rapidly, and frequent communication 
between the two sides of the river became necessary to accommodate the 
tide of immigrants coming into the new purchase from the east, farmers 
and market people passing to and fro. Missouri had become a state. 
American energy prevailed in the new order of things. As eastern people 
moved into the city and country the old Spanish settlers mostly left for 
New Orleans or New Mexico. Trade was increasing and steamboats were 
plying between St. Louis, Cincinnati and New Orleans regularly. It was 
several years after steamboating commenced before Mr. Wiggins dis- 
carded his old horse ferry and put on a steam ferryboat. These changes 
threw Mr. Rivet out of employment. Indeed, he left ferrying when the 
first horse ferryboat was bought. 

At about 18 years of age Mr. R. went to Jacksonville, 111., with W. L. 
Neay, a Kentuckian, and worked for him three years on a farm. Mr. N. 
and other farmers owned slaves and worked them. 

When about 21 years old Mr. Rivet engaged as a hand on a keel boat 
plying between St. Louis and the lead mines at and near Galena, 111. They 
carried bacon, corn, flour and groceries, etc., to the mines and returned 
with the lead produced to St. Louis for a market. He continued in this 
business for several summers, and labored in the winter at other employ- 
ments. 

In the spring of 1829, Mr. Rivet was employed by the American Fur 
Company to help take keel boats up the Missouri river to the Rocky 
Mountains, which were loaded with goods for their various trading posts 
along the upper river. The boats left St. Louis in March under the com- 
mand of Mr. James Kip (Kipp) and arrived at Old Fort McKenzie,_ eight 
miles above the mouth of the Marias, in September and there delivered 
their cargoes. 

Mr. R. remained at the fort during the winter of 1829-30 (1831-32), and 
in the spring accompanied the keel boat, which was loaded with the furs, 
robes and peltries that had been traded for during the winter, down to 
Fort Union. Here the cargo was transferred to the company's stearner, 
if one had arrived from St. Louis, or if not, continued on down the river 
until one was met, when the transfer was usually made; but if out of the 
hostile Indian country, would continue on to St. Louis. 

From Fort Union Mr. Rivet was sent with a party of trappers to the 
mouth of the Shayenne (Cheyenne) river, and trapped for beaver, otter 
and mink up that stream and across the country to the forks of the Platte 
river near to where the North Fork joins with the Laramie river, where 
the company had a fort (Fort William), the name of which he cannot 
remember. 'This was his first experience as a trapper. The party was 
very successful, for beaver were very plentiful. Each man of the party 
was provided with a riding and pack horse, and the journey was both 
pleasant and profitable. There were between thirty and forty men in this 
party and. being well armed, they were strong enough to protect them- 
selves against the Indians who were very hostile. 

The wages of a trapper were $300.00 per year, and he must buy his own 
clothing and kill his own meat while trapping, and was only fed by the 
company when necessarily detained at the forts by it. The company fur- 
nished the arms, ammunition, traps and horses. On the expedition re- 
ferred to above one Provo, a Canadian Frenchman, was their guide and 
leader. The trappers had to remain at this fort until the supplies for the 
Indian trade and the outfit for the trappers should arrive from St. Louis. 
This detained them six weeks or two months, but they lost no time as it 
was summer when no trapping was done. 

About the last of August Mr. Fontenelle. who had charge of the com- 
pany's post, formed a party of trappers to go west across the mountains. 



252 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

The party numbered about 150 men and were commanded by Fontenelle 
himself, Provo still being the guide. The party traveled up the Laramie, 
crossed over to and traveled up Green river and met at the rendezvous on 
Snake river at the Old Park late in the fall. During this long journey the 
party was constantly annoyed by hostiles who infested the route through 
which they passed, and several trappers were killed in the numerous attacks. 

On arriving at the rendezvous on Snake river, the trappers who had been 
staying in the mountains hunting, met them with great quantities of furs 
which they had taken. When all were thus assembled they numbered over 
five hundred. As provisions were scarce the men were divided into small 
parties of from thirty to fifty each, outfitted and assigned to different streams 
to engage in hunting to provide themselves with provisions until spring 
should open, and for trapping together in supporting distance of each other. 

After the winter and spring campaign of trapping was over, all met again 
at the rendezvous on Snake river and brought in the furs they had taken. 
They remained at or near the rendezvous during the summer and hunted 
deer, elk and buffalo, and caught fish (for they had to find their own pro- 
visions) until about the 15th of September, when they again went out in 
parties for the fall hunt for furs. When these were brought in, they out- 
fitted for the winter and spring hunt. 

The reason for remaining in camp from May until September was that 
the furs taken in the summer were not of good quality. 

Mr. Rivet remained in the mountains hunting and trapping in the summer 
for the companj' for three years. During this time, besides trapping on 
Snake river, he trapped and hunted on the principal tributaries of the 
Missouri down as far as the present town of Gallatin city, also on the 
Deer Lodge river, as far down as the mouth of the Little Blackfoot. 

In the summer of 1832, while the party of trappers to which Mr. Rivet 
belonged were hunting on a tributarj^ of Snake river, they discovered a 
large party of Indians who they found out were Blackfeet coming into the 
valley where they had their principal camp. They immediately sent mes- 
sengers to all their friends to come into their rendezvous at once, as they 
apprehended an attack from the Indians. The messengers were also in- 
structed to give warning to all parties of trappers known to be in the vicinity. 
In a short time all their own friends and other parties had arrived. He 
remembered that to their great joy, Sublette and Campbell, leaders of the 
rival Rocky Mountain Fur Company, were met unexpectedly. The Indians 
were astonished to find so many white men gathered together so suddenly 
when they had seen but comparatively few. They therefore immediately 
fortified themselves in the edge of a swampy wood and awaited the attack 
of the whites, which was not delayed. The Indians fought bravely from 
behind their log and brush breastworks, but would not leave it. Their fire 
was returned with interest by the trappers, and they were so surrounded 
that it seemed impossible for them to escape, and they would not surrender. 
Several white men had been killed or wounded. Captain Sublette had been 
shot through the shoulder. A number of Indians were seen to fall. Some 
were killed and some wounded. The fight lasted until night, when the 
whites withdrew into the edge of the woods, determined to renew the 
attack on the fort in the morning. When they crept through the woods 
and brush to renew the fight they found the fort deserted and the Indians 
gone. The fight had been bloody, for blood could be seen in spots all 
around. A number of dead Indians and horses were found in the enclosure. 
The wounded had been carried away. Several white men were killed and 
wounded, as were a number of friendly Indians who joined in the fight. 
The Blackfeet did not attack the trappers in force again. They would only 
attack from ambush, or in superior numbers. 

(Note: I had read an account of a battle in Bonneville's travels which 
occurred about the time mentioned by Mr. Rivet, and told him I believed it 
was the same. On my return home I consulted Bonneville, Chapter VI, 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 253 

where he very graphically describes the battle of Pierre's Hole, and 1 am 
perfectly satified it was the same as that described by Rivet.— W. F. W.) 

(Rivet's next statement checks with the Wyeth Correspondence and 
Journals, 1831-36, p. 196. "May 29, 1833. 4 hunters left us today to hunt 
beaver in the Blackfoot country, Pellew, Charloi, Narbesse, Rivey.") 

In the fall of his third year as trapper and hunter (1833) Mr. Rivet 
trapped up Snake river and on the headwaters of the Missouri, and down 
that stream until he reached the company's post at Old Fort McKenzie, 
from which he had been absent three years and a half. For ten years 
thereafter he remained in the employment of the company as hunter, scout 
and messenger for the fort. 

In 1843 Mr. Rivet left the service of the company and went to Fort 
Garry on the Red River of the North in British America. His object in 
going there was to place his three daughters in the Catholic convent to be 
educated. 

Mr. Rivet had previously married Mary Arnell, a halfbreed Indian woman 
whose father's name is given to an island in the Missouri river and to 
Arnell's creek in Chouteau county. By her he had the three daughters 
mentioned. He maintained them at the convent for fourteen years, and 
they were well educated. One of them accompanied the Sisters to Elk 
Lake in the British N. W. Territory, and was there married. He has never 
seen her or her children since they parted at Fort Garry. The youngest 
accompanied him to Cypress Mountain on a trading expedition and there 
died. The third is married to Mr. Amiel Paul, a farmer, and they are now 
living on the Shonkin in Chouteau county. 

Mr. Rivet himself lived in British America for seven years. He pro- 
cured a license or permit from the Hudson Bay Company to trade on his 
own account in any part of their territory on condition of selling his furs 
to them at a fixed price. He purchased his supplies mostly at "St. Pauls' 
(Minn.) as the old trading post there was then called. He traded in 
various parts of the H. B. country, and had a post one year on the shore 
of Hudson's Bay. 

Mr. R. returned to Montana in 1850, and has almost constantly smce 
been employed as trader at various posts, and as interpreter for traders 
and for the government, for which he is peculiarly well qualified, as he 
is familiar with everv Indian dialect of the plains and the mountains, from 
St. Louis to the Rockies, and from the Platte river to Hudson's Bay. 
When out of employment he hunts and traps on his own account. 

In 1866. he built Fort Hawley on the Missouri for Hubbell and Hawley 
and had charge of it for one year. In 1867 he built a trading post for 
himself at the Big Bend of Milk river and traded one season there. In 
1868 he was employed by I. G. Baker & Co. to trade and interpret for 
them at Fort Browning. In 1869 he built a trading post at Cypress Moun- 
tain for Alichael Laugevine and Lorieau of Fort Benton, and there traded 
for them during the following winter. In 1871-2 he interpreted for I. G. 
Baker & Co. at their post eight miles above Fort Belknap on Milk river. 
Since that time Mr. R. has worked for himself at various places in the 
Spring and Summer, but when September comes he outfits for a Fall and 
Winter campaign of hunting and trapping, which has been his habit for 
more than fifty years and which he cannot resist, and is now, at the age 
of 81 years, preparing for another trapping expedition with all the ardor 
of a young man, as soon as he finishes raking up the hay for Tom 
O'Hanlon, the trader at Belknap, which will be about the first of Septem- 
ber. Last spring Mr. R. lost his cabin, camping outfit, arms, clothing and 
provisions and many valuable furs by fire during his temporary absence 
from home. He says he must therefore try his fortune again at trapping 
and hunting, for he will be dependent upon no one as long as he can do 
for himself. If all the travels and adventures of this sturdy and inde- 
pendent old trapper could be recorded — his many battles with his life- 



254 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

long enemies, the Indians, his strategy to avoid or circumvent them, his 
skill and cunning as hunter and trapper, his contests with the savage 
grizzly bears, whose marks he carries, his sufferings and hardships in his 
many years of travel — they would make a volume of true adventure and 
heroic bravery that no imaginary story could surpass; yet, he, like most 
men of his kind, count all he has done and endured as but the common- 
place everyday work of life. Now at his advanced age he is hale and 
hearty, and looks forward to a winter of enjoyment in the mountains 
alone as his favorite pursuit. May he fully realize all his anticipations of 
pleasure and profit, for such men as he have made it possible for Montana 
to be settled in safety from savage attacks, and her people to build up for 
themselves pleasant and happy homes. 

Note: Since the above was written I have learned that Mr. Rivet went 
on his trapping expedition in the fall of 1884, and in about three months 
caught beaver enough to bring him $800 in cash. — W. F. W. 

(Louis Rivet died Dec. 31, 1902, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Paul, 
who was living on Milk river at the time. He lacked six months of 
reaching the century mark. 

Rivet's wife, Mary Arnell, was living in 1925, at the home of her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Paul, in Browning. Mary Arnell was married to Rivet at 12 
years of age, so she claimed, but her daughter, Mrs. Paul, says that it 
could not have been before 1834, (?) which was the year Rivet came to Fort 
McKenzie. In 1876 or 1877 Mary Arnell married another Frenchman, 
Philip Deschamps, who ran a saloon in Fort Benton. He died four years 
later. (Died in Fort Benton, July 9, 1891.) Mrs. Deschamps made her 
home with Mrs.' Paul from 1910 until her death. Her father was Augustus 
Hammell, who was an interpreter at Fort Benton. His name is some- 
times given as Hamell, Armell and Arnell. Mrs. Louise Paul, now living 
at Browning, Montana, is the daughter of Rivet and Mary Arnell and was 
born over seventy years ago.) 

16 Horse Guard. An employe whose work was to guard the horses 
belonging to the fort from theft by Indians. 

17 Tevis, Mr. (John C). John C. Tevis of St. Louis made a trip up 
the river to Fort Benton in the fall of 1852 and returned in September, 
1853, in a mackinaw boat with Lieutenant Saxton and others of the Stevens 
expedition. A merchant of this name was listed in the St. Louis directory 
from 1842 to 1855 and since it was said that he was traveling for his 
health he may have died on his return from his last trip in 1854. 

He made a second trip to Fort Benton in the summer of 1854, for 
Lieutenant Doty of the Stevens expedition said that Mr. Tevis of St. Louis 
who was coming in the company boat to spend the winter at Fort Benton 
would look after the weather observations for the government party as 
Doty had to leave. Tevis evidently changed his mind about staying, for 
Stevens reported that he returned to St. Louis early in the winter of 
1854-55, which would agree with the journal. 

18 Cadotte (Pierre). The name of Cadotte was an old one in the annals 
of the fur trade, for Jean Baptiste Cadotte who married an Indian woman 
in 1756 founded a family whose descendants followed the frontier to the 
Pacific ocean. There were at least two Cadottes at Fort Benton at this 
time, a father and son, and the father may have been the Pierre Cadotte 
for whom Stevens named the pass. On Sept. 18, 1853, he wrote: "We 
called it Cadotte's pass from Cadotte, one of our guides who passed over 
it two years since." This pass, in the Rocky Mountains between the head- 
waters of the Dearborn and Blackfoot rivers, is still known as Cadotte's 
Pass. 

Pierre was, no doubt, the man whom Kurz described as the "best stag 
hunter in this region. He is a genuine 'mountaineer,' possessing to a 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 255 

marked degree both their good and their less favorable qualities. He is 
unrivaled in the skill of starting, pursuing, approaching, shooting and 
carving a deer. In other respects he is heedless, wasteful and fool-hardy 
— half^Canadian and half Cree." , . ^ , ,• i >t 

From the Chambers journal we learn that the older Cadotte died Nov. 
17 1855 from the accidental discharge of his gun while hunting with his 
son near Fort Union. The Indians say that the great "Pierre Cadotte 
who discovered the pass of that name died of tuberculosis at the Badger 
Creek agency on the Blackfoot reservation in 1873. 

A Peter Cadotte was a witness to the Blackfoot treaty, Benton, Sept. 
1, 1868, as an interpreter. The 1870 census for Fort Benton included: 
' Louis Cadotte, 45 years old, halfbreed, born in Montana. 

Peter Cadotte, 30 years old, halfbreed, born in Montana. 

if> Paul. There were several men of this name on the Upper Missouri 
in the 50's and earlier. Paul Pellot, a mulatto, was a pilot on the mackinaw 
boats for many years. E. A. C. Hatch mentioned one Paul who was 
employed on the trip from Fort Union to Fort Benton, July, 1856. 

Paul Polache (Pellot?) was one of the pilots for the two mackinaw 
boats that brought the government goods from Fort Union to the council 
grounds at the Judith. 

20 Little Dog— 1866. Little Dog, a Piegan chief, was described by W. T. 
Hamilton as a "fine looking specimen of an Indian chief, over six feet in 
height, straight as an arrow." Vaughan said he was considered to be one 
of the' bravest and proudest Indians on the plains. Governor Stevens 
reported him to be a man of character and probity. 

He and his son were murdered near Benton, May 28, 1866, by Indians 
led by Three Sons. He was buried at Fort Benton. According to one 
report, he was a first cousin of Mrs. Culbertson. 

21 Blood Indians. See Note 32. Blackfeet Indians. 

HUGH MONROE. 1784-1892 

A Brief Sketch of the Life of the Oldest Man in Montana- 
Still Vigorous at 106 Years of Age. 
(From The River Press, Feb. 19, 1890) 

22 The subject of this sketch, whose portrait appears above, now lives on 
Two Medicine Lodge creek, near the Piegan Indian agency, in the north- 
western part of Choteau county, and is the oldest old-timer in Montana. 
He was born near Montreal, Canada, May 4, 1784, and is therefore in his 
106th year. His father, also named Hugh, was a captain in the French 
army in Canada, and his mother, whose maiden name was Sophie Larue, 
was born in Canada when that country was under French dominion. In 
his youth Hugh received a good education, having attended the English 
school at Montreal for three years and the Priests' college over four years. 

When he was eighteen years of age, at the solicitation of a half brother, 
Joseph Larock, who was then in the employ of the Hudson Bay Company 
in the "Indian territories." Hugh went "west" and was given the position 
of apprentice-clerk at the Edmonton House, one of the company s forts 
on the Saskatchewan river. He remained in the company's employ three 
years and at the age of twenty-one married a Blackfoot woman. At this 
time Hugh had a disagreement with the company's governor of that dis- 
trict, who seems to have been rather a harsh individual, and he determined 
to join the Indians, among whom he has lived ever since, and until recently 
his home has been with the Kootenais. ,, , r , 

He speaks various Indian languages and as a sign talker has tew equals. 
In 1832, Hugh, having heard from some Indians of the arrival of the 



256 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

American Fur Company's traders at the mouth of the Marias, made a 
long journey from his northern home, accompanied by his wife, to visit 
them and to lay in a stock of tobacco and other necessaries. In 1836, being 
then with his friends, the Kootenais, he discovered and christened St. 
Mary's lake. He erected a larj?e cross there at that time. 

Between this and 1853 he continued his roving life, making occasional 
trips to Fort Benton and other outposts, and became known far and wide 
as a man of great influence among the restless northwestern tribes. In 
1853 he acted as interpreter and guide for Governor Stevens' survey party 
from Fort Benton to Walla Walla, from where he again went back to the 
Kootenais. 

The old man is quite vigorous and manages to get around fully as lively 
as his two sons with whom he now lives, the older of whom is now 75 
years of age. He mounts a horse with the agility of a boy and goes with 
them to the mountains for wood, and never fails to catch a mess of trout. 
Often he visits the agency and to see him stepping along as briskly as a 
man of forty is surprising, considering the life of exposure and danger he 
has led. Not long since while crossing the square enclosure of the agency 
he met a very feeble, decrepit old man by the name of Burd, who was 
barely able to get along with his stick and the assistance of his wife, and 
who is about 90 years of age. Having passed him, Mr. Monroe turned 
quickly around, saying: "Poor man! He's getting pretty old and I feel 
sorry for him." 

Hugh is the father of ten children, only three of whom are living. His 
wife died on Upper Sun river at an extreme old age fourteen years ago. 
When asked if he ever thought of marrying again he replied, "Well, I'm 
getting rather well along in years, but if I could find a woman to my taste 
I would try to get her, and you bet I would make her a good husband, too." 

Mr. Monroe has used tobacco from boyhood and once in a while takes a 
little spirits, but he has never been intemperate. Meat has been his prin- 
cipal diet. He yet has his old flint lock gun, a smooth bore of great length, 
with which he has killed almost every variety of game known to the North 
American continent. He has participated in many conflicts with hostile 
tribes, and has had many hair breadth escapes and thrilling adventures, 
many of which will be given in book form in a history of his life which 
will soon be published. He carries on his person the scars of several old 
arrow wounds and is blind in his left eye. The latter injury is the result 
of a personal encounter forty j^ears ago with a Sioux Indian. Mr. Monroe 
never belonged to a Montana legislature, which, with his other temperate 
traits, may account for his longevity. 

Hugh Monroe died at Milk river, Dec. 7, 1892, aged 109 years; buried at 
Holy Family Mission graveyard, Dec. 9. 1892. (Records of the Holy 
Family Mission.) 

23 Little Grey Head. The Little Grey Head was one of the principal 
chiefs of the Piegan Indians, according to the report of E. A. C. Hatch, 
agent for the Blackfoot Indians, in 1856. He signed the Blackfoot treaty 
of Oct. 17, 1855, at the mouth of the Judith river. 

JAMES BIRD, JUNIOR.— 1892 

24 James Bird, Sr., was born in Acton, Middlesex county, England, about 
1773 and entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company at York 
Factory in 1788. From that date until his retirement in 1824 he was em- 
ployed by the Hudson's Bay Company in the Saskatchewan river section 
and in the latter years of his service was governor of this district. Alex- 
ander Henry met Bird and his Indian family in 1809 near Cumberland 
House. The mother of these children may have been the Indian woman 
he married March 30, 1821. who died in October, 1834. He had three half- 
breed sons, James, Joseph and Nicholas. After his retirement from the 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 257 

fur trade he lived in the Red River Settlement, married a white woman, 
Mrs. Mary Lowman, in 1835 and had two sons by this marriage. One of 
these sons, Dr. James Curtis Bird, was speaker of the Manitoba Legis- 
lature 1873-74. James Bird, Sr., held several important government 
positions in Manitoba and died in Winnipeg, Oct. 18, 1856, and was buried 
in the churchyard of the old cathedral. 

Joseph Bird, born in 1800, joined the Hudson's Bay Company in 1815, 
employed in the Edmonton district, 1818-19, an active and industrious 
young man. In 1819 returned to the Red River colony and was baptized, 
Jan. 12, 1826. (Colin Robertson's Letters, 1817-1822, pub. 1940.) Nicholas 
G. Bird went to Oregon with the Red River immigration in 1841. 

James Bird may have been the oldest son of the first marriage, for he 
was with Pierre C. Pambrun in 1816, who was in charge of a brigade of 
five boats for the Hudson's Bay Company, when both were taken prisoners 
by the Northwest people at the time of the attack on the Selkirk Settle- 
ment by men of the Northwest Company. In the hearing that was held 
later Bird gave his testimony as to the capture of the men and boats and 
also his version of the talk made by one of their Indian captors. This 
would indicate that in 1816 he was old enough to occupy a position of 
some responsibility and understood the Indian language. His age at the 
time of his death in 1892 was given as 107 years, which would make the 
year of his birth 1785 and his father eight years old at that time. He may 
have been born between 1790 and 1800 and about 18 or 20 years old in 
1816 when he was taken prisoner by the Northwest Company employes. 

The next mention of James Bird, Jr., is in the Fort Tecumseh (later 
Fort Pierre), S. D., Journal, when he was interpreter for the American 
Fur Company: 

"April 27, 1832: Messrs. McKenzie, Kipp and Bird with nine Blackfeet 
arrived in a bateau from Fort Union. 

"May 1, 1832: Mr. Bird and the Blackfeet Indians left here in the 
morning on a visit to the Sioux camp. 

"May 4, 1832: Mr. Bird and the Indians returned from the Sawon 
(Siouan) camp." 

Maximilian met him at Fort McKenzie in August, 1833, and described 
him as: "Bird, a halfbreed, a treacherous, very dangerous man who had 
great influence over the Blackfeet . . . had been with the American Fur 
Company, then with the Hudson's Bay Company, and cheated both ... a 
tall, strong man. brownish complexion, thick black hair, spoke Blackfoot 
language fluently. In 1833 he was not in the service of either company 
but trapping beaver and hunting on his own account." Bird set up his 
tent among the poplars near Black Chief's, of the Blackfoot Indians, lodge 
and visited the fort frequently. He annoyed the people there by telling 
them that he was about to make a trip to the north, presumably to the 
forts of the Hudson's Bay Company who were the rivals of the American 
company, for the trade of the Blackfoot Indians. There was a suspicion 
that he aroused the hostility of the Indians toward one another and the 
"company." At this time bands of the Blood and Blackfoot Indians visited 
the fort and the traders endeavored to keep peace between the Indians 
and maintain friendly relations on the part of the company and the various 
tribes. This called for continual demonstrations of good will and gen- 
erosity on the part of the "company." 

David Mitchell, the chief trader, angered Bird by refusing to sell him 
one of his best horses. An Indian told the traders later that Bird had 
endeavored to get the Indians to go north with their furs. Since Bird 
had assured Mitchell he would use his influence for the American com- 
pany it was evident that he was insincere and dangerous. As the company 
felt none too secure in the friendship of the Blackfoot Indians and the 
fear of losing their trade to the Hudson's Bay Company was always with 
them, such an individual could be a real menace. Maximilian thought "it 



258 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

would be highly important to the company to deprive this dangerous, 
influential halfbreed of the power of injuring them." Was he suggesting 
that the company have Bird murdered? 

The Battle of Pierre's Hole, July 18, 1832, between the Blackfoot Indians 
on the one side and the white traders and hunters, the Flathead and Nez 
Perce Indians on the other, was precipitated by the treacherous murder 
of a Blackfoot by Antoine Godin and a Flathead. As the Indian advanced 
under a truce, Godin, as he clasped the hand of the Blackfoot, motioned 
to the Flathead to shoot him. This was Godin's revenge for the murder 
of his father by the Blackfoot Indians some years previous. 

In the summer of 1836 a band of Blackfoot Indians led by a white man 
named Bird appeared across the river from Fort Hall and their leader 
signalled Godin to cross over to them with a canoe as thej^ had beaver to 
trade. Godin, alone in the canoe, landed near the Indians and smoked 
the pipe of peace with them. While he smoked the pipe in his turn Bird 
signalled to an Indian behind Godin who shot him in the back. Bird 
scalped him while he was still alive and cut Wyeth's initials N J W in 
large letters upon his forehead. He then called to the fort people to bury 
the carcass and went off with his party. N. J. Wyeth was in charge of 
Fort Hall at the time. This was the account that John McLeod of the 
Hudson's Bay Company gave to John K. Townsend at Fort Walla Walla, 
Sept. 1, 1836. McLeod said Bird had been with Hudson's Bay Company, 
taken prisoner by the Blackfoot and had lived with them ever since, was 
a great chief and leader of their war parties. He had a feud with Godin 
and had sworn to kill him at the first opportunity. 

It was several years later that John Dunn (The Oregon Territory, 
pub. 1844) heard Mr M'Kay of the Hudson's Bay Company tell the story 
of Bird in the "bachelors' hall" of Fort Vancouver. "This young Bird 
was a son of a Mr. Bird, a gentleman some years ago in the service of the 
company. He had received a fair education and could converse in French 
and English and had been employed for a time by the company but found 
the work too hard and joined the Blackfoot Indians, was made a chief 
and became a prominent man in the tribe. He was called by the trappers 
"Jemmy Jock" and was much disliked by the American trappers and it 
was said a reward of $500 had been offered for his head as he was sup- 
posed to have been a leader of a band of Blackfoot that cut off an Ameri- 
can party and killed a number of the men. At that time (1840) he had 
been living with the Blackfoot 20 years. M'Kay said one time when his 
party was in camp he thought there were Blackfeet in the country because 
of certain signs and accordingly gave strict orders to the Canadians on 
watch to be alert. . . . But Jemmy Jock, dressed as a Canadian voyageur, 
came into the camp unobserved, walked up to the chief guard and, speak- 
ing to him in Canadian French, said he had 'received orders that the 
horses which were in camp should be turned out to graze.' The watch- 
man thought the order came from M'Kay and ordered the horses turned 
out. Soon the camp was aroused by the Blackfoot warwhoop; some of 
the horses were mounted by the Indians and others driven off before them. 
The trappers were left to make their way afoot as best they could. 

"One of his jokes was to leave a letter tied to a stick for the benefit of 
a trapper who might pass that way. He would state that he had camped 
there a short time before and give information which at one time would 
be true and valuable and again false and misleading, and the unfortunate 
trapper who believed the letter might find himself misled." 

Mr. Rundle, an English Wesleyan missionary to the Indians near Fort 
Edmonton, had as an interpreter in 1841-46 "a Mr. Bird, the halfbreed 
son of a chief factor," who may have been James or one of his brothers, 
but Rundle's entry in his diary for April 21, 1841, would indicate that it 
was James: "Among the Blackfeet. Saw my interpreter and asked him 
if he intended speaking for me and he refused." This surly answer was 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 259 

typical of Bird. In his entry for May 31, 1846, Rundle wrote: "Service 
was held in Mr. Bird's tent when about 65 were present." Again, June 28, 
1846," "In this neighborhood (Banff) lies buried a half-caste girl, a daughter 
of Mr. Bird, who I trust to meet in My Father's House above. I baptized 
her at Rocky Mountain House and she made a hopeful end. She took 
great delight in religion and once when prayers were held in her father's 
tent and she was unable to sit up without assistance, she was held in her 
father's arms so that she could take part." 

Father De Smet on a journey in search of the Blackfoot Indians met 
Bird at Fort Edmonton in 1845 and the missionary wrote in his letter of 
Oct. 30, 1845: "My greatest perplexity is to find a good and faithful inter- 
preter; the only one now at the fort (Bird) is a suspicious and dangerous 
man; all his employers speak ill of him — he makes fine promises. In the 
alternative ... I accept his services. 

"Dec. 31, 1845. On the 31st of October I took leave of Mr. Harriotte 
. . . my interpreter did not long leave me in doubt of his true char- 
acter ... he became sullen and peevish, always choosing to halt in those 
places where the poor beasts of burden could find nothing to eat. . . The 
farther we penetrated into the desert, the more and more sulky he became. 
It was impossible to draw from him a single pleasant word, and his in- 
coherent mutterings and allusions became subjects of serious apprehension. 
Thus passed ten sorrowful days; my last two nights had been nights of 
anxiety and watching; when fortunately I encountered a Canadian with 
his family, on whom I prevailed to remain with me some time. The 
following day my interpreter disappeared . . . beware of placing your 
dependence upon a morose halfbreed, especially if he has been for some 
time a resident among the savages; for such men usually possess all the 
faults of the white man joined to the cunning of the Indian. . . ." 

John Rowand, chief factor at Fort Edmonton, wrote to De Smet, Dec. 
3, 1845: "Beware, my good sir, of your interpreter Bird. He hates every- 
thing connected with the French or Canadians. Munroe (Hugh Munro) 
is not a bad sort of man, but I cannot recommend him as fit to interpret 
what you have to say to the natives. Munroe does well enough at a 
trading post and the shop." 

J. E. Harriott, factor at Rocky Mountain House on the North Fork of 
the Saskatchewan river, wrote in a letter to De Smet, March 30, 1846: 
"We have seen a great number of Blackfeet and Surcess, since I last 
wrote, but nothing of Bird or Munroe. I am very doubtful whether we 
shall see them from what the Assiniboin who saw them last say about 
them." 

Paul Kane, the Canadian artist, found Jemmy Jock, a Cree half-breed, 
in temporary charge of Rocky Mountain House when he visited there in 
April, 1848. Though neither (latholic nor Protestant missionaries had any 
respect for Jemmy Jock and gave him a bad reputation throughout the 
country, Kane found him hospitable and trustworthy. He was told that 
the trader had been sent out by the "Company" many years before to 
learn the Blackfoot language to help with the trade, but he had married 
a chief's daughter and liking the life of the Indian so well left the service 
of the "Company" to live with the Indians. Kane learned much of the 
customs of the tribe from Jemmy Jock, who had lived with them thirty 
or forty years. 

Thomas Pambrun, son of Pierre C. Pambrun of the H. B. Company, 
published. a series of reminiscences in the Teton Times (Choteau, Montana) 
and in one of these articles he would, if it were not for one or two state- 
ments, appear to be describing James Bird. In the issue of Alarch 4, 1893, 
he wrote: "On these plains (east of the Rocky Mountains) roamed the 
most treacherous, cruel, and therefore dreaded man. His name was James 
Bard (Bird) alias Jim My Joke (Jemmy Jock?). Educated in England, a 
finely proportioned man, very fair for a halfbreed and his beautiful tresses 



260 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

hung down to his shoulders. He was undoubtedly the finest specimen 
of a man I ever saw. Disagreeing with the Hudson Bay Company, he 
joined the Indians, first one tribe and then another as his whim or 
imaginary injuries or concocted schemes dictated. He had women and 
children in every tribe and wherever he headed was victorious. The asso- 
ciation with his name was enough. He was therefore courted by all, even 
by the company who paid him stipulated sums in goods annually to keep 
peace. His movements were closely watched by all inimical tribes and 
trappers as well. He has been known to go as far south as Snake river 
in the vicinity of Fort Boise." 

Pambrun heard of these exploits at Fort Edmonton on his journey east 
to Fort Garry and did not give the date, but it was between 1840 and 
1850. James Doty of the Stevens expedition wrote to Governor I. I. 
Stevens, Dec. 28, 1853: "Good interpreters for the government are very 
difficult to procure, because such can get higher wages from the traders 
than the government pays. The only man I can at present recommend 
is a Mr. Bird. He is a halfbreed, English and Blackfoot; is an elderly 
man, respectable and intelligent, and the best interpreter in the country. 
He may not wish the situation of interpreter at the agency, but can, no 
doubt, be engaged for a council." 

In the squabbling between Governor Stevens and Commissioner Gum- 
ming at the Judith council Culbertson was accused by Stevens of being 
too friendly with Gumming. Culbertson felt that he was wronged by 
Stevens and refused to act as interpreter for the Blackfoot Indians at the 
council, his place being taken by Bird. 

James Bord (Bird) was at the Fort Belknap Indian agency in 1873-74, 
but returned to the Blackfoot reservation in his extreme old age. It would 
seem that Bird acquired respectability with age and the malicious pranks 
of "Jemmj' Jock" were ended. From the comments of Chambers who 
called him "old Bird" and Doty who said he was an "elderly man" he 
was an old man in 1855 but he was still alive and with the Blackfoot 
Indians in 1890. (See Note 22 — Hugh Munro.) 

In the Choteau Montanian, Dec. 16, 1892, appeared the following item: 
"The oldest person on the reservation is a white man named Burd, whose 
age is said to be 94. Mr. Burd, however, lacks the vigor of strength always 
displayed by Munroe, and it is hardly probable that Burd will ever attain 
the extreme age of the pioneer who just passed away." 

The records of the Holy Family Mission on Two Medicine creek contain 
the following: "James Bird, halfbreed, died Dec. 11, 1892, and was buried 
in the Holy Family Mission graveyard, Dec. 13. 1892, age 107 years. Died 
before priest could reach him. Place of birth is given as Winnipeg." 

When Mr. John B. Ritch inquired concerning Bird on a visit to Brown- 
ing, Montana, March, 1940, he was told by Eli Guardipee that James Bird 
was a white man, who spoke the Blackfoot language fluently and acted 
as chief interpreter at the treaty of 1855. He was married to Hawk 
Woman, a Blackfoot squaw. He ranged over great areas of the Northwest 
and was known in the British territory as "Jim Jack." 

BAPTISTE CHAMPAIGNE— 1886 

25 The Champaignes were French Canadians and probably Baptiste and 
Michel were brothers. Both had been with the Upper Missouri posts for 
many years, but Michel held more responsible positions than Baptiste and 
was better paid. 

Baptiste or Jean Baptiste, which was his full name, was at the Blackfoot 
post in the summer of 1844, as he was a witness against Moncrevie that 
year for giving liquor to the men on the boat going up the river. He was 
often pilot of the boats used by the company. There was also a younger 
Jean Baptiste, son of Michel, who was born about 1834, baptized by Father 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 261 

Hoecken at Fort Union, June 28, 1840, at the age of six years. He acted 
as interpreter for Father Point in the fall of 1846 when he visited the 
Piegan camp near Fort Benton. He may have been the Baptiste Cham- 
paigne who acted as guide for the Stevens party in 1853 from Fort Benton 
to the Bitter Root valley. 

The Blackfoot treaties of Nov. 16, 1865, and Sept. 1, 1868, at Benton, 
were witnessed by a Baptiste Champaigne as an interpreter, who could 
have been either of these men. The census of Chouteau county, Montana 
territory, 1870, has a Baptiste Champaigne, aged 30 years, white, born in 
Canada, and the poll list for Chouteau county, Oct. 24, 1864, included a 
Baptiste Champaigne. 

Pete Champaigne, who died near Dupuyer, Montana, in March, 1899, 
was born at Fort Benton in 1867, the son of Baptiste Champaigne who 
had been in the employ of the St. Louis Fur Company for many years 
and who died at Chouteau in 1886. 

MICHEL CHAMPAIGNE 

26 This man, according to the baptismal records of Father Point when 
Champaigne acted as godfather for some of the people baptized at Fort 
Benton, was the son of Simon and Lizette Champagne of the Mackinaw 
district of Michigan, but the Michael Champagne who was married to 
the Indian woman, Marie Nitchetoaki, Dec. 27, 1846, at Benton by Father 
Point, was described as the son of Louis. Father Point in his journal of 
his trip down the river from Fort Benton in the spring of 1847 when 
Michel was pilot of the boat, wrote: "Michel Champagne, who was then 
(1833) and still is captain of the barge. . . . Always the first at duty, he 
gave to the others an example of patience and courage. ... He was 
equipped with stature, strength quite beyond the ordinary, everything 
contributed to give the rowers an esteem for his person." 

The name of Michel Champaigne appears on the American Fur Com- 
pany ledger June 7, 1829, in the equipment list. During his service with 
the company he held positions of some responsibility, such as store- 
keeper, and was also a trader on his own account. In the St. Louis ledgers 
of the P. Chouteau, Jr., and Company his balance in the Dec. 31, 1852, 
entry was $4120.79, and that year, July 31, he was charged with the sum 
of $112.70 for payment of his daughter's expenses at the Sacred Heart 
convent near St. Louis. This was probably the daughter that C. W. Frush 
met at Fort Benton in the fall of 1858 when he was there with Major 
Owen. Her father, in the absence of Mr. Dawson, was in charge of the 
post and Miss Champaigne, who had just returned from school in St. Louis, 
was dressed in the latest style and an intelligent, interesting young lady. 
She may have been the little girl, Josette, of whom Father Point wrote, 
who was born about 1839 at a trading post on the Missouri river below 
Milk river. She and her little sister, Mary, were among the most devout 
of Father Point's charges and he felt that their piety would justify his 
stay with the Indians. 

Michel Champaigne was included in the list of men living at Benton 
in the winter of 1862-63 and, no doubt, died near there or on the reserva- 
tion since he was an old man at that time. 

ST Hamils Houses. A winter trading camp of Augustin Hamell on the 
Marias river between Dry Fork and Birch creek. 

AUGUSTIN HAMELL. 1800-1859, 1860 

-"A Augustin Hamell, the son of Augustin and Maria Louisa La Motte 
Hamell of Canada, was married to Helena (Pehama et Scienike) Dec. 27, 
1846, by Father Point at Fort Benton. They had been married a number 
of years previously by Indian custom and had several children who were 
baptized by Father Point in the winter of 1846-47. Hamell had one 



262 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

daughter, Margaret, by a previous marriage, who married first Louis Rivet 
and second, a Mr. Deschamps. There were ten children of Hamell's 
second marriage, and one daughter, Mrs. Susan Arnoux, is Hving today 
(1940) at Browning, Montana. 

Hamell's name is spelled in various fashions, Hamelin, Hamell, Ham- 
mell, Ammell and Armell, but the spelling used by Father Point in his 
register kept at Fort Benton is used here. Alexander Henry of the North- 
west Fur Company of Canada in his journals mentions several Hamells, 
and since Henry traded with the Blackfoot Indians it is probable that 
Augustin Hamell was either the Hamell who was with Henry or his son 
for he knew the Blackfoot language and acted as interpreter for Governor 
I. I. Stevens at the council he held with these Indians at Fort Benton, 
Sept. 21, 1853. Stevens said he was "an intelligent voyageur who had 
been in the country many years." Hamell may have come to the United 
States territory after the consolidation of the Northwest Company and 
the Hudson Bay Company in 1821. 

Culbertson said that Hamell was at Fort McKenzie in May, 1835. His 
daughter, Mrs. Deschamps, said they, Hamell and his family, lived first 
at the post at the mouth of Knife river (Fort Clark), then at Fort Union, 
Fort McKenzie and Fort Benton. Hamell built several trade houses which 
were known as Hamell's houses. The Stevens report mentioned Hamell's 
houses on the Milk river and Hamell's houses on the Marias river, about 
15 or 20 miles below Birch creek. He also had a trading post on Buffalo 
Island, which Mrs. Deschamps said was a few miles above Fort Benton. 

Sometime after 1850 Hamell moved his family down the river in a 
mackinaw boat which carried the furs to Sioux City. He settled on a 
farm near Yankton, S. D., where his daughter, Ellen, who later married 
Thomas Stuart, brother of James and Granville Stuart, was born Dec. 
31, 1852. Hamell returned to Fort Benton, as he was there when the 
Stevens expedition was at the fort in 1853. 

Major A. J. Vaughan, agent for the Blackfoot Indians, said in his 
report for 1859: "I was induced to employ A. Hamel for the present 
year (as interpreter), his character and capacity as a Blackfoot interpreter 
being unexceptionable and acknowledged throughout the nation. Having 
retired from the country last year after a long residence and settled him- 
self and family on a farm in the neighborhood of Sioux City, I found him 
loth to return here, and to secure his consent was forced to offer him 
$600.00 a year, being $200.00 more than usual." 

Hamell died at the age of 59 years at his farm near Yankton, which 
would have been about 1859-60. 

Armells creek, a branch of the Missouri river in Fergus county, was 
named for him. 

28 White Calf. 1835-1903. J. W. Schultz said the correct translation of 
White Calf's Indian name Onistai Pokuh meant "wonderful child," but 
the traders interpreted it as White Calf. He was born about 1835 and 
while still very young became noted for his bravery, intelligence and 
charity to the old, poor and friendless. 

He signed the Blackfoot treaty. No. 7, on the Bow river in Canada, 
Sept. 22, 1877. After the death of Big Lake in 1873 he was unanimously 
elected chief of the Blackfoot nation. He died in Washington, D. C., 
Jan. 29, 1903, while on a visit to the capital on business connected with 
tribal affairs. 

29 Perry. This may be an incorrect spelling. It might have been in- 
tended for Perrault. There was a Charles Perry, interpreter at Fort 
Belknap agency in 1892, who might have been the same person as the 
Charles Perrault of Chouteau county poll list of 1864. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 263 

MALCOLM CLARK. 1817-1869 

30 The biographical sketches of Malcohn Clark written by his sister, Mrs. 
C. W. Van Cleve, and his daughter, Helen P. Clark, respectively, and 
published in volumes one and two of the Contributions of the Historical 
Society of Montana, while the very sympathetic and partial accounts that 
one would expect, give all the details of his life. Clark's entrance in the 
service of the company is given in one source as 1839 and in another as 
1841, and it was somewhere about that time. 

He was next to Culbertson in command at Fort Benton in 1850-53, and 
had an interest or share in the U. M. O. for the ledger of 1854 shows that 
he owned one-half of one share, but in the report for 1856 his name is 
replaced by Dawson's as a shareholder. From 1855 to 1861 Clark either 
traded independently or worked for the opposition. In June, 1862, he 
formed a partnership with Chouteau and Dawson at Fort Benton to trade 
with the Indians on equal shares. This firm did not last very long as 
Dawson sold his interests at Fort Benton in 1864 and returned to Scot- 
land. 

Clark located on his ranch at the mouth of Little Prickley Pear Canyon 
in 1864-65, and it was there that he was killed by a Piegan Indian on 
Aug. 17, 1869. He had at least two Indian wives and was married in 
June, 1862, by Father De Smet to "his young wife" at Fort Benton. The 
1870 census of Lewis and Clark county listed Mary Clark, aged 45 years, 
who was probably his first wife, and five children, ranging in age from 
23 to 12 years. His grandchildren live near Glacier Park today. 

If Clark had lived longer he would probably have occupied a prominent 
place in the affairs of the territory. He was appointed one of the com- 
missioners of Edgerton (Lewis and Clark) county in 1865 and was one 
of the twelve members of the Historical Society of Montana which was 
incorporated in 1865. 

31 Fort Campbell. Fort Campbell was the opposition post at Benton, 
built in 1846 by the Harvey, Primeau Company which was organized in 
St. Louis that year. The first post, according to a manuscript note of 
Lieutenant Bradley, was built of wood and located on the south bank of 
the Missouri river on bottom land opposite and a little above the Cra- 
con-du-Nez, about 100 yards from the river. When Culbertson moved 
Fort Lewis down and across the river from its original location and estab- 
lished Fort Benton in the spring of 1847, Harvey moved his fort and 
located it a short distance above Fort Benton on a point between Butte 
and Rondin streets of the present town. One reason for moving was 
that the supply of timber at the first location was about exhausted and 
also the new position was better for trade. The new post was built of 
adobe about 1847-48 and preceded the adobe buildings of Fort Benton. 
The fort was sold to the Chouteau company in the spring of 1860 and in 
the fall of 1861 Dawson offered the use of the fort buildings to the Jesuit 
missionaries until permanent quarters would be found. It was occupied 
by the missionaries until the spring of 1863, when the mission was built 
at the mouth of Deep creek. 

32 Blackfeet. The Blackfoot Indians was a name applied to three dif- 
ferent bands, the North Blackfeet. the Bloods and the Piegans. The Gros 
Ventres of the Upper Missouri, who were sometimes known as the Falls 
Indians, also belonged to the Blackfeet. The North Blackfeet and the 
Bloods occupied a territory north of that of the Piegans who lived south 
of the Canadian boundary. 

33 WraJ^ Mr. J. F. In the article on Fort Benton by Lieutenant Bradley, 
Contributions of the Historical Society of Montana, vol. 3, mention was 
made of a "young man named Ray, a relative of Major Culbertson's" who 



264 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

was probably the Wray of the journal. He was a clerk at Fort Union in 
August, 1860, when Maynadier stopped there on his way down the river. 

34 Box Elder Creek. A stream that empties into the Milk river from the 
east above Havre. 

•■^5 Little Robe. The Little Robe band of Indians was mentioned by 
Catlin in 1832 and according- to Father De Smet the band was almost entirely 
destroyed in 1845 in a battle with the Crows but the name was still used in 
1848, as Larpenteur mentioned "a band of Blackfeet, called the Little Robes 
after the name of their chief" who came to trade at Fort Benton in 1848. 

36 Knees (part for boat). David Hilger said that "knees" were a certain 
shaped root or limb which was used in the construction of the mackinaw 
boats. It was used to support the sides and had to fit the angle of the 
bottom and sides. 

3" Keel Boat. The keel boat was usually made from 50 to 75 feet long 
with 15 to 20 feet beam. It was a staunch vessel, well modeled, sharp bow 
and stern and built by skilled workmen after the most approved methods 
of shipcraft of that day. Such a boat had a carrying capacity of ten to 
twenty tons, a draft of thirty inches light, and cost usually from $2,000 to 
$3,000. Amidship was the cabin, extending four or five feet above the hull, 
in which was stored the cargo of Indian merchandise. On each side of this 
cabin was a narrow walk on which the boatman walked in pushing the boat 
along with poles. The appliances used for ascending the river were the 
cordelle, the pole, the oar and the sail. (Chappell. A history of the Mo. 
River. Kan. City, Mo. n. d.) 

•■'S Mackinaw Boat. The mackinaw boat was made entirely of Cottonwood 
plank about two inches thick. They were built about 50 to 60 feet long 
with 12-foot beam and had a flat bottom. The gunwales arose about three 
feet above the water-line amidship and increased in height toward the bow 
and stern. In the bottom of the boat were the stringers, running fore and 
aft, and to these were spiked the bottom plank, in the first years with wooden 
pins, but later with iron nails. The sides, which were also of plank, were 
supported by knees, at proper distances. The keel showed a rake of 30 
inches, fore and aft, and the hold had a depth of four feet amidship and 
about five feet on the stern and bow. 

In the middle of the boat was a space partitioned off with bulkheads, 
similar to the cargo-box of the keel boat. In this was stored the cargo of 
furs (put up in bales). . . . The voyage was always made on the June 
rise, and as the current was then swift, and men was all that was necessary, 
as the boat simply floated down the stream with the current. The only 
danger anticipated was from the snags in the bends, and the Indians, and 
these had to be carefully guarded against. 

As the mackinaw boat was only intended for a single voyage down the 
river, they were cheaply built. There was near every large trading post 
on the river a boatyard, called by the French a chantier, where the lumber 
was gotten out and the boat constructed. . . . The lumber was sawed out 
with a whipsaw. 

For mutual protection the mackinaw boats usually went down in fleets 
of from six to twelve, but it was not unusual for a single boat to make the 
voyage. (Chappell. A history of the Mo. River. Kan. City, Mo. n. d.) 

38A Crows. The name "Crows" was a translation of their own name, 
Absarokee, which meant bird and was translated by the French as "gens des 
corbeaux" or people of tlie Crow. They were a Siouan tribe, forming part 
of the Hidatsa group from whom they separated about 1776. The Crows 
withdrew from the Missouri river and migrated toward the Rocky Moun- 
tains. At this period, 1854-56, they occupied the country of the Big Horn, 



xN'OTES AND REFERENCES 265 

Powder Horn and Wind rivers as far south as the North Fork of the Platte, 
the Yellowstone river area to the mouth, and north to the headwaters of the 
Musselshell river. Hayden said it was the finest game country in the world. 

3!) BufTalo Tongues. The buffalo tongues were salted and dried, some- 
times painted over with molasses and water to give them a dark, smoky 
color. Kurz said Denig refused a dollar apiece for these choice morsels, 
which brought a higher price in the eastern markets where they were con- 
sidered a great delicacy. 

■»« Big Feather. Big Plume. Big Feather or Big Plume signed the Black- 
foot treaty of Oct. 17, 1855, as The Feather, and Big Plume signed the 
Blackfoot treaty at Benton, Sept. 1, 1868. In the Bradley manuscript article 
on Sir St. George Gore he states that Big Plume was a brother-in-law of 
Alexander Culbertson. 

OPPOSITION COMPANY. 1846-1860 

•*i The "opposition company" was the St. Louis Fur Company, organized 
in the summer of 1846 and composed of four partners, Alexander Harvey, 
Charles Primeau, Joseph Picotte and A. R. Bonis, all former employes of 
the Chouteau company. The new organization was financed by Robert 
Campbell of St. Louis and trading posts were established at various points 
along the Upper Missouri river where the "old company" was also in 
business. Fort Campbell was built just above Fort Benton, the old adobe 
buildings of Fort Wiilliam were occupied, Fort Primeau was located op- 
posite Fort Clarke and so on. One year, 1848-49, a fort was built on the 
Yellowstone near Fort Alexander for the Crow trade. According to the 
story of Augustus Barlow who went up with the party to build this post, it 
was 200 feet square with several log buildings inside the stockade. Harvey 
was in charge at Fort Campbell, Primeau at Fort William and Picotte at 
the post on the Little Missouri in 1849. 

The entry in the St. Louis ledger for July, 1852, of the Chouteau Company 
would indicate that the returns of the Harvey, Primeau Company were sent 
to Robert Campbell and he in turn disposed of the furs through the Chouteau 
Company, the latter taking S07c of the proceeds for handling the furs. 
Honore Picotte wrote to Andrew Drips, Jan. 3, 1852, that the "opposition 
company is about to fold up. Owe Campbell more than they can pay, 
etc. . . ." Very likely the profits of the four partners were not so large 
after the final sale of the furs. Kurz in his journal for 1851 remarked, 
"these 'dobies' (the occupants of Fort William were known to the Fort 
Union people as 'dobies' because their fort was built of adobe bricks) have 
held their own for an unusually long time, but still make inconsiderable 
profit, only Campbell, in charge of their drinking house in St. Louis, is 
making a success." By "drinking house" Kurz probably meant Campbell's 
commission business in the liquor trade in which the Harvey, Primeau 
Company did not share. 

Harvey died in July, 1854, while on a trip down to Fort Union in a 
mackinaw boat and was buried at that fort. After his death the company 
gradually changed hands and a new concern. Frost, Todd and Company, 
took over the "opposition" at various stations. Malcolm Clark was em- 
ployed by Frost in 1857 and the company in charge of Fort Campbell and 
Fort William was known as Clark, Primeau and Company with Clark in 
charge at Fort Campbell. In 1860 the "opposition" was bought out by the 
Pierre Chouteau, Jr., and Company and all the property of the various trad- 
ing posts turned over to that company. 

As Kurz remarked, this company had lasted longer than any other "op- 
position" — from 1846 to i860. 



266 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

ANDREW DAWSON. 1818-1871 

42 The biographical sketch of Andrew Dawson by his son, James, pub- 
lished in volume seven of the Contributions of the Historical Society of 
Montana, tells the story of a man engaged in the fur trade for over twenty 
years and the last representative of the P. Chouteau, Jr., and Company at 
Fort Benton. He was born in Scotland in 1818 and died at his old home in 
1871. 

The Fort Benton journal was kept most of the time by Dawson, who 
was in command of the fort during the absence of Culbertson. He took 
the furs down in the spring and had charge of the boats bringing up the 
goods from Fort Union. He was chief trader at Fort Clark from 1850 until 
the fall of 1854, when he came up to Fort Benton where he remained until 
his retirement in 1864. The St. Louis ledgers show that Dawson's earnings 
increased very substantially from 1854 to 1864, and he was one individual 
who ended his career in the fur trade with a sizable fortune for those days. 

Letters to Dawson and the accounts of people who visited Fort Benton 
show him to have been a most genial and hospitable host and at the same 
time he never neglected the interests of the company. His friend Morgan 
of the Red River Settlement, Canada, wrote to him in February, 1862, that 
he was glad to hear that he (Dawson) had supplanted Culbertson and was 
at last "King of the Missouri." 

Through an accidental fall in 1858 Dawson was badly crippled and event- 
ually lost the use of his lower limbs. He spent his remaining years in Scot- 
land as an invalid, but scenes of his old home and the association with his 
relatives and old friends helped make his life more bearable than it would 
have been in the rude and lonely existence of Fort Benton. The two sons, 
James and Thomas, who accompanied him home, returned after his death 
to Montana and Thomas is still living, in 1940, at Glacier Park. Several 
grandchildren live in North Dakota. 

43 Pit. Pit for burning charcoal. 

44 Dawson's wife (died Mar. 11. 1855). James Dawson said that his 
father had three Indian wives. He married first Josette Garreau, daughter 
of Pierre Garreau, at Fort Clark, who was the mother of James. His 
second wife was a Brule Sioux, and the third a Gros Ventre. She was 
the mother of Thomas Dawson. 

45 Pablo's Island. There were two islands of this name in the Upper 
Missouri river. This island was about 16 miles above Benton and named 
for a Mexican who was killed by the Blackfoot Indians near there in 1848. 

The other Pablo Island was about six miles above Arrow creek, and 
Pablo's Rapids were 124 miles below Benton in the same river. 

4e Hermaphrodite Keel Boat. A boat that was one-half keel and one- 
half mackinaw. 

47 Clark's Houses. See Clark, Malcolm. Note 30. 

48 Big Lakes Band. This Indian was described by Father De Smet in 
1846-47 as "head chief of the Piegan band of the Blackfeet." He signed 
the Blackfoot treaty of Nov. 16, 1865, as a Piegan and in the report of 
H. D. Upham, agent for the Blackfoot in 1866, he is named as one of the 
two head chiefs of that tribe, Little Dog was the other. 

40 White Cow Against the Bank. A Gros Ventre Indian, White Cow 
in the Middle, signed the treaty of Nov. 16, 1865, and a Blood Indian, The 
Bank, signed the same treaty. The Bank may have been the same person 
as White Cow Against the Bank. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 267 

5>o Picotte (Jos.) — 1868. Joseph Picotte, a nephew of Honore Picottc, 
agent of the U. M. O. for many j'ears, born in Canada and employed by 
the American Fur Company or the Chouteau Company before he became 
a partner of Harvey, Primeau Company in 1846. His children, Emilia, 
Paul, Suzanna and Marie, were baptized by Father De Smet, Nov. 5, 1846, 
at Medicine Creek near Fort Bonis on the Missouri river. In 1862 Picotte 
was employed by the La Barge, Harkness Company, the "opposition" of 
that period. He died at Yankton Agency, S. D., in 1868. 

•'Ji Rising Head. Rising Head was a North Piegan and signed the 
Blackfoot treaties of Nov. 16, 1865, and Sept. 1, 1868, at Fort Benton. 

52 Henry's boy (born April 13, 1855). This may be a reference to Henry 
Mills, whose son, Dave Mills, later an interpreter at the Blood Reserve 
in Canada, was born about this time. 

53 Jackson (Thomas) — 1894. Thomas Jackson was born in Virginia and 
entered the service of the American Fur Company about 1835 and was 
employed as a tailor at Fort Benton. He married Amelia Munro, daughter 
of Hugh Munro, and the famous scout, William Jackson, was his son. 
According to information received from his descendants now living at 
Browning, Montana, Thomas Jackson died at Cut Bank, Montana, in 1894. 

5-1 Packs (buffalo and furs). The bufifalo robes were packed ten at a 
time in a press 2J/4 by 4 feet and tied with a rawhide. Two men were 
needed to handle each bale. 

55 Press. See Packs (buffalo and furs). Note 54. 

50 Government Goods, Wagons and Two Government Men. The refer- 
ences to the government camp, goods and men is to the Governor I. I. 
Stevens equipment and people. 

57 Surround. The journalist here refers to what was known as the 
"horse surround" method of hunting the buffalo. When the herd was seen 
the horsemen mounted on "buffalo horses" surrounded the herd and began 
to kill when the animals were bunched in a close herd. 

5S Cabree. The antelope was known as "Cabri", from the French word 
for kid. 

59 Government Men (two). See government camp, goods, etc. Note 56. 

60 Bird's Son. This may have been Thomas Bird, son of James Bird, 
described by George B. Grinnell as "Thomas Bird, an intelligent half- 
breed, translated part of the Bible into Blackfoot for an Episcopalian 
minister." 

61 Cypress Mts. Cypress Mountains north of the boundary in southern 
Alberta. 

62 Yellow Hair. Yellow Hair was hired by the Stevens expedition in the 
fall of 1853 as a guide for the party which made a survey of the country 
between Fort Benton and St. Mary's by way of Cadotte pass. Yellow Hair 
and Yellow Head was probably the same person. See also Kelchiponesta's 
son. Note 124. 

63 St. Mary's (village). St. Mary's refers to the village or settlement 
near Fort Owen on the St. Mary's or Bitter Root river, which was the 
name of the Catholic mission founded there in 1841 and abandoned in 1850. 

64 Stevens, Gov. I. I. 1818-1862. Isaac Ingalls Stevens was born in 
Andover, Massachusetts, March 18, 1818, and graduated first in his class 



268 XOTES AND REFERENCES 

from the U. S. Military Academy in 1839. He was appointed governor 
of Washington territory in 1853 and that same year was placed in charge 
of an expedition to explore a northern route for a Pacific railroad. He 
represented the United States government in various councils with the 
Indians of the northwest in 1854-55. 

In 1857 he resigned as governor of Washington territory and was elected 
to congress from that territory for two terms. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war he entered the Union army and was killed at the Battle of 
Chantilly, Sept. 1, 1862. 

*»■'• Barnes. In Vaughn's "Then and Now" a Phil Barnes is mentioned 
as an employe of the fur company at Fort Benton in 1859. The list of 
people living at Fort Benton, 1862-63, includes a Phil Barnes, negro cook. 

«*■' Snakes. These were the Snake Indians who had come to attend the 
council at the Judith river. 

•J" Dot3\ Mr. (James). -1857. James Doty was a son of James Duane 

Doty who was a member of congress and a governor of Wisconsin and 
Utah. James, Jr., was appointed a member of the Stevens expedition in 
1853 to make "astronomical and magnetic observations." He was left at 
Fort Benton for the winter to prepare the way for a proposed treaty with 
the Blackfoot Indians. Governor Stevens gave him high praise for his 
intelligence, fidelity and energy. Just before the Blackfoot council he 
made a long and strenuous ride into Canada to recover horses stolen from 
Indians who had come to attend the council. Doty acted as secretary for 
the commission at the treaty making in October, 1855, and after the com- 
pletion of the council returned to the west with Governor Stevens. He 
died in Washington Territory in 1857. 

68 Three Buttes (Sweet Grass Hills— East, West and Gold Buttes). See 
Note 10. 

69 Crosby, Col. Henry R. Crosby, a member of the Stevens expedition, 
1853-55. 

^0 Big Snake. -1858. 

Paul Kane met Big Snake, a chief of a Piegan Indian band who was 
also known as Loud Voice and Black Snake Man, on the Saskatchewan 
river in June, 1848. His brother told Kane that Big Snake was the leader 
of the band of Indians that visited Fort McKenzie in the fall of 1843 and 
killed the cattle belonging to the fort. This act was responsible for the 
cannon being fired without warning on another band of Indians who visited 
the fort the following spring. 

Big Snake was said to be the father-in-law of White Calf. A band of 
Crees who came to Norway House soon after Kane's visit with Big Snake 
told Kane that one of their war chiefs had killed Big Snake in single 
combat. The report was not true for certain "winter counts" show that 
he lived another ten years and died in 1858. 

71 Fort McKenzie. 1832-44. Fort McKenzie was built in 1832 by David 

D. Mitchell of the American Fur Company on the north side of the Mis- 
souri river, six miles above the Marias. On Feb. 19, 1844, occurred tlic 
incident which was responsible for the abandonment of Fort McKenzie. 

E. A. C. Hatch, agent for the Blackfoot tribe, in his report for 1856 made 
the following reference to this event: 

"During the summer of 1843 and winter of 1843 and 1844 they (the 
North Blackfeet) had considerable trouble with the fur company, brought 
on by evil disposed Indians from the north. An extract from the private 
journal of a man, now dead, who was at that time in the employ of the 
company, reads thus: 'February 19, 1844. Fight with the north Blackfeet, 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 269 

in which fight we killed six and wounded others; took two children pris- 
oners. The fruits of our victory were four scalps, twenty-two horses, three 
hundred forty robes, and guns, bows and arrows, etc. etc' Since this 
unfortunate aflFair few of them visited the trading posts within the territory 
of the United States, until the present winter." 

Chardon was in charge of Fort McKenzie at this time and it is difificult 
to understand the wanton killing of the Blackfoot Indians by two men 
who had so much experience in the fur trade as Chardon and Harvey. The 
policy of the company was always to maintain friendly relations with the 
Indians upon whose good will depended the success of their trade. Neither 
of the men appeared to have been censured by the company for this act. 
Both were retained in the employ of the company on the same basis as 
before. 

Later Harvey quarreled with Chardon, Clark and others of the company 
and went down to St. Louis where he filed charges before the Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs that Chardon had sold liquor to the Indians at 
Fort AIcKenzie from May 1, 1843, to March 31, 1844. This latter date 
indicates the day that Fort McKenzie was deserted, for it was in the 
spring of 1844 that Fort F. A. C. was built at the mouth of the Judith by 
Chardon. 

With the exception of the brief existence of Fort Piegan, 1831-32, and 
Fort Lewis, 1845-47. the forts of the Blackfoot station were Fort McKenzie 
and Fort Benton, and Alexander Culbertson was in charge of both forts 
for most of the vears. 1832 to 1864. His history of this period as told to 
Lieutenant Bradley and published in vol. 3 of the Contributions of the 
Historical Society of Montana gives a comprehensive account of the story 
of Fort McKenzie. 

"2 Pearson, W. H. W. H. Pearson, a native of Philadelphia, about 35 
years of age, was the expressman with the Stevens expedition, 1853-55. 
He had been a Texas ranger and Indian scout. He made two marvelous 
rides while with the expedition. Governor Stevens in his report described 
the first trip as follows: "Pearson rode 1750 miles by the route he took 
from the Bitter Root valley to Olympia and back to Benton, in 28 days, 
during some of which he did not travel. He was less than three days 
going from Fort Owen to Fort Benton, a distance by the route he pur- 
sued of some 260 miles, which he traveled without a change of animals, 
having no food but the berries of the country, except a little fish." 

He made the second ride to bring the news of the Indian outbreak in 
Washington territory to Governor Stevens and arrived from Walla Walla 
at the governor's camp, near Benton, Oct. 29, 1855. 

"•^ Doty & Jackson. Governor Stevens had promised the various tribes 
that all the Indians would behave in a friendly fashion and their lives and 
property would be safe. On Aug. 29, 1855, four Pend d'Oreilles Indians 
came to his camp with a message from tlieir chief, Alexander, that four 
horses thev had placed in the government herd, much against their better 
judgment, had been stolen by two Blackfoot boys of the northern tribe. 
The Pend'Oreilles horses had been taken out of a herd of over 100 
others. 

To keep his word to these Indians Stevens had to recover the horses 
and sent Little Dog to hunt the animals, but he was not successful. So 
Doty with one man, Jackson, went north to the Blackfoot camp on the 
Saskatchewan as it was thought the thieves would think they would be 
hunted on the Missouri instead of farther north. The two men made 50 
miles a day, reached the Row river, over 200 miles from Benton, and 
entered the Indian camp two hours after the stolen horses arrived. 

Doty called the chiefs and demanded the stolen horses and received 
three of them, which he placed in charge of Little Dog who had followed 
him into camp. The fourth horse had been made off with by an Indian, 



270 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

but Doty pursued him to the Elk fork of the Saskatchewan, 70 miles 
farther, and recovered the last animal. On the sixteenth day after the 
horses had been stolen they were returned to the Pend d'Oreilles. 

74 Boats. Boats bringing government annuity goods and presents for 
Indian council meeting on the Missouri river near the mouth of the Judith. 

75 Kipp (James), 1788-1880. James Kipp was born in Canada about 
1788 and came to the Missouri river with the Columbia Fur Company 
about 1822. He built the first post for the Blackfoot Indians in 1831 and 
was in the employ of the fur company on the Upper Missouri until his 
retirement about 1859-60. He had several Indian families as well as a 
white wife and children who lived on his farm home near Independence, 
Missouri. Joe Kipp, born Nov. 29, 1849, at Heart River, was the son of 
James Kipp and Earth Woman, daughter of Four Bears, Mandan chief. 
After his retirement to his farm in Missouri, Kipp made occasional trips 
in the summer to Fort Benton to visit his old friends. 

He died at Parksville, Missouri, June 2, 1880, at the age of 93 years. 

76 Hatch (Maj. E. A. C). 1825-1882. Edwin A. C. Hatch was born in 
New York, March 23, 1825, and came to Minnesota in 1843 and located 
in St. Paul. He was appointed agent for the Blackfoot Indians in 1855, 
which office he held until 1857, when he was succeeded by Major Vaughan. 
Hatch returned to Minnesota and died in St. Paul, Sept. 13, 1882. 

His diary for the period June 7 to Oct. 13, 1856, is in the library of the 
Minnesota Historical Society and the following brief summary of this 
trip to Fort Benton from Fort Union is from this diary: 

"The St. Mary, steamboat, went up the Missouri river to 15 miles above 
the Big Muddy, where the goods were unloaded and three boats built to 
proceed up the river to Fort Benton. With a crew of 58 men for the 
cordelle, two on the bows, three cooks, one watchman, three pilots, An- 
drew Dawson and Hatch, the slow journey up the river began July 27, 
1856. Culbertson and his party made the trip overland. Hatch left the 
boats at Wolf Point and with Chouquette went with horses to Benton, 
reached there Aug. 14, 1856. He left there in a skifT Sept. 15, 1856, to 
meet the Indians and boats below the Judith. A council was held there 
and the annuities distributed, Sept. 20-23, 1856. From that point Hatch 
proceeded down the river on his return to Minnesota." 

JAMES H. CHAMBERS. 1820-1866? 

77 James H. Chambers would appear to be the mystery man of the fur 
trade in Montana, for there is no mention of him in any of the accounts 
of this period with the exception of the Harkness diary which mentions 
him as being at the Dauphin post in 1862. From his entry of March 20, 
1855, we know he was born in 1820, and on June 15, 1855. he ate "radishes 
and lettuce" for the first time in six years which would indicate that he 
had been in the Indian country since 1849. 

The St. Louis directory of 1847 lists a James Chambers, riverman, and 
the directory of 1848 has a James Chambers, bookbinder, and since the 
original journal has a hand-made leather binding he may have been this 
man. We could find no information that would connect him with the 
family of Col. A. B. Chambers of St. Louis who was secretary for the 
treaty of Fort Laramie in 1851, but it is possible there was a relationship 
for he knew of Colonel Chambers' Indian child. 

The St. Louis ledgers of the Chouteau company show that Chambers' 
earnings were very modest for tlic list of men of 1855, U. M. O., July 
31, 1856, includes his name with a balance of $307.90, which, in ac- 
cordance with the scale of wages paid, would be that of a skilled laliorer 
at the fort or a minor trader. In no place in the journal does he write 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 271 

anything that might be a clue to his past life and we do not know whether 
this was deliberate or not but it seems so. There is no mention of a 
letter written to or received from relatives or friends at home and there 
are no entries in the company ledgers to show that he sent money to 
anyone, as was customary with many employes. 

Larpenteur was not in the Upper Missouri country from 1849 to 1859, 
which was probably the reason for no mention of Chambers in his journal. 
His name does not appear in the Kurz journal of 1851-52, which might 
have been because he was in the Crow country or traded from the forts 
on the Platte river for those years. He said that he made a trip in search 
of the Crows to Little Powder river in the winter of 1852-53, and this 
might have been from the Platte river. 

From his comments on Fort Union when he arrived there in May, 1855, 
he was not very familiar with that place, which might signify that he had 
been at Fort Sarpy most of the time since his connection with the Chou- 
teau company. He knew the Crow language by 1855, which would mean 
a residence of several years in their country, although his squaw, "Bricks," 
was a Gros Ventre. 

He remained in the Upper Missouri country for there are casual references 
to him by several people. P. W. McAdow said Chambers was the guide for 
his party in 1861 from Owen McKenzie's fort to Benton, and Harkness 
employed him in 1862 at their trading establishment near Milk river. His 
name is on the poll list of Oct. 24, 1864, of Chouteau county, but we can 
find no later mention of him. In Vaughn's Then and Now in an account 
of the various people killed in the 60's by the Indians was one James 
Chambers killed by Blackfoot Indians at Dearborn. In 1897 there was 
some discussion of his journal in the Historical Society library and 
Matthew Carroll who was asked concerning him said he had been a clerk 
for the American Fur Company and had moved to Three Forks, where he 
died in 1864. Since he was at Fort Benton, Oct. 24, 1864, this date must be 
wrong. It is very likely that he died in the late 60's, probably killed by 
Indians during those years 1865-69 when a number of white men were 
murdered by the Blackfoot. 

"8 Cumming, Col. Alfred. 1802-1873. Col. Alfred Cumming, born in 
Georgia, 1802, was a sutler with the U. S. army in the Mexican war and 
served as superintendent of Indian affairs, central division, 1853-56. He 
was one of the three commissioners appointed to treat with the Blackfoot 
Indians at the council held at the mouth of the Judith river, October, 1855. 
Governor Stevens and Cumming were the only members of the commission 
present at the council. Stevens came from the West and Cumming came 
up the Missouri river by steamboat to Fort Union and from there to Benton 
overland. The two commissioners had many disagreements during the 
council meeting, but the treaty was completed and Cumming returned down 
the river, Oct. 23, 1855. 

In 1857 he was appointed governor of Utah territory by President Bu- 
chanan and held that office until 1861. He died in Augusta, Georgia, Oct. 9, 
1873. 

"S> Lansdale, Dr. R. H. 1811.— Dr. Richard Hyatt Lansdale, born in 
Montgomery county, Maryland, Dec. 23, 1811. Studied medicine in Ohio. 
He served with the Missouri volunteers in the Mexican war of 1848 and in the 
spring of 1849 emigrated to California, and from there to Oregon. He was 
appointed Indian agent for the Flatlicad tribe in 1855-56 and in 1857 was 
given charge of the tribes north of tlic Columbia and east of the Cascades. 
He was living with his family in Olympia, Wash., in 1893. 

80 Lame Bull. Another name for Lame Bull was Nee Ti Nee or "Only 
Chief," sometimes translated as Lone Chief. Culbertson said Lame Bull 
was the leader of the Piegans that were attacked by the Assiniboines at 



272 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

Fort McKenzie in 1833 when Maximilian was there. Governor I. I. Stevens 
described him as a Piegan chief of about 100 lodges, "sincere in his desire 
to live at peace with other tribes." He attended the Judith council in 
October, 1855, and signed the treaty as chief of his tribe. His memory is 
still revered by the Blackfoot people and he is said to have been killed in 
a buffalo stampede sometime in the 60's. 

81 Eagle Chief. Eagle Chief was a Gros Ventre chief whom Governor 
Stevens met near the Milk river, Aug. 23, 1853. He was the father of White 
Eagle who was later head chief of the Gros Ventres. Eagle Chief signed 
the Blackfoot treaty of Oct. 17, 1855, and the Blackfoot treaty of Sept. 1. 
1868. 

ALFRED J. VAUGHAN. 1801-1871 

82 Alfred J. Vaughan, born in Virginia (?) in 1801, was in the Indian 
service from his own account in a letter to Father De Smet, May 20, 1857, 
IS years at that date, which would mean that he entered in 1842. He was 
agent at the Osage agency in 1845, and sub-agent for lowas. Sacs and 
Foxes, 1848-49. 

The agency for the Upper Missouri Indians was created in 1852 and 
James H. Norwood, the iirst agent, was murdered sometime between 
Sept. 16, 1852, when he sent in his report, and November 30 of the same 
year, for the Commissioner of Indian Affairs wrote in his report of that 
date that they had lately received word of his death by violence. Nor- 
wood was succeeded by Alfred J. Vaughan, who held the position until 
1857, when he was replaced by A. H. Redfield and Vaughan became agent 
for the Blackfoot Indians. He established the agency at Sun river and held 
office until 1861. 

William T. Hamilton met Vaughan at the Blackfoot agency on Sun river 
Oct. 18, 1857. and described him as "a fine looking old man from the state 
of Mississippi." He had a son who came up the river with Commissioner 
Cumming's party in 1855, for Culbertson told of "young Vaughan's Virginia 
blood" being aroused by some hostile action of an Indian. Gumming wrote 
in his report, "Mr. Vaughan, Jr., and Mr. Kennedy accompanied me to the 
Judith." This seemed to be his first and only visit to the Upper Missouri 
river. 

Major Vaughan had an Indian wife who was with him on the Shreveport 
in 1862. W. C. Gillette, a passenger on the same boat, told an interest- 
ing incident concerning the couple: "Major Vaughn was one of the 
passengers. He was formerly an Indian agent under President Buchanan 
and had with him his Indian wife and child. Her relatives lived in the 
vicinity of Fort Pierre. It appears that the Major had purchased at St. 
Joseph for his wife an elegant silk gown, brocaded with satin figures. She 
went on shore for a visit with her relatives, and with them went on a berry- 
ing expedition attired in this gown. When she returned this garment was 
a sight to behold, and the Major, using language more forcible than polite, 
declared that hereafter she should be clad only in the regulation Indian 
blanket." 

Father De Smet baptized Fanny, four months old, daughter of Agent 
Vaughan, July 11, 1864, on board the Yellowstone. 

Larpenteur described Vaughan as "a jovial old fellow with a fme paunch 
for brandy. . . . He was one who remained most of his time with his In- 
dians, but what accounts for that is the fact that he had a pretty young 
squaw for a wife; and as he received many favors from the company his 
reports must have been in their favor." This was the usual sour comment 
of Larpenteur, but no doubt there is a great deal of truth in it. The fault 
is that he gave only the weak or evil characteristics of the person described. 
Major Vaughan's reports to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1853-61. 
show that he spent a great deal of his time with the Indians in his charge, 
and made long and arduous journeys to contact the various tribes in his 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 211 

districts. He had an earnest desire to perform his duty toward the Indians 
and also had a practical knowledge of what was best for them. He worked 
hard to carry out the obligations of his office, but the Civil war caused the 
retirement of many officials who might be considered Southerners. 

Major Vaughan was in Montana the summer of 1868 when the treaties 
were made with the Blackfoot, Gros Ventres and Crows, and did special 
work for U. S. Commissioner Cullen among these various tribes and signed 
the three treaties as a witness. He died in Marshall county, Mississippi, in 
June, 1871, aged 70 years. 

83 Two Elks. Major Hatch, Indian agent, mentioned Two Elks as a 
Gros Ventre chief. 

84 Kennerly, H. A. 1835-1913. Henry Atkinson Kennerly, born at Jef- 
ferson Barracks, St. Louis, Dec. 2, 1835, the son of George Hancock and 
Alziere Menard Kennerly, was a grandson of Pierre Menard who built the 
Three Forks fort in 1809. Henry A. Kennerly accompanied Colonel Curn- 
ming when the latter came up the Missouri river to meet the Indians in 
council near the Judith river in 1855. 

Kennerly returned to Montana in 1863 and was a resident of Montana 
until his death at Cut Bank, July 9, 1913. He was a member of the Fourth 
Territorial Session, 1867, of the Montana Legislature and served as county 
treasurer of Chouteau county. 

85 Willson. This is probably the E. S. Willson who signed the treaty of 
Oct 17, 1855, and he may have come from St. Paul with Major Hatch. 
There is an entry in the St. Louis ledgers of the fur company, Aug. 9, 1856. 
for drayage charges on the trunk of E. S. Willson to St. Paul. 

86 De Roche, Benj. 1827-1878. Benjamin De Roche was the son of 
August Durocher and Marie Louise Hortiz, born in 1827. The change in 
the spelling of the name is probably due to pronunciation of Durocher, which 
in French would be Du Roch and easily mistaken for De Roche. At the 
time of the death of his mother in St. Louis, Dec. 30, 1863, Benjamin was 
living in Fort Benton and was included in the poll list for Chouteau county. 
Oct. 24, 1864. He signed the Blackfoot treaty of Nov. 16, 1865, at Benton 
as an interpreter and was included in the 1870 census of Chouteau county. 
He was described as a trader, born in Missouri, with a half-breed family of 
three children. His son Benjamin, Jr., died in Fort Benton, December. 
1869. of smallpox and Benjamin, Sr., died at Fort McLeod, Canada, Dec. 
28. 1878. 

8" Henry. See Mills, Henry. Note 135. 

«8 Pend d'Oreilles. A tribe of the Selish group which occupied territory 
in the Flathead lake region of western Montana. These Indians came to 
attend the council which Governor Stevens was to hold at the Judith river. 

89 Deep river (Smith river). Present day Smith river in Meagher county, 
Montana. 

90 Oct. 4. 1855. It was the intention of Governor Stevens and Commis- 
sioner Gumming to hold the Indian council near Fort Benton, but the boats 
were so Ions? delayed in coming up tlic river that it was decided on Oct. 5. 
1855, to hold the council at the mouth of the Judith river since the Indians 
were all arriving and the boats would be 25 days longer in reaching Fort 
Benton. So messengers were sent to the various Indian camps to notify 
them that the council v.ould be held at the Judith. Governor Stevens ar- 
rived at the council grounds October 11, where the boats were unloading 
and by October 15 all the Indians had assembled. 3,500 in all. The council 
opened Tuesday, October 16, and on October 17 the treaty was signed. 



274 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

During the next three days, October 18-20, presents, coats and medals were 
distributed and speeches made. Since there are no entries in the Journal 
from October 4 to 18, the journalist evidently attended the council. The 
Indian tribes represented were the Blackfoot nation, the Flatheads, 
Upper Pend d'Oreilles, Kootenay and Nez Perce. The treaty was known 
as a "peace treaty" since it was intended to establish peaceful relations 
among these tribes as well as to define the boundaries of the hunting 
grounds, etc. 

91 Citadel (Mo. R.) A prominent landmark on the Upper Missouri river 
about 63 miles below Fort Benton. 

92 Indian Outbreak, W. T. Tribes of the Upper Columbia broke out in 
open war. Pearson made a fast and dangerous ride to bring news of the 
outbreak to Stevens at Benton. 

93 Boat Arrival, Nov. 5, 1855. Hazard Stevens in his biography of his 
father, I. I. Stevens, accused the fur company of purposely delaying the 
boats which brought the government goods to the council at the Judith. 
The reason for the company's action was that the distribution of the govern- 
ment goods spoiled the trade of company goods with the Indians. 

9-1 Star Robe. Star Robe was a Gros Ventre Indian who signed the 
treaty of Oct. 17, 1855, and those of Nov. 16, 1865, at Benton, and July 13, 
1868, at Fort Hawley. He was described as being in 1862 the wealthiest 
Indian among the Gros Ventres. (N. D. Hist. Coll., v2, pt. 2, p. 63.) 

95 Belt Mountain creek. Present day Belt creek, a branch of the Mis- 
souri river from the south above Fort Benton. 

96 Missouri Falls. The Great Falls of the Missouri river. 

97 Skunk. A Gros Ventre Indian who signed the treaty of Oct. 17, 1855, 
at the Judith council. 

98 Low Horn. Low Horn, according to Governor Stevens, was the prin- 
cipal Piegan chief at the Judith council where he signed the treaty of Oct. 
17, 1855. He was described as "Low Horn, the quiet and even meek spokes- 
man at the council (Benton, September, 1853) and the trumpet-toned chief 
in the presence of his men; crossed the Missouri river in 1855 with his 
whole band, moved up the Judith, and camped on the Muscleshell — the first 
man who extended the hand of welcome and friendship to the western 
Indians as they crossed the mountains on their way to the council, showing 
most conclusively that faith can be put in Indians." 

Low Horn signed the Blackfoot treaty, No. 7, Sept. 22, 1877, on the Bow 
river in Canada and is said to have died of extreme old age on the Marias 
river, but the date is not certain. His original name, according to the In- 
dians, was Four Persons. 

99 Spotted Eagle. Walter McClintock wrote of an old Blackfoot medi- 
cine man on the reservation in 1896 named Spotted Eagle. 

100 Red Horn. There was a Blackfoot Indian of this name at Fort Mc- 
Kenzie in 1833, when Maximilian was there. 

191 Rotten Belly. This name was borne by several Indians. A famous 
Crow chief. Rotten Belly, was killed by the Blackfoot near Fort McKenzie 
in 1834. 

192 Sitting Woman. Sitting Woman, Sitting Squaw or F"emmisee was a 
Gros Ventre chief. His father, who bore the same name, was killed in 
battle between the Gros Ventres and Assiniboines at the Cypress moun- 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 275 

tains before 1853. Sitting Women signed the treaties of Oct. 17, 1855; Nov. 
16, 1865, at Fort Benton, and July 13, 1868, at Fort Hawley. 

103 "Chantier." The "chantier," so-called from the French word for 
boatyard as the mackinaw and keel boats were built here, being close to 
timber. It is the Shonkin creek of today. 

10-1 Bad Head. Signed the Blackfoot treaty of Oct. 17. 1855, at Judith 
river. 

105 Chine, P. This name, pronounced "Shane," was spelled in various 
manners, Chene, Chane, Shienne, etc. The founder of the family, Pierre 
Chene, was born in France, 1654, emigrated to Canada, married and his 
descendants moved from Montreal to Detroit, to St. Louis and finally the 
Upper Missouri river. A Pierre Chaine was employed by the Missouri Fur 
Company in 1812-13, probably the father of Pierre Chine of Fort Benton. 
Father De Smet baptized at Fort Union. July 20, 1851, La Croix, aged 4 
years, and Caroline Chene, 10 months, children of Pierre Chine by his first 
wife, a Blackfoot woman. He later moved to the Crow Indian country on 
the Yellowstone, where he was employed as an interpreter at the agency. 
He was a witness to the Crow treaty of 1873 and is included in the 1870 
census. Big Horn county, as Pierre Shane, aged 41 years, born in Canada. 
He married a Crow woman and his children live today on the Crow reserva- 
tion. George C. Berry, who saw him in June, 1876, described him as an 
oldish man, slender and short, a French-Canadian. 

IOC Bellies River. The Belly river, a branch of the Bow river in southern 
Alberta, Canada. 

lOT The Rider. The Rider signed the treaty of Oct. 17, 1855, as aGros 
Ventre, but his picture is included in a group of Blackfoot chiefs in H. 
Stevens' biography of his father. 

los Calf's Robe (Blood). Calf's Robe and Calf's Shirt were different 
translations of this Blood chief's name. Hatch, Indian agent, spoke of him 
as Calf's Shirt and it was that name he signed to the treaty of Oct. 17, 1855. 

There was another Blood chief of this name whom W. T. Hamilton met 
in October, 1858, "one of the head chiefs of the Blood Indians." The treaty 
of Sept. 1, 1868, at Benton was signed by Calf's Shirt and Treaty No. 7, in 
Canada, was signed by "Onistah, Calf Robe," on Sept. 21. 1877. S. C. Ashby 
was in charge of a trading post on the Marias for I. G. Baker in 1868-69, 
and that winter Calf Shirt and his band came from Canada to the post. It 
was their first visit to the United States since the murder of 12 men in 1865 
on the Marias river near Benton by Calf Shirt's band. They spent the 
winter near the Ashby post and at one time Calf Shirt while drunk attempted 
to murder Father Imoda. 

J. W. Schultz in "Sign Posts of Adventure" gave the name of this chief 
as Onistai' yi. which correctly translated meant Sacred or Miraculous Robe. 
A note in the Bradley manuscript states that Calf Shirt was killed by Joe 
Kipp at Whoop-up the winter of 1873-74. Culbertson met him on the Bow 
river in 1870. 

109 Big Bend. Big Bend and Grand Tour are the same and refer to 
either the Big Bend of the Milk or the Missouri rivers. 

110 Two Forks. The North and West forks of the Milk river. 

111 Mr. Dawson's Comrade. A term used in the fur trade which meant 
a certain Indian singled out for special favors because of his loyalty and 
friendship. 



276 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

112 Father of All People. Men-es-to'-kos, a Blood chief, whose name 
was translated in various forms, as Father of All People, Father of All 
Children, Children Everywhere, the latter being the name that is used by 
J. W. Schultz. Grinnell also said this was the correct meaning and may 
have had Schultz for his authority. This chief was the father of Mrs. 
Culbertson. He was present when the Blackfoot treaty, No 7, was made 
on the Bow river, when he was said to be "the oldest Indian present." 

Grinnell said he was living in 1892. He signed the treaty of Oct. 17, 1855, 
and the treaty of Nov. 16, 1865, at Benton. 

113 Sleepers. Skids for pulling boats out. 

114 Old Sunn (Blackfoot). E. A. C. Hatch, agent for the Blackfoot, in 
his report of 1856 spoke of Old Sun or Natose-Apiw as a Blackfoot chief. 
He signed the treaty of Sept. 1, 1868, at Benton and Treaty No. 7 on the 
Bow river, Canada, Sept. 21, 1877, as chief of the North Blackfoot tribe. 
Schultz said the correct translation of the name Natos' Api is Sun Old and 
its last bearer was a Sun priest of the Blackfoot. 

115 Big Sun, Bull Sitting Down, The Tail that Goes up the Hill. The 
reference is to the cannon that was fired on these Indians, Feb. 19, 1844. 
See Note 79, Fort McKenzie. 

116 Tail That Goes Up the Hill. The Blackfoot Indians, interviewed by 
Mr. J. B. Ritch at Browning in March, 1940, told him that this was the 
name of the Indian known as Heavy Runner who was killed in the Baker 
massacre on the Marias river, January, 1870. 

iiy Soldier Bands. E. T. Denig's account of the Assiniboine Indians 
published in the forty-sixth annual report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, described the soldiers as follows: 

"The soldiers, Ah-kitche-tah. These are the bravest and most orderly 
men of from 25 to 35 years of age. They have been and are still warriors 
and leaders of parties to war; are chosen expressly to carry out the decrees 
of the council even at the risk of their lives, to punish people for raising 
the buffalo, setting the prairie on fire, govern the camp, entertain and feast 
the same, arrange preliminaries of peace, trade, and generally to aid their 
chief in carrying out his views and decisions of council." 

ns White Eagle.— 1881. White Eagle, the son of Eagle Chief, was 
second in command of the Gros Ventre Indians, according to George B. 
Wright, Indian agent in 1866. Sitting Woman was head chief of the tribe. 
White Eagle signed the treaties of Oct. 17, 1855; Nov. 16, 1865, and July 13, 
1868, as a Gros Ventre chief. He died at Clagett, Montana, Feb. 9, 1881, 
about 60 years of age, and had been a chief for over 20 years. 

119 Mountain Chief. — 1872. Mountain Chief was the name of several 
chiefs of the Piegan tribe, one of whom still lives at Browning. Montana 
(1940), 92 years old. Hayden spelled the name Ni-na-sta'-ko-i, but it was 
also given as Mena-es-to-ka in another reference. W. T. Hamilton met 
Mountain Chief in October, 1858, and said at that time he was second in 
rank of the Piegan chiefs. He signed the three treaties of 1855. 1865 and 
1868 as a Piegan. In the River Press (Fort Benton), Dec. 14, 1892, an In- 
dian named Mountain Chief was described as the son of the Mountain Cliief 
who killed Vandenberg, the trapper, on the Yellowstone river in 1832. The 
Mountain Chief of the journal was a large man, had five wives, all sisters. 
and twenty children. He was killed by anotlier Blackfoot Indian, who fired 
into his tent under the impression that he was shooting at an enemy. This 
is said to have happened in March, 1872. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 277 

120 Three Bulls. Three Bulls was a Blackfoot chief whose name Hayden 
wrote as "Noh'-ska-stum'-ik." He was one of the head chiefs and signed 
the treaty of Oct. 17, 1855, and the treaty of Sept. 1, 1868. at Benton. 

121 Bull's Head. Hayden gives his name as "Stum'-i-ko-tu'-kan." Bull's 
Head's people lived on the Saskatchewan and. according to the report of 
H D Upham, deputy Indian agent for the Blackfoot in 1866, it was his 
band of North Piegans or Blackfoot that attacked the government farm on 
Sun river, April, 1866, and killed two white men. Bull's Head signed the 
Blackfoot treaty at Benton, Nov. 16, 1865, and Sept. 1, 1868. An Indian of 
the same name signed the Gros Ventre treaty at Fort Hawley, July 13, 1868. 
as a Gros Ventre. He was probably the same Bull's Head who signed 
Treaty No. 7, Sept. 21, 1877, in Alberta as head chief of the Sarcees, which 
was a band that belonged to the North Blackfoot. 

122 Owen, Maj. 1818-1889. Major John Owen was the owner of Fort 
Owen, a trading post in the Bitter Root valley near the present town of 
Stevensville, Montana. Major Owen bought the buildings and site of St. 
Marv's mission from the Jesuit missionaries, November, 1850. He left his 
home March 10, 1856, for his journey to Fort Benton. In his journal he 
made the following entrv, March 26, 1856: "Left Mr. Dawson with some 
regret for he had given Myself & party the hospitality of Fort Benton in 
an open and liberal manner he is a Scotchman & one of the partners in the 
fur trade on the Mo river." Major Owen visited Fort Benton, Aug. 20-27, 
1855, when Governor Stevens was in camp nearby. 

123 Yellow Head. See Note 124, Kelchiponesta's son. 

124 Kelchiponesta's Son. This Piegan name was spelled "Kitch-eepone- 
istah" when he signed the treaty of Oct. 17, 1855. His son was known as 
Yellowhead, and Owen in his journal entry called him "Sartair, whose 
Blackfoot name was Keitse Pern Sa." He arrived at Fort Owen, May 1, 
1856 the first friendly visit of a Blackfoot to the Flathead country, which 
spoke well for the result of the council of Oct. 17, 1855. He left Fort Owen 
May 11, 1856, for Fort Benton with Major Owen's letter. Yellow Head 
and Yellow Hair was probably the same person. Yellow Hair was em- 
ployed as a guide in September, 1853, by Lieutenant Donelson of the Stevens 
expedition in an exploration of Cadotte's pass. 

125 Point Frenchman. There were two points on the Upper Missouri 
known by this name, one about 30 miles below Poplar river and the other 
between the Musselshell and Armell's creek. 

CHARLES CHOUQUETTE. 1823-1911 

126 Charles Chouquette, residing near Browning, Teton county, is prob- 
ably one of the earliest of the Montana pioneers who have remained in the 
state and lived to come in touch with modern life. As trapper, Indian 
fighter, freighter, range rider and stockman he has had a long and eventful 
experience, and the story of his life is much of the history of Montana. He 
was born at St. Charles, Mo., Feb. 9, 1823, the son of Henry and Rosalie 
(Piquette) Chouquette. In 1844, when 20 years of age, he signed articles 
with Pierre Chouteau, the manager of a large fur company operating on 
the Upper Missouri, and was placed in charge of a crew transporting a boat- 
load of goods to Fort Union, the merchandise to be traded with the Indians 
for furs and skins. The distance from St. Louis to Fort Union was 2,000 
miles, and the journey was long, hazardous and embittered by numerous 
hardships. Seventy-two days elapsed before the expedition arrived at Fort 
Union, near the mouth of the Yellowstone river. In those days encounters 
with savage and hostile tribes of Indians were numerous and oftentimes 
sanguinary. 



278 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

One of the most notable Indian battles in which Mr. Chouquette was 
engaged occurred in April. 1849, on the site of the city of Great Falls. He 
and Anton Bussette and Louis La Breche had fortunately joined the famous 
trapper, "Jim" Bridger, who had eighty men in his following. While in 
camp on the Missouri at the point mentioned they were fiercely attacked 
by 400 savages, and for a time the scale of battle hung about equally between 
the contending forces. At last the Indians were repulsed, leaving forty- 
seven of their companions dead on the field. This was during Mr. Cho- 
quette's first trip up the river, when he assisted in moving the stores of 
Fort William to Fort Benton. From 1844 until 1863 he was connected with 
the American Fur Company. Later he built the first house erected in Fort 
Benton, and then for six years was in the employment of lion. T. C. Power. 
In 1871 he erected the first house built in Chouteau county, seven miles from 
the old Indian agency, moved thither and engaged in farming and freighting 
until 1887. For the past seven years Mr. Chouquette has resided on the 
Blackfoot reservation in Teton county, where his family have a ranch of 
320 acres of fine, well improved land on Willow creek, five miles from 
Browning, devoted to the raising of cattle and horses and the raising of 
hay. At Fort Benton, in 1854, Mr. Chouquette was married to Rosa Lee 
(Rosalie) ?, an Indian, the ceremony being performed by Father De Smet. 
They have six children, Melinda (Mrs. John Wren), Louise (Mrs. How- 
burg), Josephine (Mrs. John Grant), Anton and George, all living on the 
reservation. (PROGRESSIVE MEN OF THE STATE OF MONTANA.) 
Published about 1900. 

Note: Charles Chouquette died near Browning, May 18, 1911, and was 
buried at Holy Family Mission, May 20, 1911. His daughter. Melinda C. 
Wren, died at Browning, Feb. 29, 1940. 

JACOB SCHMIDT. 1832-1907 

127 Jacob Schmidt was born at Etiinger, in the vicinity of Heidelburg, 
Germany, August 8, 1832, and died at Choteau, Montana, March 1, 1907, 
aged 74 years, 8 months and 23 days. 

Mr. Schmidt learned the tailor trade in his native village and in Frankfort 
on the Main. When sixteen years of age he worked his way across the 
Atlantic to New York City, from which place he later migrated to St. Louis, 
Mo., and the same year embarked on a steamboat en route to Fort Benton, 
Mont., via the Missouri river, arriving there in the spring of 1854. Here 
he secured employment at his trade from Andrew Dawson, with whom he 
remained until 1863, when he removed to Deer Lodge, and in the spring of 
1864 to Silver City, Lewis and Clarke county, where he opened a grocery 
store. 

In 1865 he removed his grocery store to Helena and added to the enter- 
prise a bakery. One year later he returned to Fort Benton, where he built 
the Overland hotel, conducting the same one season, thence going back 
to Silver City, where lie remained through the winter. In 1867 we find 
Mr. Schmidt at Old Mission, near where is at present located Ulm station 
on the Great Northern railway, and here for the following two years he 
engaged in the stock business. From 1869 until 1874 Mr. Schmidt was 
settled at St. Peter's Mission, twelve miles from Cascade, continuing in the 
same enterprise; thence removing to Haystack Butte, on the South Fork 
of Sun river, where he engaged in general farming and cattle raising. Dur- 
ing the following sixteen years he resided at Chouteau. While here he 
served six years as school trustee, and among his last acts was to address 
the school children. He was honored by being elected coroner for three 
successivr terms. For the past seven years he with his family have resided 
in this couiitv of Teton on the Cut Rank river. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 279 

At Fort Benton, Dec. 25. 1856, Mr. Schmidt was united in marriage to 
Miss Margaret Miller. To this union was born eleven children, six of 
whom have gone to join the great majority, along with five grandchildren. 
He leaves a widow, three daughters, Mrs. Armstrong, Mrs. Momberg, 
Mrs. Kerr; two sons, Carroll and George; eighteen living grandchildren, 
and two great grandchildren. (The Choteau .^cantha, March 7, 1907.) 

REV. ELKANAH MACKEY. 1826-1858 

12S Rev. Mackey was a missionary sent out by the Board of Missions of 
the Presbyterian Church to establish a mission for the Blackfoot Indians in 
Nebraska territory in the summer of 1856. He was born in Colerain, Pa., 
Sept. 16, 1826, and graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1852. He 
entered the theological seminary of Princeton University and finished his 
studies there in 1856 and was ordained as a missionary to the Indians. Be- 
fore leaving for the West he married Miss Sarah E. Armstrong of Cecil 
county, Maryland, who accompanied him to the country of the Blackfoot 
Indians. Evidently the hardships and loneliness of the life of the trading 
post proved too much for Mrs. Mackey and they left Fort Benton, Sept. 
15, 1856, for the States and their home in Maryland. Rev. Mackey died 
there Sept. 6, 1858. 

E. A. C. Hatch, agent for the Blackfoot Indians, was at Fort Benton at 
the time the Mackeys were there and made the following references to 
them in his journal: 

"July 29, 1856. Met Culbertson and party: Mackeys with him 'the first 
white woman in the country.' 

"Aug. 15, 1856. Culbertson party reached Benton. .\ug. 16, 1856. The 
Priest and his wife appear to be pleased with the place, Indians and country 
— will probably get enough of it before spring. 

"Aug. 17, 1856. Today probably for the first time the walls of Fort Ben- 
ton echoed to the sound of Protestant divine services. Not a very numerous 
audience but very attentive. I did not attend. 

"Aug. 18, 1856. Mrs. Mackey and Mr. Culbertson both unwell. 

"Aug. 20, 1856. Mrs. Mackey some better and they talk of going down 
again this fall. 

"Aug. 31, 1856. Preaching up stairs. 

"Sept. 1, 1856. Mr. Mackey started for the falls with Chouquette. 

"Sept. 7, 1856. Mr. Mackey did not preach today. . . . Why? I do not 
know. 

"Sept. 15, 1856. Mr. Culbertson and wife, missionary and wife started 
by land down the river." 

Blackfeet Mission. Measures were adopted in the early part of the 
summer for the establishment of a mission among the Blackfeet Indians 
who reside on the headwaters of the Missouri, four or five hundred miles 
northwest of Fort Union and near the base of the Rocky mountains. This 
is known to be one of the largest and most interesting of all the Indian 
tribes in the region. They are at the same time surrounded by many smaller 
bands, who would share in the benefits of the mission. The attention of 
the executive committee was especially called to the claims of these Indians 
by Alexander Culbertson, Esq., who had resided for some time among them 
as agent of the American Fur Company, and who felt a sincere desire to 
see them brought under the influence of Christian civilization. Rev. 
Elkanah D. Mackey of the Presbytery of Newcastle, and Mrs. Mackey, were 
appointed to commence this mission, and left home in the month of June 
for that purpose, but did not reach Fort Benton, the proposed headquarters 



280 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

of the mission, until the middle of August. From Fort Union they had to 
travel by wagons, using tents at night, to Fort Benton and were three weeks 
in performing this journey. They were very cordially received by the 
Indians, and much gratification was expressed at the prospect of having 
Christian missionaries to live with them. Mrs. Mackey's health failed, how- 
ever, and Mr. Mackey felt it his duty to return with her after a sojourn of 
six weeks at Fort Benton, hoping to be able to return in the spring and 
resume his work. 

Mr. Mackey has communicated much valuable information about the 
Indian tribes in that region — the nature of the climate, the soil and pro- 
ductions of the country — all of which go to show the importance of sus- 
taining a permanent mission among that people. As they are migratory in 
their habits, however, and dwell almost altogether in tents, very little good 
can be affected for them, except by establishing a boarding school for their 
children. This cannot be done, however, without large expense; and, as 
it is presumed that the government would cheerfully make an appropriation 
for this purpose, a proposition to this effect has been submitted to them. 
Until this has been acted upon, no further measures will be adopted for 
carrying on the mission. 

(Minutes of the Gen. Assembly of the Pres. Church in the U. S. A., V15, 
(1857) 20th ann. rept. of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Pres. Church 
in the U. S. A., pp. 26-27.) 

129 Hamilton, Maj. (of the opposition). 1811-1867. Major Joseph Var- 
num Hamilton, who was in charge of Fort Campbell for the Opposition, 
should not be confused with James Archdale Hamilton of Fort Union who 
died in St. Louis in 1840. Joseph V. Hamilton born at Fort Madison, 
Iowa, in 1811, the son of Major Thomas Hamilton of the U. S. army, 
was in the service of the American Fur Company at an early date. At one 
time he was acting Indian agent under Major Drips. In his later years he 
lived in South Dakota and died at Fort Randall, .A.ug. Zi. 1867. (S. D. Hist. 
Coll. vol. 8, p. 177.) 

130 The Treaty. This refers to Major E. A. C Hatch's meeting with the 
Indians near the mouth of the Judith river to receive the goods which were 
brought up the river from Fort Union by mackinaw boats to that point. 
Hatch received the goods Sept. 22, 1856, and distributed the annuities and 
presents to the Indians. He said there were about 8,000 Indians present at 
the council. 

131 The Fathers, One of (Rev. Jos. Menetry). 1812-1891. This is a 
reference to Father Joseph Menetry, one of the Jesuit priests from St. 
Ignatius mission in western Montana, who was born in Switzerland in 1812 
and died at St. Ignatius in 1891. after 40 years as a missionary in Montana. 
The Father had come to meet the boats which were to bring supplies for 
the mission. 

132 Howard (Joseph). -1894. There were two men of this name at Fort 
Benton, father and son, for a Joseph Howard was in the records of the 
American Fur Company of 1830. The elder Howard was said by some to 
be the son of Thomas P. Howard of the Lewis and Clark expedition, but 
there was a man of the same name with the Northwest Company. The 
infant son of Joseph Howard and Margaret, an Indian woman, was bap- 
tized in the St. Louis Cathedral, .A.ug. 22. 1839, less than a month after his 
marriage to Emilie Dulireuil at the same church. Joseph Howard, Jr., was 
the son of a French Creole and a Piegan Indian woman, born at Fort Ben- 
ton, taken to St. Louis at an early age and who returned to Fort Benton in 
1851. He is the man who was sent with Owen in October, 1856, to help in 
getting Ills goods to Fort Owen. Major Owen described him as "a stout 
hard, young halfbrced, inured to all hardships of a mountain life." Howard 
settled on a ranch near Choteau in 1873 and died there Dec. 28. 1894. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 281 

133 Mr. Owen's Man. "Delaware Jim, whose father was a Delaware 
chief and his mother, a white woman, and who had spent a life-time, for 
he was now (1855) past middle age, in hunting and traveling over all 
parts of the country, from the Mississippi to the Pacific . . . He had a 
tall, slender form, a keen eye, an intelligent face and reserved manners. 
He was reticent in speech although he spoke English well ..." (Life of 
Gen. I. I. Stevens by Hazard Stevens.) 

134 Simon, John. Monica Hamell, daughter of Augustin Hamell, mar- 
ried a John Simon who died in St. Louis, 1863. There was a son, Charles 
Simon, who was living on the Blackfoot reservation several years ago. 

135 Mills, Henry. 1808- Henry Mills, may have been the "negro 
Henry" mentioned in the St. Louis ledger of the American Fur Company: 

Proportion of negro Henry's wages for services to 

U. M. O. 1839-40. 
Paid Kenneth McKenzie ^ of $378.12 $189.06 

Yz of $243.74 1841-42 162.50 

He was probably the property of Kenneth McKenzie since a portion of 
Mills' wages were paid to him. There were a number of negroes at the 
trading posts with Indian families. The census of 1870, Choteau county, 
Montana territory, included a Henry Mills, negro, born in Kentucky, age 
62 years, Indian wife and daughter. He was also included in the list of 
inhabitants, Choteau county, 1862-63. His son, Dave, lived on the Blood 
reserve in Canada where he was employed as an interpreter. 

136 Gentard, A. Andrew Dawson mentioned a Paul Gentard in a letter, 
September 25, 1860, and Paul Guitard was on the Choteau county poll list 
of Oct. 24, 1864. 

137 Lorian. Joseph. 1832- A carpenter, born in Canada 1832 and worked 
in Benton, where he died about 1885. 

138 Mercure, V. (L. Vincent) 1820-1877. Mr. Mercure, who was drowned 
near Eagle creek in the Missouri river, August, 1877, was about 57 years 
of age, a native of Canada, and by profession a carpenter. He came to 
Montana in 1856 and until 1862 was employed by the American Fur Com- 
pany. He then went to Salmon river, on a prospecting tour, and remained 
absent from Benton about one year. On his return he went to the Sas- 
katchewan river, where he remained another year. On returning to Benton 
he went into partnership with Mr. Lorion, and until the year 1869 worked 
as a contractor and builder, and by industry and economy saved quite a 
competence. Advancing years and failing health, however, compelled him 
to cease working at his trade and to seek some less laborious occupation. 
In 1869 he purchased the Brewery Saloon which he conducted until 1875, 
when he sold out and went to Canada. Shortly after his return from the 
East he purchased a half interest in the Shonkin coal mine. The latter was 
not a success and its failure is said to have been the cause of his death. 
The deceased was an intelligent and skillful mechanic, of a quiet, inoffen- 
sive disposition, and had the reputation of being very honorable in his 
business transactions. He served several terms as Commissioner of his 
county, and was a member of the Board of School Trustees at the time 
of his death. Unfortunately, he lacked the energy and tact necessary to 
a successful business career, and being of an extremely sensitive nature 
he was unable to bear the humiliation resulting from his financial reverses. 
He leaves a son and daughter, the former, now residing in Benton, was 
educated in an Eastern college, at his father's expense, and the daughter 
is with a family in Helena. Mercurc's death is regretted bv a large circle 
of friends. (Benton Record, .^ug. 3, 1877.) 



282 XOTES AND REFERExXCES 

139 Simpson, Nelson. The name "Narcisse" was often pronounced and 
spelled as "Nelse" and there was a Narcisse Simpson, packer, aged 30 
years, born in Canada, in the census of 1860, Bitter Root Valley, Wash- 
ington territory. 

140 Paris, F. The report of A. J. Vaughan, agent for the Blackfoot In- 
dians, 1860, states that Daniel F. Paris was appointed farmer on the 
Blackfoot farm on Sun River, August, 1860. 

141 Gourdereau, J. -1886. Joseph Goudreau, born in Montreal, came to 
St. Louis in the early 40's. He was a blacksmith at Fort Pierre for a 
number of years and later at the posts on the upper river. He died at 
Vanderbilt, S. D., in 1886. (N. D. Hist. Coll. v. 1, p. 365.) 

i-i2 Muller, Jacob. Jacob Miller's or Muller's, half-breed daughter, Mar- 
garet, married Jacob Schmidt at Fort Benton, Dec. 24, 1856. The Schmidt 
family made their home near Choteau, Montana. Muller, a Bavarian, was 
better known in later years as "Jack Miller." His son. Jack, had a ranch 
on the Blackfoot reservation about 1900. 

143 Menard, A Louis Menard, with an Indian family, 

was clerk and interpreter at Fort Pierre prior to 1851 and this man may 
have been one of his sons. 

144 Keiser, William -1867. William Keiser was known as "Buffalo 
Bill" and died on the Little Prickley Pear, Sept. 27, 1867. 

FORT SARPY. 1850-1860 

145 Fort Sarpy was preceded by Fort Alexander which was built by Lar- 
penteur in the fall of 1842 on the north side of the Yellowstone river near 
the mouth of the present Armell's creek above the Rosebud. Culbertson 
told Bradley he built Fort Sarpy which was named for J. B. Sarpy, a 
partner in the Chouteau company, in the summer of 1850. It was located 
on the north bank of the Yellowstone river a short distance below the 
mouth of the Rosebud, and Robert Meldrum who completed the fort was 
in charge. Larpenteur said that he was offered $1000.00 a year in the 
summer of 1849 to take charge of the fort which was considered the most 
dangerous of the posts of the company. In the St. Louis ledger there 
is an entry to the effect that the trade and equipment goods of Ft. Alex- 
ander were returned to Fort Union, May 26, 1850, which would have been 
about the time the returns for the winter of 1849-50 would have been 
brought down to Fort Union. This may indicate the end of Fort Alexan- 
der and the beginning of Fort Sarpy although the fort built in 1850 was 
generally known as Fort Alexander. It was mentioned in the records of 
the company by that name and De Smet, Kurz, Hayden and others 
wrote of Fort Alexander, not Fort Sarpy. As late as 1856 Warren called 
it Fort Alexander Sarpie. 

One of the first to use the name, Sarpy, for the Crow post was the 
Indian agent, A. J. Vaughan, in his report of 1854. He left Fort Union 
July 18th in a keel-boat loaded with government goods and those of the 
fur company on a journey of 300 miles up the Yellowstone river to Fort 
Sarpy where they arrived Aug. 15. 1854. Vaughan wrote: "Scarcely a 
day passes but the Crow country is infested with more or less parties of 
Blackfeet, who murder indiscriminately anything that comes within their 
reach. At Fort Sarpy so great is the danger that no one ventures over 
a few yards from his own door without company and being well-armed." 

The journal gives us the date of the destruction of the first Fort Sarpy, 
May 19, 1855, and from the reports of the Indian agents for 1855, 1856, 
1857, we learn no goods were sent up the Yellowstone river to the Crows 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 283 

from the government for those years. Vaughan's report for 1855 dated 
Sept. 12, 1855, stated: "On the 23rd of August, a mackinaw boat was 
started from Fort Union with the usual outfit of trade for the ensuing 
season at the Crow post. It had only proceeded a short distance up the 
Yellowstone river when the hunters for the boat, who were in quest of 
game (in company with seven Crow Indians, who had to accompany me 
with their annuities) were driven back to the fort by a war party of Sioux 
Indians, having had a miraculous escape with their lives. The boat im- 
mediately returned to the fort, and the trip to the Crows abandoned for 
the present season." 

The long trip overland to the Little Big Horn that Vaughan made in 
1856 to meet the Crows in council and to urge them to come to Fort Union 
to receive their presents from the company would indicate there was no 
post on the Yellowstone river that year. In 1857, A. H. Redfield succeeded 
Vaughan as agent for the Upper Missouri Indians and when he came up 
the river by steamboat to Fort Union that summer, the goods were un- 
loaded and stored at Fort William as Meldrum assured him the Crows 
would not come to Fort Union because of their fear of the smallpox which 
was raging among the tribes below Fort Union. The Crows also main- 
tained that by the terms of the Fort Laramie treaty, 1851, their goods 
were to be delivered to them in their own country and again it was dan- 
gerous for them to visit near Fort Union because of their enemies, the 
Blackfoot and the Sioux Indians. 

In Redfield's report for 1858 he told of his trip up the Yellowstone river 
that summer in a fur company boat with annuities for the two years, 1857- 
1858, to distribute to the Crows. The expedition left Fort Union, July 4, 
and was to meet the Crows at the mouth of the Powder river but when 
they reached that point the Indians were not there. Redfield was ill and 
decided to return to Fort Union and placed the goods in charge of Henry 
W. Beeson to be taken up to Fort Sarpy. This, the second fort of that 
name, was built on the south side of the Yellowstone river a few miles be- 
low the mouth of the Big Horn and might have been occupied the winter 
of 1857-1858. It was there in August, 1859, when Raynolds visited the fort 
but when Maynadier went down the Yellowstone, July, 1860, he found Fort 
Sarpy abandoned which marked the end of the last trading post on the 
Yellowstone river. 

Maynadier described it as follows: 

"We found the trading-house situated in the timber on what during the 
high water would be an island, a channel, now dry, passing to the south 
of it. The "fort" is an enclosure about 100 feet square, of upright cotton- 
wood logs 15 feet high, the outer wall also forming the exterior of a row 
of log-cabins which were occupied as dwelling houses, store-houses, shops 
and stables. The roofs of these structures are nearly flat, and formed of 
timber covered to the depth of about a foot with dirt, thus making an ex- 
cellent parapet for purposes of defense. The preparations for resistance to 
possible attacks being further perfected by loopholes in the upper part of 
the outrow of logs. The entrance is through a heavy gate which is al- 
ways carefully closed at night. No flanking arrangements whatever exist, 
and the 'fort'is thus a decidedly primitive affair. It is amply sufficient to 
protect its inmates against the Indian." 

(See Volume three of the Contributions of the Historical Society of 
Montana for a description of the first Fort Sarpy as given by Culbcrtson.) 

146 Six. See Big Six. Note 148. 

147 Moakes. Evidently another name by Chambers for the man known 
as "Big Six." 



284 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

148 Big Six. Also Moakes, Nokes, Six. From the journal we learn that 

he was a white man, born in Virginia, Feb. 20, ran away from 

Fort Sarpy, May 2, 1855, to the Crow camp where he told lies about the 
fort and Chambers. When he left the fort he stole ammunition which 
showed he didn't intend to return. It may be that Chambers was using 
some special name for this man as he used Murrell for Meldrum. 

149 Parr Flesh (parfleche). A rectangular case made of buflFalo hide 
which was used at first to pack pemmican and other dried food. It was 
folded over and laced with rawhide thongs to make a flat case. 

150 Murrell (Meldrum). This seems to be a name that Chambers ap- 
plied to Meldrum for some obscure reason of his own. 

151 C. & D. These initials may be intended for Culbertson and Denig, 
who were in charge of Fort Benton and Fort Union, respectively. 

152 Mose. -1858. Mose, a negro, born in Virginia according to the 
journal. He was drowned in the Yellowstone river, July, 1858. while 
working on the cordelle of the boats going up to Fort Sarpy (2nd) with 
company goods and Indian annuities for the Crows. Culbertson gave the 
year as 1846 when he described the trip to Bradley but since it was Col. 
A. H. Redfield who was in charge of the distribution of the annuities it 
must have been 1858, which was the year Redfield made the journey. 

ROBERT MELDRUM. 1806-1865 

153 Robert Meldrum born Shelby County, Kentucky, 1806, the son of 
Rev. William, and Mary Meldrum, Scotch-Irish emigrants who arrived in 
Kentucky in 1804, learned the blacksmith trade and left home for the west 
at the age of 16. One account states that he was with Bonneville's expedi- 
tion to the Rocky Mountains but the first record we have of him is from 
the original manuscript of the Larpenteur journals in the Minnesota His- 
torical Society library. 

On Aug. 3, 1835, Larpenteur wrote; "Meldrum sent to the Crows;" Sept. 
2, 1835, "returned to Fort Union, had killed a Blackfoot;" Oct. 14, 1835, 
"Returns from Mandans;" Oct. 23, 1835, "Left for Camp." This was the 
year Fort Van Buren was built near the mouth of the Rosebud by Tullock. 

Culbertson said that Meldrum lived with the Crows before he entered 
the service of the American Fur Company and knew the tribe and their 
language better than any other white man. Edwin T. Denig described him 
to Kurz as follows: 

"Unless a white man were rich he became the sport of the savages when 
he went about naked and wore long hair reaching to his shoulders, as was 
the practice with some white men at Fort Alexander on the Yellowstone. 
It was a mistake for a white man to adopt the life and customs of Indians, 
he loses their respect. Meldrum, bourgeois at the trading post among the 
Crows, was an example. Though Meldrum is a soldier of note, his scalps 
and his trophies from the hunt have not won him influence among the 
Absaroka; he is esteemed for his prodigal liberality, on account of which 
he has fallen into debt instead of accumulating money. He is said to be 
an efficient gunsmith but not an especially shrewd business man. If, 
through ambition or vanity, he aspires to take the lead in establishing a 
widely extended family connection, certain Crows of consequence become 
immediately jealous and go to the opposition or come here (Union) to 
barter their robes." This description of Denig's is supported by Chambers' 
comments in his journal. 

James Murray was in charge of Fort Alexander from 1843-1847. 
Augustus Barlow (N. D. Hist. Coll. vol. 7) who was with the "opposition" 
said Meldrum was in charge of Alexander the winter of 1848-49. Lar- 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 285 

penteur refused to take charge in 1849 for $1000.00 a year since it was the 
most dangerous post in the country. 

Culbcrtson began the construction of Fort Sarpy ni 1850 and left Mel- 
drum to complete the work and take charge of the post. From that year 
until 1859 Meldrum was chief trader at the Crow post wherever it was 
located. Raynolds found him there in 1859 and described him as the "best 
living authority in regard to the Crows, outside of the tribe, having spent 
30 years in their country during that time visiting the regions of civiliza- 
tion but once, and on that occasion spending only 19 days in St. Louis. 
He had lived long among these Indians, assuming their dress and habits, 
and by his skill and success in leading their war parties has acquired dis- 
tinction, rising to the second post of authority in the tribe. He of course 
speaks their language perfectly and says it has become more natural to 
him than his mother tongue. I noted the alacrity with which he ceased 
speaking English whenever an opportunity offered." 

Meldrum was known to the Indians as Round Iron. Max Big Man 
was told by White Dog it was because Meldrum, a blacksmith, made round 
iron emblems with a hole in the center which were distributed to the In- 
dians as favors. 

After the discontinuance of the Crow Post Meldrum went to Fort Union 
where he was married to Mary, a Blackfoot squaw, by Father De Smet, 
on board the steamboat Yellowstone July 11, 1864. The witnesses to the 
marriage were Mr. Culbertson and Mr. Rolette. He died at Fort Union, 
July 10, 1865, and was buried in the fort cemetery next day. 

Culbertson described Meldrum to Lieut. Bradley as a "man of gentle 
but courageous character who used excellent language and held the at- 
tention of his listeners by his lively and intelligent description of his ad- 
vertures. When he went to live at Fort Union he resumed the dress and 
customs of the white man." 

The following entries from the St. Louis ledgers of the P. Chouteau, Jr., 
and Company show the earnings of Meldrum for the years 1856-57. 

May 20 1856— Paid Meldrum $1056.25 

Expenses of men with express with Meldrum 36.25 

May 22 1856— Paid Meldrum 942.50 

May 31 1857— Paid to his sister, Mrs. Wilson 200.00 

July 18 1857— Balance due him at Union 858.25 

154 Tetreau. Tetereau. Tetreaux, an employe at Fort Union, 1851-2. 
(Kurz Journal, p. 305). The name was also spelled Tetreault. 

155 Mosier, Maj. (Sidney). Mosier was, according to the journalist, a 
Virginian and chief of the culinary department at Fort Sarpy. See Note 
178, Missouri Republican, June 30, 1855. 

156 Faillant. This may have been the man named Vaillant who was on 
the Upper Missouri in 1842. Chambers may have misunderstood the pro- 
nounciation of the name. 

157 Pumpkins, Mr. Evidently the name of the Indian known as Pump- 
kin and High Pumpkin. 

158 Depouille. "It is a fat substance that lies along the backbone (of 
the bufifalo), next to the hide, running from the shoulder blade to the last 
rib, and is about as thick as one's hand or finger. It is from seven to 
eleven inches broad; tapering to a feather edge on the lower side. It will 
weigh from five to eleven pounds, according to the size and condition of 
the animal. This substance is taken off and dipped in hot grease for half 
a minute, then is hung up inside of a lodge to dry and smoke for twelve 



286 XOTKS AXD KKFEREKCES 

hours. It will keep indefinitely, and is used as a substitute for bread, but 
it is superior to any bread that ever was made. It is eaten with the lean 
and dried meat, and is tender and sweet and very nourishing, for it seems 
to satisfy the appetite. When going on the warpath the Indians would 
take some dried meat and some depouille to live on, and nothing else, 
not even if they were to be gone for months." (W. T. Hamilton) 

159 Bear's Head. Kurz gives Bear's Head's name as "Machetetsi Antu" 
and said he was the "Chief, in command of the soldiers, a warrior 
of great ability and power." According to Hayden the territory of Bear's 
Head's band of Crows was the valley of the Yellowstone river from mouth 
to source and they occasionally passed the winter with the Assiniboines 
near Fort Union. The two Lutheran missionaries, Braueninger and 
Schmidt, who came out to the Crow country in 1858, met the Bear's Head 
at Fort Sarpy and stayed with him at his camp in preference to living with 
the rowdy white men at the trading post. 

A chief of the River Crows, Bear's Head, visited the trading post in the 
Judith Basin, 1874. 

160 p. C. Jr. & Co. P. Chouteau, Jr., and Company. John Jacob Astor 
retired from the American Fur Company in 1834 and Pratte, Chouteau 
and Company purchased the Western Department of that company. When 
the American Fur Company suspended in 1842, the firm of P. Chouteau, Jr., 
and Company bought the inventory and carried on the business. The in- 
dividual members of the company at this time were Bernard Pratte, Bar- 
tholomew Berthold, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., and Jean Pierre Cabanne. 

Pierre Chouteau, Jr., head of the company, was a grandson of Auguste 
Chouteau, one of the founders of St. Louis, where Pierre, Jr., was born 
Jan. 19, 1789, the m.ost illustrious member of that famous family. He 
entered the fur trade before he was sixteen and learned the business in all 
its branches and as the trade expanded was drawn into new fields, bank- 
ing, mining and transportation. He was an industrious man and knew the 
fur business to its smallest detail. His later years were spent in New York 
City, where he died Oct. 6, 1865. His son, Charles P. Chouteau, had taken 
over the supervision of the interests of P. Chouteau, Jr., and Company and 
was in charge until the holdings on the Upper Missouri were sold about 
1866. 

161 Emmell's Creek. This creek and Emmell's Prairie were named for 
Michael E. Immell, a native of Chambersburg, Penn., who went up the 
Missouri river in 1809 with the Missouri Fur Company, was active in the 
fur trade of the Missouri and Yellowstone country until his death, May 
31, 1823, when he was killed by Blackfoot Indians on the Upper Yellow- 
stone. The creek mentioned by Chambers is the same as that shown on 
the De Smet map which came into the Yellowstone from the north a short 
distance below Tongue River. The later Emmell's creek as shown on the 
Raynolds-Maynadier map of 1867 entered the Yellowstone from the south 
above the Rosebud and is known today as Armell's creek, a corruption 
of Emmell's. 

162 Denig (Dening), Edwin T. 1812-1862-3. Edwin T. Denig, born at 
McConnellstown, Penn., March 10, 1812, said to have been a friend of 
Alexander Culbertson's came up the river on the Assiniboine in 1833 
with Culbertson. Denig was employed in the office at F"ort Union and by 
1851 was chief trader at that post. He had at least two Indian wives and 
was married by Father Daemen in St. Louis the summer of 1855 to an 
Assiniboine squaw. Deer Little Woman. His children were baptized at 
the same time. He moved with his family from Fort Union to the Red 
River Settlement in Canada in the summer of 1856 and remained there 
until his death in 1862-1863, was buried in the old Headingly graveyard 
about IS miles from Winnipeg. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 287 

Denig was well educated and wrote several sketches of the Indians and 
fur trade of the Upper Missouri at the request of Father De Smet, Audu- 
bon and others, who used the information obtained in their own writings. 
His "Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri" written about 1854 and pub- 
lished in the 46th annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
1930, is a fine account of the history, manners and customs of the Assini- 
boine Indians. 

163 High Pumpkins. See Note 157, Pumpkin, Mr. 

164 Long Elk. Granville Stuart met Long Elk at Gallatin, Montana, 
June 2, 1880. 

165 Horse Guard. T. A. Culbertson met the Horse Guard on June 17, 
1850, at Fort Union and described him as "a great warrior, altho still a 
young man; his name is Horse Guard, and altho not 30 years old he has 
been engaged in about 30 expeditions, always returning with scalps or 
horses and getting his party back in safety. He is a half-breed and has 
the features of a white man * * * he is very brave. His son, a fine look- 
ing boy. is with him." A. H. Redfield, agent for the Upper Missouri 
Indians in 1857, reported Horse Guard a chief of some 70 lodges. He 
signed the River Crow treaty at Fort Hawley on the Missouri July 15. 
1868, and was in the Judith Basin, the winter of 1873-74, when he visited 
the trading post of Story on Casino creek. 

166 Rotten Tail (Crow). Kurz described Rotten Tail as a middle-aged 
man when he visited Fort Union in 1851. He spelled the Indian name Tsite 
You but Vaughan in his report spelled it Chee See Poosh. Rotten Tail 
did not attend the Laramie council of 1851 but was recognized as the Crow 
chief by Vaughan in 1854 when he distributed the annuities to the tribe. 
W. T. Hamilton met him in the fall of 1858 on the Teton river and spoke 
of him as head chief of the Crows. In a manuscript article of John Neu- 
bert's (Historical Society of Montana) he wrote that Rotten Tail's band 
of Crows robbed the wagon train of Dorris in 1864 at Milk river. Neubert 
found Rotten Tail and persuaded him to have most of the goods returned. 

16" Jabots Houses. This name as written by Chambers is not found in 
any record or map. A. D. Jabotte, an employe of Fort Union in 1835 is 
the only name that resembles "Jabots." On the De Smet map of the Yel- 
lowstone river there is a Tarbois or Tarbot creek and it might be Jarbot 
for the first letter could be either J or T. This creek is opposite and be- 
low Glendive creek which would be about the location of Jabot's Houses. 
The name may have been given to a winter trading house of A. D. 
Jabotte, but this is only a guess. 

168 C & Spy. Evidently an abbreviation of Chouteau and Sarpy, partners 
in the fur company. 

i6'-' Carter, Chas. A Charles Carter lived in Benton in the 70's and 80's, 
a freighter and laborer. Schultz in "Friends of My Life as an Indian" 
wrote of a Charles Carter, a white hunter in the Judith Basin, 1879-80, but 
since it is a common name was probably not the Charles Carter of 1855. 

I'i'O Osborn. James Osborne. See Note 178. June 30, 1855, Missouri 
Republican. 

171 Fort Belknap. An army post in Texas on Red Fork of the Brazos 
river. 

1"- Grey Chief. Grey Chief, Grey Head and Le Gras (Gris) were prob- 
ably names for the same person who was a Crow chief. He was at Fort 
Union the winter of 1851-52 when Kurz said his grey hair was not due 
to old age and was a perfect yellow in spots. Little Grey Head was a 
Piegan Indian. 



2SS NOTES AND REFERENCES 

i'3 Four Rivers. Four Rivers is described in Kurz journal as a Crow 
chief, a very powerful man, both in regard to physique and influence in 
tribal matters. 

174 Two Face. Two Face was chief of the largest band of Crows, about 
200 lodges, which ranged through the Wind River mountain region and 
dealt with the traders of the American Fur Company on the Yellowstone 
river. 

i"5 Mountain Tail. A Crow chief mentioned by Dr. Hayden who gave 
his name as Au-ma-ha-be-ci-se, but his name was spelled Ah-be-che-se 
on the Crow treaty of May 7, 1868, which he signed at Fort Laramie. 

i"*"' Col. Vaughn (keel boat). It was customary to name the keel 
and mackinaw boats which were built to take the goods either up or down 
the river. 

1'" Nokes (Big Six). See Note 148. 
Missouri Republican, June 30, 1855. 

178 "The voyageurs who came down from the mts. on the mackinaw 
boats report having had a great deal of trouble in descending the river on 
account of low water. The mountain rise overtook them only a short dis- 
tance above Council Bluffs. This party left the Yellowstone river about 
the first of May. Met the A. F. Co. boat, the St. Mary, about 80 miles 
above Sargeant's Bluff on the 19th. Sixty miles below Sargeant's Bluff 
met government steamboat Grey Cloud on the 20th. Met the Arabia and 
the William Brand on the 21st. Met the Clara and Kate Kearney on the 
23rd, 80 miles above Council Bluffs. 

"Last evening met Sidney Mosier, George Shaw and James Osborne 
who arrived in the city yesterday from the mountains, came down from 
Fort Benton with three mackinaw boats as far as Council Bluffs and from 
there to this city on the steamer Admiral. Left Benton on 3rd of May 
and arrived at Council Bluffs on the 19th inst. Two mackinaw boats 
which left Fort Sarpy on Yellowstone river on the 19th of May also ar- 
rived at Council Bluffs on 23rd inst. The boats and cargoes are property 
of the A. F. Company. These gentlemen reported that the Blackfeet In- 
dians have been annoying the Crow Indians during the winter by stealing 
their horses. The latter avenged themselves by taking 17 scalps of their 
enemies during the winter. Late in the spring a Blackfoot Indian came 
close to Ft. Sarpy and scalped a squaw of his own tribe who had been a 
prisoner of the Crows for several years. On the 1st of Alay 7 men started 
from Union to Sarpy over 200 miles to assist in bringing boats down the 
river. On the 3rd day out they were met by a part}' of over 300 Sioux 
armed to the teeth who acted in a hostile manner. One of the party who 
could speak Sioux interfered. The Sioux demanded their surrender but 
some of the party were unwilling and they were attacked and a German, 
George Sikes (Shike) (Quincy, Illinois) was wounded. They came to a 
parley and the Indians stripped them of guns and ammunition and clothes, 
left them naked in the mountains. They finally reached Sarpy after sev- 
eral days suffering from cold and hunger. A young buffalo calf which 
they killed with a stone was all they had to cat. Three days after they 
arrived at Sarpy 300 Sioux surrounded the fort but after distributing pres- 
ents and having a talk the Indians left without attacking. Mr. Mosier 
and his party report that on the way down they were not molested until 
they got to the Sargcant Hills where they were hailed from an Indian 
village and on refusing to land the steersman was fired upon but missed. 
The Upper Missouri is low but little snow in the mountains during the 
winter." 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 289 

179 Perault, Jas. P. Charles, Daniel and James P. Perreau were in the 
poll list of Oct. 24, 1864, Choteaii county, Montana territory. The census 
of 1870 for this county included a David Perrow (Pcrrcault). 

180 Partizan. The Partisan or "leader of a war party" was described by 
Denig as one who was in command during the entire expedition, directed 
their movements and possessed the power of a military captain among 
the whites. He received the honor or bore the disgrace of success or 
failure and upon the return of the expedition his authority ceased. 

181 Carafel, Carrafel, David? -1866. Carafell was probably the David 
Carafell who was killed by Blackfoot Indians on Pablo's island near Fort 
Benton in 1866. He was described in the Bradley manuscript as an old 
trapper and hunter who had passed nearly forty years in the west. Kurz 
mentioned a Vice de Carafel at Fort Union in 1851 who was a skilled 
beaver trapper and in charge of a winter camp a short distance above 
Fort Union on the Missouri river. Palliser met Vace de Carafel whom he 
described as a very likable and capable mountaineer, which agreed with 
Kurz' account. 

David Carafell was one of the party that went north from Fort Benton 
in 1862 to prospect for gold near Fort Edmonton, Canada. The list of 
inhabitants of Chouteau county, 1862-63, included Daniel Carafel, freeman, 
Benton. 

182 Fort Berthold. 1845- Fort Berthold was built in the fall of 1845 
by F. A. Chardon after he came down from Fort F. A. C at the Judith. 
It was located on the left bank of the Missouri river above the Knife, 
and intended for the trade of the Gros Ventre or Hidatsa Indians. It was 
named in honor of Bartholomew Berthold of the firm of P. Chouteau, Jr., 
and Company. 

183 Bobires. This is Chambers' attempt at the spelling of the French 
name, Bourbeuse, of the Muddy river which comes into the Missouri 
river from the north near the town of Williston, N. D. There was also the 
Big and Little Muddy above Fort Union that enter the Missouri from 
the north. The name Bourbeuse was used by Maximilian, Audubon, 
Larpenteur and De Smet, and means "muddy or miry." 

184 Water Raises. This is the L'eau qui Monte of Maynadier's report 
which comes into the Missouri river from the east below the Little Knife 
river. About where the Shell river is today. 

185 Riter, F. G. We have very little information concerning Frederick 
G. Riter. In his report for 1857, A. H. Redfield, agent for the Indians of 
the Upper Missouri, mentioned him as the "agent of the American Fur 
Company in charge of this post" (Union) and when Maynadier went down 
the river in the summer of 1860 he found Riter in charge at Fort Berthold. 

A Fred Ritter, laborer, aged 40 years, born in Prussia, was included in 
the 1870 census for Dawson county, Montana territory. 

186 Old Spaniard. Probably Joe Ramsey. See Joe Ramsey. Note 225. 

187 Denig's Son. Robert Denig, son of Edwin T. Denig and an Indian 
mother, baptized by Father Hoecken at Fort Union, June 28, 1840. 

188 St. Mary (Steamboat). This was the steamboat on which U. S. Com- 
missioner Gumming and party came up the river to attend the Judith 
Council. The boat left St. Louis, July 11, 1855, and was 35 days making 
the trip as the water was the lowest ever known. The goods for distribu- 
tion to the Indians were on the boat and had to be unloaded and placed 
on mackinaw or keel boats for the Upper river trip. The Saint Mary, 



290 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

a side-wheel mountain boat, sank in the Missouri river below Nebraska 
City, Sept. 4, 1858, on a trip to Fort Union. 

189 Hayden, Dr. F. V. 1820-1887. Ferdinand V. Hayden born in West- 
field, Mass., Sept. 7, 1829, graduated from Oberlin college (Ohio) in 
1850 and from Albany Medical college, 1853. In that year he made an 
exploration of the Bad Lands of the Dakotas and from that time until 
his retirement, due to ill health, in 1886, he was employed in conducting 
geological and scientific explorations of the western United States. He 
made a journey up the Yellowstone river in 1854 with Major Vaughan and 
was present when the latter met the Crow Indians near Fort Sarpy, Sept. 
18, 1854. He made trips up the Missouri river in 1855-56 and was with 
the Raynolds-Maynadier expedition of 1859-60. He was in charge of the 
Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories from 1869 to 1879 
when this survey and others were consolidated in the United States Geo- 
logical Survey and in that year, 1879, he was made chief of the Montana 
division, which office he held until his retirement in 1886. His death oc- 
curred in Philadelphia, Dec. 22, 1887. 

190 Girard, F. 1829- Frederic F. Gerard, born in St. Louis, Nov. 14, 1829, 
of French parents, entered the service of the Pierre Chouteau, Jr., and 
Company, the fall of 1848 at Fort Pierre. He was employed as a clerk and 
trader at various posts. When the company was discontinued he became 
an independent trader with stores at Fort Berthold and Fort Stephenson. 
Later he was in business at Mandan, N. D., and moved to Minneapolis 
about 1890 where he was living in 1906. 

191 Aug. 26. 1855. Note. "On the 23d of August, a Mackinaw boat was 
started from Fort Union with the usual outfit of trade for the ensuing 
season at the Crow post. It had only proceeded a short distance up the 
Yellowstone river when the hunters for the boat, who were out in quest 
of game (in company with seven Crow Indians, who had to accompany 
me with their annuities), were driven back to the fort by a war party of 
Sioux Indians, having had a miraculous escape with their lives. The boat 
immediately returned to the fort, and the trip to the Crows abandoned 
for the present season. 

"A few days previous to this, some Indians (no doubt of the same 
party) stole from Fort Union, eight horses, and from Fort William five; 
at the same time, near the latter fort, they fell in with two men who were 
butchering some bufTalo they had killed; they took from them their meat, 
horses, guns and clothing, and they told me personally they considered 
themselves fortunate in getting off alive. Shortlj' after the boat returned, 
fifteen Indians appeared on the hills in sight of the fort; ascertaining 
them to be Sioux I sent my interpreter to them (Zephyr Rencontre) . . . 
After giving them a good lecture about their conduct in violating their 
treaty stipulations in being at war, they left me promising to return to 
their people without committing any more depredations. 

"Thus you see that these war parties of Sioux have not only prevented 
the government from being able to deliver the Crows their annuities, but 
have also prevented them from the usual facilities derived from their 
licensed traders." (Kept, of A. J. Vaughan to Supt. Gumming, St. Louis. 
Sept. 12, 1855.) 

192 Zophyr (Rencontre) 1800- Zephyr Recontre was employed as clerk 
and trader at Fort Tecumseh (Pierre) in 1830. He was born in Missouri 
about 1800 and married in 1837 to a Yankton Indian who with her daugh- 
ters was killed by Sioux Indians near Fort Lookout, July, 1851. He acted 
as an interpreter at various trading posts and Indian agencies and was 
said to have been an intelligent and faithful worker. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 291 

193 Dobey Town. The opposition post of Fort William, so-called be- 
cause some of the buildings were built of adobe. 

194 Campbell, Thomas. 1830-1882. Thomas Campbell was no connection 
of Robert Campbell of the Harvey, Primeau opposition company. The 
River Press (Fort Benton), May 24, 1882, contained the following obitu- 
ary of Thomas Campbell: 

"Tom Campbell died at the Overland Hotel Sunday and was buried 
Monday. The deceased came to Benton some forty years ago, and for a 
long time was in the employ of the American Fur Company at this point. 
All these years he spent in the Northwestern country, chiefly along the 
Missouri and Yellowstone rivers, at trading posts, and sometimes among 
the Indians. He was a fluent Sioux talker and numbered his squaws by the 
score. Tom claimed to be a nephew of Alexander Campbell, the founder 
of the Campbellite church, and doubtless could make good his claim. Of 
late years he has been a hard drinker, which hastened his death to a great 
extent. He was trustworthy, honest and generous to a fault, and has hun- 
dreds of friends along the frontier who will regret to hear of his demise." 

The census of 1870, Dawson county, Montana territory, listed a Thomas 
Campbell, 40 years of age, born in Pennsylvania, Indian trader. The trad- 
ing post known as Campbell's Houses on the right bank of the Milk 
river below the mouth of Little Rocky creek, was built about 1870 by 
Thomas Campbell for Durfee and Peck, Indian traders. 

195 Le Gras. This was probably the Assiniboine Indian of that name 
who was at Fort Union in 1851. 

196 Fool Bear. Mato Winko, chief of the Canoe band of the Assiniboine 
Indians, was known as Crazy Bear, Fool Bear, L'ours Fou and Ours Fou, 
all translations of his Indian name. He was appointed chief of the Assmi- 
boine tribe at Fort Laramie council, Sept. 17, 1851. James L. Long, an 
authority on this tribe, said Crazy Bear was chosen to represent the 
Assiniboines at Fort Laramie because his band was at Fort Union most 
of the time but he was not recognized as chief by the other bands of that 
tribe. The government recognized him as chief and when the annuities 
were distributed at Fort Union he was given a large share that he divided 
among his head men. Long says that Crazy Bear died northwest of Fort 
Union during a smallpox epidemic and was 70 years old at the time of 
his death. 

197 Napper (Scalp?) "Knapper, one who has been scalped but not 
killed." (Kurz Journal, p. 243.) Chambers appears to use the word as 
meaning scalp. 

198 Tremble River. This is the Poplar river of today, known then as 
Riviere au Tremble, French for Aspen River. 

199 Champagne Houses. See Champaigne, Michel, Note 26. 

200 Brick's. This is a reference to Chambers' Gros Ventre squaw. In 
his entry of Dec. 14, 1855, he wrote, "Bricks, Stones, Missy," all of which 
refer to the same person and Bricks and Stones were probably translations 
of her Indian name. 

201 Crow-Ca-Ja-Na (Cracon du Nez). The Cracon du Nez "A very nar- 
row bit of land, a high bluff, on one side of which flows the Teton river 
and on the other the Missouri. The force of the current of each river 
in high water had for years borne against this blufif until it was almost 
worn through. So narrow was this bit of land even in early days that 
the Indians said it was like the 'gristle of the nose' which divides the two 
nostrils. The early but illiterate French employes had translated the 



292 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

Indian name into French, but they never gave the correct orthography of 
the first word or its exact meaning. This word is 'croquant,' meaning 'poor 
wretch, country-man, peasant, gristle.' The correct phrase would be 'Cro- 
quant-du-nez' or 'gristle of the nose.' The name has been spelled in many 
ways as Kroko-de-nay, the Crow-con-de-nay and Croaking Jenny." (River 
Press, Fort Benton, Jan. 1, 1890, p. 5.) 

202 Three Islands. In the Missouri river, thirty miles below Benton. 

203 Hawkins (rifle). The Hawken rifle used by plainsmen and moun- 
taineers was manufactured by Samuel Hawken of St. Louis. He had a 
shop on Cherry street in that city where he made these rifles between 
1822-54.. (Wm. A. Almquist, Harlowton, Mont.) 

204 Hole in the Wall. Landmark on the Missouri river about 65 miles 
below Benton. 

205 Judith Fort. By the "old Judith fort" Chambers meant the trading 
post built by F. A. Chardon in the spring of 1844 at the mouth of the 
Judith river which was named for Chardon. It was not a desirable loca- 
tion for trade and the Blackfoot Indians would not come there because 
it was too close to enemy territory so Culbertson went up in the fall of 
1845, destroyed the Judith fort and built Fort Lewis. This was a few 
miles above the site of Fort McKenzie and on the opposite side of the 
Missouri river. See Fort Benton, Note 1. 

200 Adams & Rondins Rapids. There were several Adams with the fur 
company as early as 1833 and the rapids were probably named for one 
of these men. Rondin Rapids were named for Charles (Rondin) Mercier, 
who came up the Missouri in 1832. Between the Judith river and Snake 
Point. 

207 Snake Point. On the Missouri river about five miles above Cow 
Island. 

208 Cow Island. In the Missouri river above Armell's creek at the 
mouth of Cow Creek. 

209 Grand Island. Chambers also referred to the Island as Big Island, 
in the Missouri river between Cow and Armell's creek. 

210 Forchette's Point. This point in the Missouri river about 25 miles 
below the Musselshell river probably named for one of the men of 
the fur company about 1832-33. 

211 Round Butte. A butte south of the Missouri river, half way between 
Fort Union and Fort Benton. 

212 Dophin (Dauphin, L.) -1864-5. Very likely this was the Louis 
Dauphin mentioned by Larpenteur and La Barge who was the "famous 
hunter" connected with the various posts of the Upper Missouri river. He 
was killed by the Sioux Indians in either 1864 or 1865 near the mouth of 
Milk river. 

Kurz wrote of a man named Dauphen "another of the same sort (as 
Cadotte) lives an isolated life on the prairies with his two wives. He left 
the Opposition in debt, and now hunts on his own account. . . Although 
he was formerly a trapper and followed the related business of trader, he 
can no longer find employment with cither of the companies ... he has 
defrauded both of them ..." (1851-52). A Dauphin had a trading post 
at the mouth of Milk River, spring of 1862. Harkness mentioned Dauphin's 
cabin as being eight miles below the mouth of Milk river. The Dauphin 
rapids were named for Antoine Dauphin, who died of smallpox in 1837. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 293 

213 Dry Fork. A branch of the Missouri river from the south, Garfield 
county, Montana. 

214 Carafell's Houses. This may have been the location of Vice de 
Carafel's winter trading camp of 1851-2 mentioned in the Kurz journal as 
being a short distance above Fort Union on the Missouri river. 

2ir. Fort Clark. 1831- Fort Clark was built in 1831 by James Kipp for 
the American Fur Company on the right bank of the Missouri river, 55 
miles above the present site of Bismarck, North Dakota. It was named 
for William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition, who was for many 
years Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. In its day it was one 
of the three principal posts of the Missouri river, Forts Pierre and Union 
being the others. 

216 Gardepe (With the Opposition?). This was a well known name on 
the Upper Missouri river for many years of French-Canadian origin. 
An Alex Guardipee signed the Blackfoot treaty, Benton, Sept. 1, 1868, as 
interpreter. 

217 Bobieres. The Big Muddy above Fort Union. See Note 183. 

218 Cardinal, Mrs. J. B. The Indian wife of Jean Baptiste Cardinal who 
was listed in the Pembina census of 1850. A Cardinal, half-breed, was in 
charge of the men who built a post for the Harvey, Primeau Company in 
1848 on the Yellowstone river near Fort Alexander. (N. D. Hist. Coll. 
vol. 7, pp. 81-82.) 

219 McKenzie (Owen), 1826-1863. Owen McKenzie, son of Kenneth 
McKenzie and an Indian mother, was born 1826 near Fort Pierre. About 
1838 Kenneth McKenzie's Indian children were sent to the Red River 
Settlement in Canada to be educated at the school maintained by Rev. D. 
Jones. Owen McKenzie seemed to be the only one of the children on the 
Upper Missouri and it is possible that the others remained in Canada. 

When Audubon spent the summer of 1843 at Fort Union "young Owen" 
was a hunter for the post and Audubon often commented on his skill as 
a horseman and hunter. Palliser, who hunted with him in 1847, said he 
was about 21 years old then and described him as "a splendid rider, first- 
rate shot, and taken on the whole, on foot and horseback, the best hunter 
I ever saw." At this period Owen was in charge of the winter trading 
post at White river where Palliser spent some time with him. 

In the hunting annals of the Upper Missouri Owen McKenzie's record 
of loading and shooting 14 times in one mile during a buffalo hunt was 
one of the best known. This called for superb riding as well as expert 
marksmanship. He was employed at Fort Union and winter trading posts 
near that point for a number of years. In the winter of 1862-63 he was 
in charge of a small post for the firm of Harkness and La Barge on the 
Missouri above Fort Union and in the summer of 1863 he was sent to 
take charge of Fort Galpin at the mouth of the Milk river for the same 
firm. That year the steamboats due to low water could only reach the 
Milk river and freight was unloaded at that point. Malcolm Clarke and 
his son, Horace, who was returning from school, were passengers on one 
of the boats and when McKenzie appeared a quarrel broke out between 
the two men over money matters. Clarke shot and killed McKenzie in 
what he claimed was self-defense. Since the latter had many friends 
among the white men and Indians who were present there was a great deal 
of feeling against Clark, and he left during the night for Fort Benton 
to escape the wrath of McKenzie's friends. 

220 Clemow (Claymore, Clement), Basil. 1824-1910. Basil Clement was 
born in St. Louis, Jan. 7, 1824. His father, Charles Clement, was a native 



294 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

of Paris and his mother a half-breed. Basil was in the service of the 
American Fur Company for over twenty years as trader, hunter, guide, 
interpreter and boatman. He served as guide and interpreter for several 
exploring expeditions of the government in the 60's and 70's. Among 
these were the Sully expedition of 1864, the treaty with the Indians at 
Fort Rice, 1868, and the Stanley surveying expeditions of 1874 and 1875. 
He located a ranch at the mouth of the Cheyenne river in South Dakota 
in 1877 and died there Nov. 23, 1910. His name was spelled in various 
ways, Clemo, Clemow and Claymore, The last form was the one used 
in the government records. 

221 Sand Hills. Medicine Lake, northeastern Montana, was known in 
early days as Sand Butte Lake and this may have been the location of the 
Sand HUls. 

222 Four Bears. A Gros Ventre Indian whose name Kurz wrote as 
"Matchbitse Topa." He attended the Fort Laramie council of 1851. Lieut. 
Maynadier, who saw him Aug. 20, 1860, at Fort Berthold, described him 
as a tall, fine-looking Indian and spelled his name "Mali-Topa." 

223 Two White Weasles. Two White Weasles was a River Crow Indian 
chief who signed the treaty at Fort Hawley, Missouri river, July 15, 1868. 
Doane and Koch met him at the Story trading post in the Judith Basin 
in 1874. 

224 Snake Butte. This butte was midway between the Big and Little 
Muddy on the Missouri river. 

225 Ramsey, Jos. Joseph Ramsey was a Mexican or Spaniard who had 
been a hunter for Fort Union since 1840. Ramsey was a corruption of his 
Spanish name which was Jose Ramuso or Ramisie. After the loss of one 
of his hands through the bursting of his gun he looked after the horse 
herd at the fort. Dr. Matthews saw him in the spring of 1871 and de- 
scribed him as a "tall good-looking old man of Spanish type. He spoke 
English very imperfectly. He was dressed like an Indian, wrapped in a 
blanket. At the time I saw him he was living on the charity of the Assini- 
boines, although they themselves were in a half-starving condition." 

226 Bouchie, This is probably the J. Bouche of the St. 

Louis ledger, "June 1, 1857, salary to June, 1857, $300.00." Bouche accom- 
panied E. A. C. Hatch, Indian agent, from Fort Union to Fort Benton, 
June, 1856. A latter day landmark on the Missouri river, 491 miles below 
Fort Benton, was known as "James Busha's grave." It was listed in the 
table of distances on the Missouri river in the Hosmer Journal of 1865. 

227 Constantine. Probably the John Constantine of Fort Benton whose 
name appeared in the St. Louis ledger, April 23, 1856. 

228 Alvary (Alvarez), P. 1829-1904. This must have been Philip Alvarez, 
list of men of the U. M. O. in 1855. De Smet baptized. May 25, 1866. 
Nicholas, son of Philip Alvarez and his Assiniboine wife, at Fort Union. 
The census of 1870 for Dawson county, Montana territory, listed Philip 
Alvarez, 41 years old, born in Missouri, interpreter. He died in Valley 
county, Montana, 1904. 

229 Rollette, John C. There were several Rolettes in the fur trade and 
this is probably the J. C. Rolette who came to Fort Pierre from Canada 
and later returned to that country. 

230 Harney (Gen. Wm. S.) 1800-1889. This is a reference to the defeat 
of the Brule Sioux Indians, Sept. 3, 1855, on the North Fork of the Platte 
river by troops under command of General Harney. 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 295 

231 Morgan, There were several men of this name on the 

Upper Missouri about this time. Charles Morgan, a Scotchman, hunter at 
Fort Union in 1851-52, planned to return to his home in 1852. 

Robert Morgan, a friend and countryman of Andrew Dawson, settled 
in the Red River country of Canada, where Andrew Dawson, Junior, was 
sent to school and lived with Morgan. 

John B. Morgan, an old mountaineer, lived on Sun River in 1862 and 
was the first settler on the Little Prickley Pear, where he was living when 
the Fisk expedition of 1863 came through. He had built a log house, barns 
and corralls, all surrounded by a stockade ten feet high. 

232 La Bomparde, Louis. 1818-1872. This may be the L. Bompard in 
the list of men for the U. M. O. in 1855. Larpenteur mentioned Louis 
Bompard's arrival at Buford from Benton in 1867. The 1870 census for 
the Upper Missouri district lists Leavie (Louie) Bompart, aged 52 years, 
born in Missouri, half-breed family of four children. He died at Fort 
Clagget, M. T., Jan. 1, 1872. 

Alexis La Bompard was a well-known man in the fur trade, hunter at 
Fort Union when Audubon was there in 1843 who described him as a 
"first-rate hunter and powerfully built." He was hired by Governor 
Stevens as a guide to the Yellowstone river in 1853 and represented as 
"knowing the country well." He was a hunter for Fort Union in 1851-52 
when Kurz was there. 

233 Degnue. See Dagneau. Probably meant for J. Dagneau, whose name 
appears in the St. Louis Ledger of the U. M. O. 

234 Chambers, Col. A. B. 1808-1854. Col. A. B. Chambers, born in 
Mercer, Pennsylvania, Jan. 9, 1808, died in St. Louis, May 22, 1854. He 
was editor and owner of the Missouri Republican published in St. Louis 
from 1837 to 1854, and acted as secretary for the Fort Laramie council 
with the Sioux and other tribes, September, 1851. 

236 Cote Trambeleau (not Poplar River). A location on the Missouri 
river near Pierre, S. D., was known as "Cotes qui tremp a L'eau" or "the 
hill that slides into the river." This may have been the name of a similar 
location on the Missouri river just below the Little Muddy. 

236 McKenzie's Old Houses. This must have been the location of Owen 
McKenzie's winter trading post, 1851-52, mentioned by Kurz, on the Lower 
Bourbeuse (Little Muddy). 

237 Harvey's Point or Hervey's Point. On the Missouri river about 18 
miles below the Big Muddy, may have been named for Alexander Harvey. 

238 Poudirie. A French-Canadian word for the snow storm that we call 
blizzard today. This meaning is given by Boiler and Hayden. Coues said 
it might have been from the French word for "powder-mill" "poudrerie." 
but the root of the word was "poudre." 

239 Long Horse -1874. Long Horse was a Crow chief but had only 
a small following, his leadership and fame arising from his giant size. He 
was slain in the spring of 1874 in a duel with Weasel Calf, a Blackfoot 
Indian. In this duel each Indian was armed with a shield and lance. 
Weasel Calf's lance passed entirely through the shield and also the body 
of Long Horse. . . , ^ , . 

In accordance with the Indian custom he was buried on a tree scattold 
near where he fell, but the skeleton of his giant frame. 6 foot, 10 inches, 
was removed some time later. 

240 White Thigh. White Side, a River Crow, signed the River Crow 
treaty at Fort Hawley on the Missouri river, July 15, 1868. 



296 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

241 Band des Canots. This was the Canoe band of the Assiniboine 
Indians. This tribe was divided into six bands which were as follows: 

100 lodges Gens du Gauche (named by the whites for the chief of 

the band). 
60 " Gens du Nord 

220 " Gens des Canots 

60 " Gens des Filles 

50 " Gens des Roches 

30 " Gens: Le bas Rouge 

The head chief of all these bands was at this time (1854) L'ours Fou or 
Crazy Bear. (Denig's Indian tribes of the Upper Missouri; 46th annual 
report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.) 

242 Tiger Buttes. These are marked as the Panther Hills on the Ray- 
nolds-Maynadier map, edition 1876. South and east of Glasgow, Montana. 

243 Beaver Creek. Beaver Creek branch of the Milk river from the south 
in Phillips county. 

244 Searces or Sarcees. Proper spelling as given in the Handbook of 
American Indians is Sarsi. The tribe hunted on the Upper Saskatchewan 
river in Canada which was near the Blackfoot territory. Their customs 
resembled the Blackfoot Indians but they retained their own language. 

245 Little Beaver Creek. Present Beaver creek which enters the Milk 
river from the south at Havre. 

246 Note May 7, 1856. On this trip from Fort Benton to Fort Union 
Chambers followed a route about midway between the Milk and the Mis- 
souri rivers, through the gap of the Bear's Paw and the Little Rockies 
and reached the Missouri river just above Round Butte. 

247 Eagle Creek. A fork of the Missouri river from the east below Fort 
Benton. 

248 Dog River. Comes into Eagle Creek from the northeast. 

249 Grand Tour. The Big Bend of the Milk river. 

250 Porcupine. On the present day maps the Little Porcupine creek is 
a branch of the Missouri river from the north below Milk river and Big 
Porcupine is a tributary of the Milk river from the north. 

251 Wolf Point. On the Missouri river about 125 miles above Fort Union. 

252 Gore, Sir St. George. 1811-1878. Sir St. George Gore was returning 
from a hunting expedition of two years' duration. He left St. Louis early 
in 1854 and traveled with a large party of men and equipment to Fort 
Laramie and from that point north to the Yellowstone region. The ex- 
pedition had slaughtered buffalo and other game in great numbers, which 
caused the Indians to protest to the Indian agents against the wasteful 
destruction of the game. 

Sir St. George Gore was the eighth baronet of that title, born in Ireland, 
1811, and died unmarried, Dec. 3, 1878. 

253 Martin, Pete. Peter Martin was a Mexican or Spaniard who was 
hired as a hunter by Governor Stevens' party at Fort Benton in Septem- 
ber, 1853. In 1859 he moved with his family from Fort Union to the 
settlement on the Little Blackfoot river and was included in the poll list 
for Deer Lodge county, Montana territory, Oct. 24, 1864. J. Larpenteur 
Long said his real name was Martinez. His son, Dan Martin, 80 years 
old in 1940, was interpreter at Fort Buford for many years. 



NOTES ANE) REFERENCES 207 

254 Warren, Lieut. G. K. 1830-1882. Lieut. Gouverneur K. Warren, 
born in Newport, R. L, 1830, graduated from the United States military 
academy in 1850, served as topographical engineer with General Harney 
on the Sioux expedition of 1856. At this time he was making an explora- 
tion of the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers for suitable locations for 
military posts and other information regarding the country. Warren and 
his party came up the river to Fort Union on the Saint Mary and there 
bought wagons from Sir St. George Gore to proceed up the Yellowstone 
river The'^ expedition traveled up the left bank of the Yellowstone by land 
about 100 miles and from there to the mouth of the Powder river with 
pack horses. From that point they returned to where the wagons were 
left and a number of the party navigated the Yellowstone river to the 
mouth in a boat made of buffalo hides. The remainder of the party re- 
turned in the wagons. Lieut. Warren served in the Union Army during 
the Civil War and died in 1882. 

255 Brazos. This was the location of Brasseaus' or Brazeau's Houses, 
on the left bank of the Yellowstone river, 50 miles from the mouth. The 
name of Brazeau appeared at an early date in the records of the American 
Fur Company. When Catlin visited Fort Union in 1834 he met a J. E 
Brazeau who was the Brazeau at Fort Edmonton in 1859 when the Earl 
of Southesk visited there. Larpenteur mentioned a Joseph Brazeau, a 
traveling clerk, July 8, 1835, who was probably J. E. Brazeau. 

There was also a John Brazeau, a negro, who was employed at Fort 
Berthold and Fort Union, died at Fort Stephenson about 1868. 

256 Emmill's Prairie. North bank of Yellowstone river between the 
Rosebud and Powder river. See also Emmell's Creek, Note 161. 

257 Nine Blackfoot Creek. From Chambers' description of this journey 
up the Yellowstone river Nine Blackfoot creek would be a branch of the 
Yellowstone coming in from the south above the Rosebud river, some- 
where near Armell's creek of today. 

258 O'Fallon's Creek. The OTallon creek mentioned here is the Armell's 
or Emmell's creek of today which enters the Yellowstone river from the 
south above the Rosebud river. The present O'Fallon creek is a branch 
of the Yellowstone river from the south below Powder river. Both were 
named for Maior Benjamin O'Fallon, U. S. Indian agent for the Upper 
Missouri, 1823-27. 

259 Grass Lodge Creek. Now known as Lodge Grass creek, fork of the 
Big Horn river from the west. 

260 Blackfoot boy. A. J. Vaughan, Fort Union. Sept. 10, 1856, report to 
Supt. A. Gumming, Supt. Indian AflFairs. 

"I found one captive in their possession. He was an interesting Black- 
foot boy, some fourteen years old, who, on our arrival at the camp, came 
running to us with tears in his eyes, exulting that a deliverer had come to 
his rescue. I took charge of him, which the chiefs consented I should do 
without a murmur. So soon as an opportunity oflFers itself I shall return 
him to his distressed parents." 

261 Largie. This would seem to be a French-Canadian term from the 
French word "larguer" or "large," meaning to "stand off at sea" or "sheer 
off" and is used here to mean "to take off across country" instead of fol- 
lowing the course of the streams. Rev. J. A. Collette, St. Mary's parish. 
Helena, Alontana, said the word "large" has been used with this meaning 
among the French peasantry. 

262 Aug. 14, 1856. A. J. Vaughan said 350 men with 450 horses made 
the trip to Fort Union with him. 



298 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

263 Spanish Island. An island in the Missouri river about 28 miles be- 
low Fort Benton. Maximilian in 1833 called it Spaniard Island. 

264 Dauphin's Rapids. These rapids, 13 miles below the mouth of the 
Judith river, were considered the most dangerous in the Upper river. Cul- 
bertson said the rapids were named for an Antoine Dauphin, who died of 
smallpox in 1837. 

265 Emmell's Island. This is Armell's island in the Missouri river op- 
posite Armell's creek, named for Augustin Hamell. 

266 Featherlands House. This location was probably that of Feather- 
lands Island in the Missouri river about 16 miles below Round Butte. 
There was also a creek of the same name which came into the Missouri 
river from the south at that point. 

In Vaughan's Then and Now mention was made by E. .A.. Lewis of a 
Bill Fatherland at Fort Union in 1858. 

267 Rolette's Houses. E. W. McNeal who came up the river on the 
steamboat Alone in 1863 said Fort Rolette was on the north bank of the 
Missouri river about 40 miles above the Yellowstone. 

268 Fort William. 1833-1858. Fort William was built in the fall of 1833 
by the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and named for William Sublette, a 
partner of the firm. Robert Campbell was in charge until the company 
sold out to the American Fur Company, June, 1834. It was situated on 
the north bank of the Missouri river about three miles below Fort Union 
and was the first opposition post on the upper river. It was occupied by 
the Union Fur Company in 1842 and the name changed to Fort Mortimer. 
This company sold out in 1845 and the next year the fort was occupied by 
the new opposition company of Harvey, Primeau and Company and the 
old name of Fort William restored. Since some of the buildings were built 
of adobe it was known to the occupants of Fort Union as the "doby fort." 
It was abandoned in 1858 and the property moved up to Fort Stewart. 

269 Fox River. A branch of the Yellowstone river from the west about 
15 miles above the junction of the Missouri and Yellowstone rivers. 

270 Big Hills. The High Buttes of Lieut. Warren's map below the 
Powder river. 

271 Lone Tree Cut. A map drawn by Father De Smet, undated, shows 
a Lone Tree creek which entered the Yellowstone a short di.stance below 
and opposite the mouth of the Rosebud river. 

272 Scott, John. In his report for 1856, A. J. Vaughan, wrote: "They 
informed me that a man by the name of Scott, in company with another 
man, from the Platte, whose name they could not give, had left their vil- 
lage two days before my arrival, and that he told them 'that he had come 
to ask them to return with him to the Platte to trade; that there they 
would find no sickness; that they would meet plenty of buffalo; that they 
must not proceed to Fort Union to obtain their goods, or disease and 
death would be the result; and moreover that a large body of soldiers were 
stationed there for the purpose of casting their principal men into irons, 
and conveying them to the states'." 

273 Mamalls. Since "mamelle" and "teton" have the same meaning in 
French, "woman's breast," these must have been the "Tetons of the Yel- 
lowstone" described by De Smet in August, 1851. as being 30 miles from 
Fort Union. 



XOTKS AND REFERENCES 299 

274 Yanctonias. The Yanktonai are one of the seven primary divisions 
of the Dakota or Sioux tribe. Their habitat in 1855 the country between 
the James river and the Missouri. 

275 Red River Half Breeds. Half-breed Indians from the Red River 
settlements in Canada near Winnipeg. 

276 English Gentleman (Sir St. George Gore). See note 252. 

277 Upper Missouri Outfit. (U. M. O.) The name Upper Missouri Out- 
fit dated back to 1827 when the American Fur Company bought out the 
Columbia Fur Company and organized another division of their Western 
Department. The term "outfit" in the Canadian fur trade meant trade 
goods for any particular year including goods for use at the post as well 
as for trade but here it was used to designate what were known in Can- 
ada as "districts," a certain area or territory including several posts. 

During the period covered by the Journal, 1854-56. the Upper Missouri 
Outfit was a subsidiary of the Pierre Chouteau, Jr. and Company and en- 
tered in the St. Louis ledgers as the U. M. O. There were other depart- 
ments such as the Minnesota Outfit, the Sioux Outfit, the Platte 
Outfit, etc. 

Of the twelve shares of the U. M .O. eight were owned by the parent 
company, the P. Chouteau, Jr. and Company, and the other four shares 
were divided among the chief traders of the various posts. In 1854 the 
principal posts were Forts Pierre, Clark, Berthold, Union and Benton on 
the Missouri river and Fort Sarpy on the Yellowstone river. 

278 Boismann, Joseph. "Joseph Boismener, a man assigned to me by 
Mr. Dawson was as good an ox driver as ever handled a whip." (Owen 
Journals, v. 1. p. 147. Trip from Ft. Benton to Ft. Owen, Nov. 1856.) 

CHARLES MERCIER (Rondin). 1803-1891 
By Wm. F. Wheeler 

279 Charles Mercier, or Moultier as Col. J. J. Donnelly, his Attorney 
insists is his correct name (or Rondin a nick name for his being round- 
shouldered, by which he is known by the people at Fort Benton), was born 
at a place called "the Portage," which is about forty miles above St. Louis, 
Mo., in the year 1803. He was of Canadian French descent, and had a 
very limited education, as there were no public schools in those days. He 
learned boat building at Carondelette below St. Louis when a boy and 
during the many years he was in the employment of the American Fur 
Company, he was engaged as carpenter & boat builder at their various 
forts on the upper Missouri, and generally built the Mackinaws in which 
they transported their robes and furs to St. Louis. 

Mr. Mercier (as I shall call him) was employed by the American Fur Co. 
in 1827 (?) at St. Louis, to go to their trading posts on the upper Mis- 
souri in the capacity of carpenter. The company at that time consisted 
of P. Chouteau, Jr., and Harrison and Valle, all of St. Louis. The expe- 
dition left St. Louis in April and consisted of two keel boats loaded with 
goods for the Indian trade. Mr. Mercier helped to work these boats up 
the Missouri from April until in September, when they arrived at the 
mouth of the Heart River, where they landed and went into winter quar- 
ters. They built no fort as the Indians were friendly, but erected com- 
fortable log cabins. They made a good trade and sold out one boat load 
of goods. , . , , „ . 

The next Spring. 1828, they filled the empty boat with robes & furs 
and sent it back to St. Louis. At old Ft. Pierre, it was met by a steamer, 
on its way with supplies for Ft. Union which overtook them on its return 
down the river and took the cargo to St. Louis. 

Note: (The steamboat Yellowstone was the first steamboat to come up 
the Missouri river as far as Fort Pierre which was in the summer of 1831. 



300 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

The next year, 1832, the Yellowstone went on to Fort Union, and on the 
return trip from Fort Union reached Fort Pierre, June 25, 1832.) 

Mr. Mercier accompanied the remaining boat up the Missouri. When 
the party arrived at the mouth of the Marias River, Mr. James Kip (Kipp) 
who had charge of the boat and goods landed and built winter quarters, 
but no stockade, as the Indians were friendly. Here they traded during the 
winter of 1828-9 (1831-32). In the spring of 1829 (1832) they were at- 
tacked by the Assinaboine Indians and one of their men was killed. In 
consequence they burned their houses there and moved to a better loca- 
tion eight miles above on the Missouri and built a new and strong post, 
which they named Fort McKenzie. Here they lived and traded for four- 
teen years and were very successful. Their trade was almost entirely with 
the Blackfeet, Bloods and Piegan Indians. During all this time but four 
of their men were killed by the Indians, and Mr. M. thinks probably be- 
cause of their own misconduct. 

In the fall of 1843, a war party of Blackfeet enroute to the lower coun- 
try visited the fort, and as was the rule were given a feast, and supplied 
with five rounds of ammunition. With this they were not satisfied but de- 
manded that the amount should be doubled. Mr. Chardon, the Bourgeois, 
or man in charge of the post, refused to grant this demand. In the morn- 
ing when the Indians were about to cross the river, either by accident 
or design, they shot a cow belonging to the post, which they refused to 
pay for. They also killed a negro employee who went in pursuit of them, 
and they escaped. Mr. Chardon swore that the negro's death should be 
avenged, and Mr. Harvey, the head clerk, said the Indians should pay 
dearly for the cow they had killed, when they came to trade in the spring. 
A terrible revenge was taken as will appear by the narrative of Mr. George 
Weippert, given in this series. Mr. Mercier was not a witness to the 
tragedy, and declined to give an account of it for that reason, but he 
said it was worthy of savages, instead of white men. 

This event was so terrible that the employees threatened to return to 
St. Louis and leave the service of the Company. In consequence, Mr. 
Chardon, the head trader, and Mr. Harvey determined to burn and aban- 
don the fort for fear of the vengeance of the Indians, which their employees 
dreaded. So in the Spring, 1843 (1844), they burnt and abandoned the 
post, and ever since then they have called it Fort Brule, which in their 
French signified the "burnt fort." It is also called by the survivors (dur- 
ing the time it was occupied, from 1829 to 1843 (1832-1844,) Old Fort Mc- 
Kenzie. 

After the burning of the Fort, Mr. Chardon floated all of the property, 
of the Company down to the mouth of the Judith River, and just above' 
built a post which was named Ft. Chardon, in honor of the head trader, 
who was a member of the Company, and is still remembered for his 
drunken habit. At this place they lived and traded until the next Spring, 
1844 (1845). 

In consequence of the rivalry of the Company of Independent Traders 
and Trappers, headed by such men as Sublette, Cotton, Bridger, Campbell, 
and others, who had established a post named Ft. Cotton, rightly Ft. Hen- 
ry (Honore), on the east side of the Missouri, three or four miles above 
the present city of Ft. Benton, the American Fur Company bought out their 
posts in the Northern part of Montana, and therefore in the spring of 1844 
(1845), Air. Chardon abandoned Ft. Chardon and moved up to and took 
possession of Fort Cotton (Fort Henry). (It was Culbertson who burned 
Ft. Chardon and moved up to Ft. Cotton). Here the .\merican Fur Com- 
pany carried on their trade for two years, or until the spring of 1846 
(1847) when they abandoned the post and moved all the timbers of the 
fort, including houses, stockades, etc. to the site of the present Fort Ben- 
ton. With these timbers, and new ones hauled from the Highwood Moun- 
tains, a new trading post was built, and occupied. But gradually, by the 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 301 

work of their employees and stragglers, the company built the adobe post, 
a part of which is still standing (in 1884), and which gave name to the 
present thriving and pretty City of Fort Benton. 

Mr. Mercicr remained in the employment of the Am. Fur Co. until 
they sold out to the North West Fur Co. in 1866. This company con- 
sisted of James B. Hubbell, Tcnn. llawley, and C. Frank Bates. The 
last Agent in charge of the Am. Fur Co. he says was I. G. Baker. Frank 
H. Eastman was the manager of the N. W. Fur Company, until the time 
of his death which occurred in 1874 (1877) at Bismarck, D. T., when the 
new company closed up their business for good. 

Mr. 1. G. Baker and Brother immediately after the sale of Ft. Benton 
Trading Post, commenced trading on their own account, and today are 
among the wealthiest merchants at Ft. Benton or in Montana. 

Mr. Mercier continued in the service of the Am. F"ur Company at old 
Ft. Union, while under the charge of Maj. Culbertson, for five or six 
years, and until it was abandoned. 

Mr. Mercier was employed by Maj. Vaughn, U. S. Indian Agent, at 
Sun River for a year or two as carpenter. He was also employed by 
Labarge Harkness & Co. for some time at their trading post, which was 
situated in the upper part of the present City of Ft. Benton. 

After his retirement from these employments, Mr. Mercier built a small 
log house, in which he has lived for nearly twenty years. For ten years 
or more it was the only dwelling house occupied by a white man outside 
of the trading posts. When the town site was patented by the Probate 
Judge in trust for the occupants, the County Commissioners of Chouteau 
County ordered that the fee to the three lots on Main street, so long oc- 
cupied by Mr. Mercier, be conveyed to him without charge, which action 
was heartily approved by the whole people, and showed their kindly feel- 
ing to the "Old Timer," of 1828. 

Mr. Mercier was always employed in and around the trading posts of 
the Fur Companies, as a mechanic, and never went out as hunter or trap- 
per. Therefore he has no account of battles with the savage Indians or 
encounters with wild beasts to relate. 

Mr. Mercier was married to an Indian girl, aged 13 years, about 1831. 
They lived happily together, respected by all who knew them for 50 years 
until she died in 1878. He said that he was no "squaw man," for she had 
been his only wife in all that time. By her he had eleven children. Four 
are living — 3 at Benton — one is married and lives in St. Louis. Mrs. Bost- 
wick, one daughter is living at Benton. Her husband, Henry Bostwick, 
was killed at the Battle of the Big Hole. Mr. M's. other descendants are 
ten grandchildren and two great grandchildren, and all live near him, 
and are much respected by the community. Mr. M. has led a quiet, in- 
dustrious and blameless life. At eighty-one his health is fair and he may 
live manv years to come. 

From the River Press (Fort Benton), Feb. 19, 1890. 

"Since then (1864). he (Rondin) has lived in this city at the corner of 
Main and Rondin streets. Until a few years ago he supported himself by 
sawing wood and doing odd jobs, when by reason of his increasing age 
and infirmity Choteau county made a provision for his declining years. 
The citizens of Benton, too, have not been neglectful of the old man's 
earthly wants. He is a devout Catholic and attends church every Sunday. 
He is one of the last of whom Abbe Domenech wrote: 'Their .glory is 
extinct; they are no more. The masters and the great navigators of the 
inner seas of the new world are gone, and in a short time hence the very 
name of the voyageurs will be no more than a pleasing legend of the 
American solitudes'." 

Charles Mercier (Rondin) died in Fort Benton, December, 1891. 

280 Apishamo. Kurz. "A hide (antelope or piece of buffalo skin) used 
as a saddle blanket." 



302 NOTES AND REFERENCES 

ALEXANDER HARVEY. 1807-1854 

281 Harvey, according to Larpenteur, was a native of St. Louis, born 
about 1807. He entered the employ of the American Fur Company in 1831. 
In the Fort Tecumseh Journal, Nov. 1, 1832, the following reference shows 
that Harvey was on the upper river in 1832: "A. Harvey and Beckwourth 
arrived from Ft. Lookout on their way to the Mandans (both freemen)." 
(S. D. Hist. Coll. Vol. 9, p. 162.) 

Harvey was with Maximilian's party on their journey up the Missouri 
river in June, 1833, and when the party reached Fort Union, Harvey and 
Berger went on ahead of the boats overland by horseback to Fort McKen- 
zie. Mitchell sent him in September of that year in charge of a crew of 
30 men to build the new post. He was an energetic and active man with- 
out fear and of great physical strength. Larpenteur said he was "the bold- 
est man that was ever on the Missouri ... a man six feet tall, weighing 
160 or 170 pounds and inclined to do right when sober." 

The feats of endurance, strength and courage of Harvey were legendary 
on the river and although hated and despised for his cruelty and callous- 
ness he was granted a reluctant admiration for other qualities. On 
complaints of other employees in the winter of 1839-40, he was summoned 
by the head of the company to report at St. Louis and he made the trip 
alone and afoot along the river to the city. Chouteau was so impressed 
by this performance that instead of the dismissal that was intended he 
was ordered to return to Fort McKenzie. When Harvey arrived at Fort 
Union he summoned every man who had testified against him and gave 
each one a beating and was perfectly sober at the time. Revenge was an 
important item in his makeup and this quality was responsible for the 
killing of Isadore Sandoval at Fort Union in 1841 and also, perhaps, for 
the massacre of the Blackfoot Indians at Fort McKenzie in February, 1844. 

When Chardon moved to the mouth of the Judith river in the spring of 
1844 Harvey went with him and the next spring when Chardon went 
down the Missouri to establish Fort Berthold he remained in charge at 
Fort F. A. C. until Culbertson came up to move that fort up the river 
above the location of old Fort McKenzie. 

Among the men with Culbertson were James Lee, Malcolm Clark 
and Jacob Berger who planned before they left Fort Union to 
attack Harvey and run him out of the country. This plan must 
have been the result of bad blood between Chardon and Harvey 
prior to Chardon's departure for Fort Berthold. As had been proven Har- 
vey bore bitter grudges against any one who had wronged him and he 
may iiave intimidated Chardon before the latter left Fort F. A. C. with 
threats to expose him for selling liquor to the Indians. Others beside 
Chardon were guilty of this offense and these three men who went up to 
Fort F. A. C. with an avowed intent "to get Harvey" might also have 
been among the offenders. The attempt on Harvey's life failed and Cul- 
bertson persuaded him to give up the Fort by paying his wages in full and 
giving him a strong recommendation. Harvey went down the river in a 
canoe and when he reached Fort Union told Larpenteur he was going 
down to St. Louis to bring charges against Chardon and the other men 
of an attempt at murder and violation of the government regulations re- 
garding the Indian country. When he got to Fort Pierre llonore Picotte 
tried to hold him there and was willing to give him charge of the Black- 
foot post if he would remain in the country for Picotte knew if Harvey 
told the new Commissioner of Indian Affairs at St. Louis of the com- 
pany's practice of selling and trading liquor to the Indians it would mean 
serious trouble for them. Harvey was not to be dissuaded and continued 
on his journey down the river to St. Louis, and on March 13, 1846, the 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, T. IT. Harvey, directed Major Drips. 
Indian Agent, to order Chardon. Berger, Clark and Lee out of the Indian 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 303 

country to appear in St. Louis to answer charges which had been pre- 
ferred against them. Chardon was accused of seUing liquor to the Indians 
and the other three with attempted murder. Nothing came of these 
charges as the case was postponed from time to time and finally dropped, 
but Harvey with three others and the financial backing of Robert Camp- 
bell organized the St. Louis Fur Company, another opposition to the 
Chouteau company. 

While he was at Fort Pierre he met Charles Primeau, Joseph Picotte 
and A. R. Bonis. Since all three were ready to leave the company and 
enter business for themselves his suggestion came at the right time. 

Until his death in 1854 Harvey was the chief worker and organizer in 
this company and made his headquarters at their Blackfoot post, Fort 
Campbell, where he labored hard at the business he knew, the fur trade. 
No one ever accused him of dishonesty, laziness or cowardice. His chief 
fault was his arrogant bullying of the men who offended or crossed him 
in any way, and the desire to impress upon all that it was dangerous to 
harm Harvey in any manner, by word or deed. Perhaps he succeeded in 
this endeavor. 

Harvey must have had an Indian family for in his letter to Campbell 
written just before he died, July 17, 1854, he asked that Campbell care for 
his two daughters who were in a convent school near St. Louis. The 
obituary comments published in the St. Louis newspapers gave him high 
praise for his admirable qualities and the publishing of these comments 
in this journal may help to vindicate his character in the history of the 
fur trade. 

Kiel Boat 15 Miles Below the Upper 
BuUbers July 17th 1854 
Mr. Campbell Esq 

1 regret to inform you that I am laying here at the point of death and 
do not know the moment it may occur, if it should occur I am under the 
nessesity of leaving order for her to go back to Fort William for the want 
of a Steersman to take her up I shall advice Mr. Peacott to let you hear 
of it as soon as possible so you can arrange accordingly I appoint you 
the Executor of my Estate Settle up all the business I have remaining in 
the world after the close of our business if there is any thing comeing to 
me it will be equally divided between my two children Edeline & Susan 
and those two I beg of you as a Friend not to see them suffer give my 
last respects to Mrs Campbell and her children. I give my last farewell 
to yourself and all the gentlemen in the Store and enquiring Friends 

1 die in peace and Friendship with the world 
Alexander Alexander M. Harvey 

State of Missouri i g_. 

County of Saint Louis \ 

Be it remembered that on this Eleventh day of May in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty eight before me Peter Fergu- 
son Judge of Probate of the County of Saint Louis personally appeared 
William H. Alexander who being by me duly sworn on his oath saith, 
I was present at the time of the date of the foregoing instrument as wit- 
ness and saw Alexander M. Harvey subscribe his name to said instrument 
and heard him declare the same to be his last will — I subscribed my name 
as a witness thereto in the presence of said Harvey and at the time of so 
doing he said Harvey was of sound and disposing mind to the best of my 
knowledge and belief — the residence of said Harvey was at Fort Campbell 
near the falls of the Missouri about sixty miles above the mouth of the 
Yellowstone and the place of executing said instrument and the place of 
the residence of said Harvey are both in the Territory of Nebraska the 
body of said instrument was written by me at the request of said Harvey. 

Wm. H. Alexander. 



304 NOTES AND REFERFA'CES 

Sworn to and Subscribed before me at St. Louis thisi 
11 day of May 1858 

I'eter Ferguson | 

Judge of Probate J 

I William F. Ferguson Judge of Probate of the County of Saint Louis 
having examined the foregoing instrument in writing and the testimony 
of William H. Alexander the subscribing witness thereto, consider that 
said instrument is not duly proved to be the last will of Alexander M. 
Harvey deceased and do reject the same. 

Given under my Hand at the County aforesaid this Eighteenth day of 
May in the year of our Lord one Thousand Eight hundred and fifty nine. 

William F. Ferguson 

Judge of Probate 
(Rejected Will of Alexander M. Harvey, 
as Certified by the Probate Court of 
the City of St. Louis, Missouri.) 



(For the newspaper notices on Harvey's death we are indebted to Miss 
Stella M. Drum, of the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis.) 

ALEXANDER M. HARVEY 

DIED at Fort William, on the Yellow Stone, on the 20th July last, 
ALEXANDER M. HARVEY, in the 47th (the second figure is blurred, 
but the impression looks like 7) year of his age. 

The deceased has been for many years a prominent and successful In- 
dian trader. He was the leading partner of Harvey, Primeau & Co., and 
Harvey & Co. He was a man of firmness, honesty and courage, and he 
possessed besides, a kindness and humanity which rendered him extremely 
popular with the Indians, with whom his traffic brought him in contact. 
It is no small evidence of his worth that the red children of the mountain 
and prairie always regarded him with respect and esteem. He had never 
yielded to the temptations of his gainful barter to deceive the savage, and 
they loved and reverenced him for his uprightness and his kindly be- 
havior towards them. The deceased was known to many of our citizens 
as a man of stainless honesty, inflexible courage, and invincible energy. 
He met death with the same unshaken fortitude that he had often evinced 
when encountering other perils; and upon his gravestone may be fitly 
inscribed the epitaph. "Here lies a brave, an honest, and kind-hearted 
man." 
(Missouri Republican, September 19, 1854). 

DEATH OF ALEXANDER M. HARVEY 

Our obituary column yesterday, contained a notice of the death of Alex- 
ander M. Harvey, for many years a prominent and successful trader with 
the Indians on the Upper Missouri. Mr. Harvey was, we think, a native 
of St. Louis and has been for a long time a leading partner in the exten- 
sive trading concerns in that region. He was a man of great energy of 
character, and of unquestioned courage, and these characteristics, with 
his proverbial honesty and kindness to the Indians, secured for him a de- 
gree of confidence which has rarely been accorded to any man. The In- 
dians loved him and his influence over them was unbounded. At the time 
of his death he was engaged in profitable trade and a few years more 
would have enabled him to retire with wealth honestly and laboriously 
earned. 
(Missouri Republican, September 20, 1854). 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 305 

281A Primeau, Charles. 1811-1897. Charles Primeau, born in St. Louis, 
1811, came up the river in 1831 as clerk for the American Fur Company 
at Fort Union. In 1846 he became a member of the Harvey, Primeau 
Company and after that company sold out in 1860 he acted as interpreter 
at Standing Rock Indian Agency. He was married to his Indian wife and 
his children baptized bv Father De Smet in 1857. Primeau died at Fort 
Yates, N. D.. in 1897. 

252 Galpin, Charles E. -1870. "Major" Charles E. Galpin came to the 
Dakota country in 1839, married a mixed blood Sioux woman, and was 
engaged in the fur trade of the Upper Missouri for many years. In later 
years he had sutler stores at several of the army posts on the river and 
trading posts near the Indian agencies. He died about 1870 on the Indian 
reservation at Grand river. 

253 Hodgkiss, W. D. -1864. W. D. Hodgkiss, a native of New York, 
entered the fur trade in 1832 with Bonneville. He was employed as clerk 
at Fort Pierre and other posts, was in charge of Fort Union in 1863 where 
he died the following year. He had an Indian family and some of his 
descendants still live in South Dakota. 

284 u. M. O. Inventories. The ledgers of the P. Chouteau, Jr., and 
Company do not contain detailed inventories of the U. M. O. later than 
1851. Those for 1852, 1853, 1856 were the total sums of the inventories, 
at least that is all that was found in the ledgers for those years. The 
notations of dividends and earnings while not clearly explained are in- 
cluded, with the date of entry in the ledgers, as these give some idea of 
the earnings of the men employed as chief traders at the various posts. 

285 All measurements for distances on the Missouri River are taken 
from the Missouri River Commission maps published 1892-1895. 



} 

I 



BTRLTOGRAPHY 



^07 



MANUSCRIPTS 

Ashby, S. C. 

Chouteau-Maffiitt 
Papers. 

Culbertson 
Manuscript. 

Dawson, Andrew 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Reminiscences. Historical Society of Montana. 
Missouri Historical Society. St. Louis 



History of the Indian tribes of the Missouri river. 
Crows, Assiniboines, Sioux, etc. Missouri Histori- 
cal Society. St. Louis. 

Letters to Andrew Dawson. 1860-64. 
Historical Society of Montana. 



De Smet, Rev. P. J. Manuscripts. St. Louis University. 



Hatch, E. A. C. 
Larpesiteur, Charles 
McNeal. Eli W. 



Pierre Chouteau, Jr., 
and Company. 

United States Census. 
1870. 

Wheeler, W. F. 



Fort Belknap (Indian Agency, Montana) Journal. 
1873-1875. Historical Society of Montana. 

Diary. June 7-October 15, 1856. 
Minnesota Historical Society. 

Journal (original manuscript), 1833-1872. 
Minnesota Historical Society. 

Account of trip by steamboat to Montana in 1863. 
Historical Society of Montana . 

Ledgers of St. Louis Company. 

Missouri Historical Society. St. Louis, Mo. 

Montana territory. 

Historical Society of Montana. 

Biographical sketches of employes of the American 
Fur Company from personal interviews. Joseph 
Cobell, Henry Robert. 
Historical Society of Montana. 



NEWSPAPERS 



Dupuver Acantha. 1894- 
Fort Benton Record. 1875-1884. 
Helena Herald. 1866- 
Montanian (Choteau). 1890- 
River Press (Fort Benton). 1880- 
Teton Times (Choteau). 1892-1894. 



Abel, Annie H. Chardon's Journal at Fort Clark. 1834-1839. 

Pierre. S. D. 1932. 

Audubon, Maria R. Audubon and His Journals. 2 vols. Scribners. 

1900. 

Boiler, Henry A. .Among the Indians, Eight Years in the Far West. 

1858-1866. Philadelphia. 1868. 



Chappell, P. E. 



History of the Missouri River. Kansas City. n. d. 



308 

Chittenden, H. M. 
Chittenden, H. M. 



Chittenden, H. M. and 
Richardson, A. T. 

Crawford, L. F. 



Culbertson, 
Thaddeus A. 



Denig, Edwin T. 
Dunn, John 
Garraghan, G. J. 

Grinnell, G. B. 

Hafen, L. R., and 
Ghent, W. J. 

HamUton, W. T. 
Hayden, F. V. 

Heitman, F. B. 

Henry, Alexander, and 
Thompson, David 

Hodge, F. W. 

Hosmer, J. A. 

Kane, Paul 
Kurz, R. F. 

Larpenteur, Charles 
Luttig, J. C. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

American Fur Trade of the Far West. 3 vols. 
Harper. 1902. 

History of Early Steamboat Navigation on the 
Missouri River. 2 vols. Harper. 1903. 

Life, Letters and Travels of Father Pierre-Jean 
De Smet, S. J. 1801-1873. 4 vols. Harper. 1905. 

Rekindlinu: Camp Fires. The Exploits of Ben 
Arnold (Connor). Capital Book Co., Bismarck, 
N. D., 1926. 

Journal of the Expedition to the Mauvaises Terres 
and the Upper Missouri in 1850. Annual Report 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 1850. 

Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri. 46th annual 
report. 1928-29. Bureau of American Ethnology. 

History of the Oregon Territory and British 
North-American Fur Trade. London. 1844. 

The Jesuits of the Middle West. 3 vols. America 
Press. 1938. 

Blackfoot Lodge Tales. Scribners. 1892. 

Broken Hand, Story of Thomas Fitzpatrick. 
Denver, 1931. 

My Sixty Years on the Plains. Forest and Stream. 
1905. 

Contributions to the Ethnography and Philology 
of the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley. 
Philadelphia. 1862. 

Historical Register and Dictionary of the United 
States Army. Washington, D. C. 1903. 

New Light on the Early History of the Great 
Northwest. 3 vols. Harpers. 1897. 

Handbook of American Indians. 2 vols. Bureau 
of American Ethnology. Bulletin 30. 1907. 

A Trip to the States in 1865. Virginia City, M. T. 
1867. 

Wanderings of an Artist. Toronto. 1925. 

journal of Rudolph F. Kurz. An Account of His 
Experiences Among P'ur Traders and Indians, 
1846-1852. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bul- 
letin 115. 1937. 

I'orty Years a Fur Trader. 2 vols. Harpers. 1898. 

Journal of a Fur-trading Expedition on the Upper 
Missouri. 1812-1813. Missouri Historical Society. 
1920. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



309 



Maxmilian, 
Prince of Wied 



Montcina Historical 
Society 

North Dakota State 
Historical Society 

Owen, John 
Palliser, John 
Point. Rev. Nicholas 

Raynolds, W. F. 

Robertson, Colin 

Robinson, Doane 
Schultz, J. W. 

Schultz, J. W. 

South Dakota State 
Historical Society 

South Dakota State 
Historical Society 

Southesk, Earl of 
Stevens, Hazard 
Stevens, Isaac I. 

Stuart, Granville 
Townsend, John K. 



Travels in the Interior of North America. 1832- 
1834. 3 vols. Thvi'aites' Early Western Travels. 
A. H. Clark. 1906. 

Contributions, vols. 1-9. 1876-1923. 



Collections, vols. 1-7. 1906-1924. 



Journal and Letters of Major John Owen. 1850- 
1871. 2 vols. Montana Historical Society. 1927. 

Solitary Rambles of a Hunter in the Prairie. 
London. 1853. 

A Journey in a Barge on the Missouri River from 
the Fort of the Blackfeet (Lewis) to that of the 
Assiniboine (Union) 1847. Mid-America. January, 
1931. vol. 13. Chicago. 

Report on the Exploration of the Yellowstone 
River. 40th Cong., 1st Sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 77. 
Wash. 1868 

Colin Robertson's correspondence book. 1817-1822. 
Champlain Society. 1939. 

Encyclopedia of South Dakota. Pierre, S. D. 1925. 

Friends of My Life as an Indian. Houghton, 
Mifflin and Company, 1923. 

Sign Posts of Adventure. Houghton, Mifflin and 
Company. 1926. 

Collections, vols. 1-17. 1902-1934. Pierre, S. D. 



South Dakota Historical Review, vol. 1. 1935. 
Pierre, S. D. 

Saskatchewan and the Rocky Mountains, Toronto. 
1875. 

The Life of Isaac Ingalls Stevens. 2 vols. 
Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 1900. 

Report of Exploration of a Route for the Pacific 
Railroad Near the 47th and 49th Parallels, from 
St. Paul to Puget Sound. 12 vols. 33d Cong., 
1st Sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 129. Washington. 

Forty Years on the Frontier. 2 vols. A. H. Clark. 
1925. 

Narrative of a Journey Across the Rocky Moun- 
tains, to the Columbia River (1834). . . vol. 21. 
Thwaites' Early Western Travels. A. H. Clark. 
1906. 



310 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



U. S. Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs 



Annual Reports. 1851-1868. Washington, D. C. 



Vaughn, Robert 
Warren, G. K. 

Wyeth, N. J. 

MAPS 

De Smet, Rev. P. J. 

Missouri River Com- 
mission 

U. S. War Dept. 
Warren, G. K. 



Then and Now, or Thirty-six Years in the Rockies. 
MinneapoHs. 1900. 

Preliminary Report to Capt. A. A. Humphreys, 
Topographical Engineer, in Charge of Explora- 
tions and Surveys, War Department . . . dated 
Nov. 24, 1858. 35th Cong., 2d Sess., Sen.Ex.Doc.l. 



Correspondence and Journals. 
Ore. 1899. 



1831-6. Eugene, 



De Smet Collection. St. Louis University. 
Map of the Missouri River. Pub. 1892-1895. 



Map of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers and 
their Tributaries. Raynolds-Maynadier. 1859-1860. 
Pub. 1867. 

Maps of surveys in Dakota and Nebraska territori- 
tories. 1855-1856. 



INDEX 



J 



INDEX 



313 



INDEX 



Abel, Mrs. Annie E., 239 

Adams, John, 25 

Adams & Rondins' Rapids, note 

206, 142, 292 
Admiral, steamboat, 288 
Adobe bricks, note 6, 1, 97, 246 
A. F. Co., see American Fur Com- 
pany 
Alexander, Pend d'Oreille Indian, 

269 
Alexander, William H., 303-304 
Almquist, William A., 292 
Alone, steamboat, 298 
Alvarez, Nicholas, 294 
Alvarez, Philip, note 228, 148, 193- 

194, 294 
Alvary, see Alvarez 
Amen, M., 99 
American Fur Company, note 160, 

166, 170, 239, 243-245, 247-249, 

251, 256-257, 261, 267-268, 271, 

278-281. 284, 286, 288-289, 291, 

293-294, 297-302, 305 
Annuities, Indian, 121, 149, 176, 186, 

192 
Apishamo, note 280, 219, 301 
Arabia, steamboat, 288 
Arapaho Indians, see Crows 
Arikaras, 129 
Armell, see also Hamell 
Armell's Creek, Missouri R., 253, 

262, 277, 292 
Armell's Creek, Yellowstone R., 282, 

286, 297 
Armstrong, Sarah E., 279 
Arnell, Mary, see also Augustin 

Hamell, 253, 254 
Arnell's Creek, see Armell's Creek 
Arnoux, Susan Hamell, 262 
Arrow Creek, 266 
Ash Island, 161 
Ashby, S. C, 275 
Assiniboine, steamboat, 275 
Assiniboines, 127, 130-1, 137, 148, 

151, 155. 157-9. 161. 174. 181. 192, 

296 
Astor. John Jacob, 286 
Audubon, John T., 240, 243, 246, 287, 

289, 293 
Au Trembe River, see Tremble 
River 



Bad Head, note 104, 59, 61-62, 69, 

275 
Bad Lands, Dakota, 290 
Bad Lands, Yellowstone, 174, 184 
Badger Creek Agency, 255 
Bad Shape. 113 

Baker, I. G. & Co., 249, 253, 301 
Ball, 1. 58 

Band de Canots. note 241, 160, 296 
Banff, Canada, 259 
Bank, The, see White Cow Against 

the Bank 
Baptiste, see Baptiste Champaigne 
Barcier, Bercrier, see Bercier 
Barlow, Augustus, 265, 284 
Barnes, note 65, 39, 268 
Barnes, Phil. 268 
Barra, Joniche. 193, 194 
Bates, C. Frank. 301 
Battle of New Orleans, 105 
Beardy, 60 
Bear's Head (Crow), note 159, 

106-107, 109-110, 113, 115. 158-159, 

176, 183, 186, 286 
Bears Paw, 28, 33-34, 36-37, 39, 164, 

166-167 
Bear's Paw Gap. 167, 296 
Bear's son, 157 
Beaver Creek, 140 
Beaver Creek, note 243, 163, 296 
Beckwourth, James P., 302 
Beeson, Henry W., 283 
Beliveau. L., 89. 193 
Belleveau, Leandre, see Beliveau, L. 
Bellies (Belly) River, note 106, 60, 

275 
Belt Mountain. 78 
Belt Mountain Creek, note 95, 55, 

274 
Benton, see Fort Benton 
Benton. Thomas H., 240, 242 

Bercier, , note 7, 1, 5, 7, 39 

Bercier. Antoine, 246 

Bercier's Springs, note 7, 246 

Berger. Jacob. 302 

Berry, George C. 275 

Berry, The. 82 

Berthold, Bartholomew, 286, 289 

Bethlehem, Penn.. 242. 244-245 

Big Bend, note 109, 62, 138, 163-164, 

275 



314 



INDEX 



Big Bend, Milk R., 253. 296 

Wig Calf, 72 

Big Feather, note 40, 22, 61, 66, 265 

Big Head, Yanktonai, 191 

Big Hills, note 270, 126, 184, 298 

Big Hole, Battle of the, 301 

Big Horn River, 175-176, 185-186, 

264, 283, 297 
Big Insides, 115 
Big Island, note 209. 180. 292 
Big Lakes band, note 48, 27, 262, 

266 
Big Muddy, Mo. R., 136, 157, 162, 

170-173. 270, 289, 293-295, 303 
Big Plume, see Big Feather 
Big Porcupine, Milk R., 296 
Big Porcupine, Yellowstone R.. 175, 

185 
Big Six, note 148, 284 
Big Snake, note 70, 40-41, 43, 55. 58. 

64, 69, 268 
Big Sun, note 115, 63, 276 
Bill, John, 165 
Birch Creek, 261-262 
Bird, James, note 24, 7, 9, 11, 19, 21, 

36, 45, 60, 71. 166, 169-170, 256 
Bird, James Curtis, 257 
Bird, James, Sr.. note 24, 256-257 
Bird, Joseph, 256-257 
Bird, Nicholas George, 256 
Bird, Thomas, 267 
Bird's son, note 60, 35, 170, 267 
Bird Tail Rock, 246 
Bismarck, N. D., 293, 301 
Bitter Root River, 267 
Bitter Root Valley, 93, 261, 269, 277, 

282 
Black Chief (Blackfoot Ind.), 257 
Blackfoot boy, note 260. 176. 286. 

297 
Blackfoot Farm. 282 
Blackfoot Indian Reservation, 260 
Blackfoot Indians, 15, 27, 55-57, 63- 

98, 118, 123, 130. 154, 165. 257, 

263, 274 
Blackfoot Mission. 279 
Blackfoot River. 254 
l'>lackfoot Treaties 

Oct. 17. 1855. 265. 271-2. 274-7 

Nov. 16, 1865, 261. 266-7, 274. 
276-7 

July 15, 1868. 274-7, 287, 293, 295 

Sept. 1, 1868, 255. 261. 266-7, 272, 
275, 277, 293-294 
Blackfoot Treaty, Canada, Sept. 22, 

1877. 262, 274-276 
F'.lack Snake Man, see Big Snake 
Blevins. Daniel O.. 249 



Blivens, Daniel, see Blevins, 

Daniel O. 
Blind Pagan, 84 
Blood Reserve, 242, 245, 267, 281 
Blood Indians, notes 21, 32, 7-45, 

59, 64-98, 127-128, 139, 164-165 

Affair at Ft. McKenzie, 247-248, 
255, 268-269, 300 

Fight with Crows, 115 
Bloody Indians, see Blood Indians 
Boats (fur company), note 93, 50-51 
Boats (government), note 74, 42-45, 

270, 274 
Bobires, see Bourbeuse 
Bobieres, see Bourbeuse 
Boise. Ida.. 245 
Boismenn, Joseph, note 27i^, 193, 

299 
Boiler. Henry A.. 295 
Bompard, see Labompard 
Bonneville, Capt., 284 
Bonneville's Travels, 251 
Bostwick, Henry, 301 
Bostwick, Mrs. Henry, 301 
Bouche, J., note 226, 148. 173, 294 
Bouchie, see Bouche, J. 
Boudin, 168 
Bouis, A. R.. 265, 303 
Bourbeuse River, notes 183, 217, 

128-9, 145. 149. 293 
Box Elder Creek, note 34, 16, 165, 

264 
Box Elder Creek, Yellowstone R., 

187 
Bow River, Canada, 262, 275 
Boy Chief, 119-121 
Bradley, Lieut. James H., 241, 246. 

263. 265. 269, 275, 284-285 
Brasseau's Houses, 297 
Braueninger, Moritz, 286 
Brazeau. J. E., 297 
Brazeau. Joseph, 297 
Brazos, note 255, 174, 184, 297 
Bricks, note 200, 140-142, 152, 171, 
271. 291 

Bricks' family, 165-167 
Bridger, James, 278, 300 

Brown, , 117 

Brown. Joseph, 99. 250 

Brownina:. Montana, xi, 250. 254, 

262. 276-278 
Brulus. 149 

Buchanan. Pres., 271-272 
Buffalo. 47. 267 

Buffalo Bill, see Keiser. William 
Buffalo Island, Missouri R., 262 
Buffalo tongues, note 39. 18, 73. 265 
Bull Sitting Down, 63, 276 
Bull's Head, note 121. 67-68 



INDEX 



315 



Burd, see Bird, James 

Bureau of American Ethnology, 287 

Burnt Houses, 155, 157 

Busha, James, 294 

Bussette, Anton, 278 

Butte and Rondin streets, Ft. Ben- 
ton, 263 

Cabanne, Jean Pierre, 286 

Cabree, note 58, 34, 267 

Cadot, Cadott, see Cadotte 

Cadotte, Pierre, note 18, 4, 8, 13, 
15-19, 21-22, 28-30, 33, 35, 40, 42, 
45, 67, 147-151, 193, 246, 254, 292 
Jean Baptiste, 254 
Louis, 255 
Peter, 255 

Cadotte's Pass, 254, 267, 277 

Calf's Robe (Blood), note 108, 60, 
97, 275 

Calf Robe's woman died, 93 

Calf's Shirt, 275 

California, 245 

Camp Pecan, 137 

Campbell, Alexander, 291 

Campbell, Robert, 231, 252, 265, 291, 
298, 300, 303 

Campbell, Mrs. Robert, 303 

Campbell, Robert, steamboat, 245 

Campbell, Thomas, note 194, 136, 
174, 194, 291 

Campbell's Houses, 291 

C. & D., note 151, 102, 284 

C & Spy, note 168, 116, 287 

Canoe band, see Band des Canots 

Carafel, David, note 181. 127, 174, 
184, 289 

Carafel, Daniel, 289 

Carafel, Vace de, 289 

Carafel, Vice de, 289, 293 

Carrafell, Carrifell, see Carafel 

Carafell's Houses, note 214, 144, 293 

Cardinal, Mrs. J. B., note 218. 145, 
293 

Cardinal. Jean Baptiste. 293 

Carondelet, Mo.. 299 

Carriage, 7 

Carroll, Matthew, 271 

Carter, Charles, note 169, 117-118. 
121. 124, 287 

Cascade, Mont.. 278 

Casino Creek, 287 

Catholic Mission, 267 

Catlin, George, 246. 264, 297 

Chaine, Pierre, see Chine, Pierre 

Chambers, Col. A. B., note 234, 153, 
270, 295 

Chambers, James H., note 77, ar- 
rives Ft. Benton, 44. 73; 166, 193, 
249. 260, 270, 284, 286, 289, 291- 
292. 297. 



Chambersburg, Penn., 286 
Champagne Houses, note 199, 140, 

291 
Chanipaigne, Baptiste, note 25, 8, 

10, 12-13, 19, 21-22, 24, 41, 69. 73, 

97, 139, 166-170, 260 
Champaigne, Josctte, 261 
Champaigne, Lizette, 261 
Champaigne, Louis, 261 
Champaigne, Mary, 261 
Champaigne, Jean Baptiste, see 

Champaigne, Baptiste 
Champaigne, Michel, 8-13, 15-17, 

19-20, 24-28, 41-42, 44, 53-54, 141, 

143, 194, 260 
Champaigne. Peter, 261 
Champaigne, Simon. 261 
Chantier, note 103, 59. 264, 275 
ChantiUy, Battle of. 268 
Chardon, F. A., 240, 247-249, 269, 

289, 292. 300, 302 
Charloi. 253 

Chene, Chiene, see Chine 
Cheyenne River. 251, 294 
Chicken coop, 8 
Chine. Caroline, note 105. 275 
Chine, La Croix, note 105. 275 
Chine, Pierre, note 105, 60, 73. 152, 

159, 162, 193-194, 275 
Chippewas. 130 
Chittenden. H. M., 246 
Choteau, Montana, 278, 280, 282 
Choteau Acantha, 279 
Choteau Montanian, 260 

see also Chouteau 
Chouquette. Anton, 278 
Chouquette, Charles, note 126, 86, 

90, 92, 97, 171-173, 270, 277, 279 
Chouquette, George, 278 
Chouquette, Henry, 278 
Chouquette, Josephine, 278 
Chouquette, Louise, 278 
Chouquette, Melinda, 278 
Chouquette, Rosa Lee, 278 
Chouquette, Rosalie Piquette, 277 
Chouteau, Auguste, 286 
Chouteau. Charles P., 286 
Chouteau, Pierre, Jr., 240, 247, 263. 

277. 286, 302 
Chouteau and Sarpy, 287 
Chouteau County, Montana, 253. 

255. 261. 281, 301 
Chouteau Countv Poll List, 262, 

271. 273, 281, 289 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 251 
Citadel, note 91, 50, 141. 274 
Clagett, Montana, 276 
Clara, steamboat. 288 
Clark William, 293 
Clarke, Helen P.. 263 



316 



INDEX 



Clarke, Horace, 263 

Clarke, Malcolm, note 30, 13, 52-53, 

55, 58, 65, 117. 145-146, 161, 234- 

235, 263, 265, 269, 293, 302 
Clarke, Primeau and Company, 265 
Clarks houses, note 47, 26-27, 266 
Claymore, see Clemow 
Clement, see Clemow 
Clement, Charles, 293 
Clemow. Basil, note 220, 146. 293- 

294 
Coal makers, note 9, 1 
Coal pit, note 43, 23, 266 
Collette, Rev. J. A., 297 
Col. Vaughan (keel boat) note 176. 

122, 124-125, 288 
Columbia Fur Co., 270, 299 
Columbia River, 271 
Constantine, John, note 227. 148, 294 
Cordelle, 45 
Cote Trambeleau, note 235, 154, 161, 

295 
Cote Daurion Post, see Fort Coteau 

Daurion. 
Cotton, Mr., 240, 300 
Cotton Bottom, see Fort Cotton 
Cotton Woods, 165, 168 
Cottonwood Creek. Yellowstone R.. 

174, 184, 187 
Coues, Elliott, 295 
Council Bluffs, 288 
Council Grounds, 51 
Couquette. Charles, see Chouquette, 

Charles 
Covered with Fat (Crow). 121, 176 
Cow Creek, 292 
Cow Island, note 209, 89, 142, 179. 

292 
Cracon du Nez, note 201. 140, 165, 

263, 291 
Crazy Bear, see Fool Bear 
Cree friend, 48 
Cree Indians. 130. 152 
Crees, North, 130 
Crosby, Col. H. R.. note 69, 40-41, 

43, 268 
Crow boat, 135-136 
Crow Council. Aug. 10, 1856. 183 
Crows, note 38A. 18, 100-124, 135, 

138. 142, 144-152, 154-159. 174-179. 

183-187. 192, 250, 264. 282-283 
Crows Flag, 10 
Crows Treaty, 275, 288 

see also Blackfoot Treaty 
Culbertson, Alexander, x, notes 2-3, 

arrived at Ft. Renton, 1; 4-6, 9, 

11-12, 14-15, 17; arrived at Ft. 

Union, 23; arrived at Ft. Renton. 

40-42; 44-45, 48-49, 86, 88-90. 111. 



117, arrived on Steamboat St. 

Mary and left for Fort Benton, 

132-134; 137, 139-141, left for the 

Judith, 147; 234-235. 240-241, 246- 

247, 249, 260, 262-263, 265-266, 

269-271, 275, 279, 282-286. 292, 

300-302 
Culbertson, Mrs. Alexander, note 3, 

1, 7-8, 133. 241-242. 255. 276, 279 
Culbertson. Anna, 241. 245 
Culbertson, Fannie, 242, 244-245 
Culbertson, Jack, 242, 244-245 
Culbertson, Jane, 242. 244 
Culbertson, John C. 240 
Culbertson. Joseph. 240, 242, 244-245 
Culbertson, Julia. 242. 244-245 
Culbertson, Maria. 244 
Culbertson. Alary Finley, 240 
Culbertson, Nancy. 244-245 
Culbertson, R. A., xi 
Culbertson, Samuel D.. 241 
Culbertson, Thaddeus A., 241. 287 
Culbertson's Mill. 240 
Culbertson's Postoffice. 240 
Culbertson's Row, 240 
Culbertson's Mr. B in Law, 6, 8, 13, 

26, 61. 66, 75. 98, 137 
Cullen, William J.. 273 
Cumberland House, 256 
Cumming. Col. .\lfred. note 78, 41, 

44. 46. 132. 140. 147-149. 245. 260. 

271-273. 289-290. 297 
Cut Bank. 267. IIZ 
Cut Bank River. 278 
Cut Hill. 175, 184 
Cypress Mountains, note 61, 36, 40, 

91, 253. 267, 274 
Daemen, Rev., 286 
Dagneau. J., 152-153. 193-194. 295 
Dauphin. Antoine, 292, 298 
Dauphin, Louis, note 212, 143, 157. 

182, 193, 292 
Dauphin Post. 270 
Dauphin's Rapids, note 264. 179, 298 
Dawson. Andrew, note 42. x. 23, 26. 

49. 53, 55, 75. 86. 88, 93, 132, 142. 

145, 165-166. 171. 234-235. 242. 249. 

261. 263. 266. 270, 277-278, 281, 

295, 299 
Dawson, Andrew. Jr.. 266, 295 
Dawson. James. 266 
Dawson's Mr., boats. 168-170 
Dawson's Mr., comrade, note 111, 

62, 98, 275 
Dawson's Mr., family, see Andrew 

Dawson 
Dawson's Mr., wife, note 44, 24-25, 

266 



INDEX 



317 



Dawson County, Montana, census, 

1870, 289, 291, 294 
Dearborn River, 246, 254, 271 
Deep River, note 89, 48, 263, 111 
Deer Little Woman, 286 
Deer Lodge, 246, 278 
Deer Lodge County Poll list (1864), 

296 
Deer Lodge River, 252 
Degnue, see Dagneau, J. 
Delavifare Jim, note 133, 92 
Demos, 47 
Denig, Edwin T., note 162, 109-110, 

124, 127, 132, 149, 151, 234, 240, 

246, 265, 276, 284, 286-287, 289, 296 
Denig, Robert, note 187. 132, 151, 

173, 289 
Denig's, Mr., son, see Denig, Robert 
Depouille, note 158, 105, 285-286 
De Roche, Benjamin, note 86. 46, 

273 
De Roche, Benjamin, Jr., 273 
De Rochi, B., see De Roche, 

Benjamin 
Deschamps, Philip, 254, 262 
De Smet, Rev. P. J., 242, 244, 246, 

259, 263-264, 266-267, 272, 275, 

282, 285, 287, 289. 294, 305 
De Smet map, 286, 298 
Dick, 122 

Dobbies, see Adobe bricks 
Dobey town, note 193, 136, 291 
Dobies, see Adobe bricks 
Doct Fool, 113-114 
Doctor Long Elk, see Long Elk 
Dog's Head (Crow chief), 158-159, 

176, 185 
Dog's Lodge, 155 
Dog River, note 248, 166, 296 
Domenech, Abbe', 301 
Donelson, Lieut., 277 
Donnelly, J. J., 299 
Dophin, see Dauphin 
Dorris, 287 
Doty, James, note 67, 40, 43. 50. 249. 

254, 260, 268-269 
Doty, James Duane, 268 
Doughboy, see Adobe bricks 
Dove's Head. 100 
Drips, Andrew, 265, 280, 302 
Drumm, Stella M., xi, 304 
Dry Bones (Assiniboine Ind.), 160 
Dry Fork, note 213. 129, 143, 168, 

181. 261, 293 
Dry Fork, Yellowstone R.. 187 
Dubreuil. Emilie, 280 
Dull, Thomas, 193 
Dunn, John. 258 
Dupuyer. Montana. 261 



Durfee and Peck, 291 
Durocher, August, 273 
Durocher, Marie Louise Hortiz, 273 
Eagle Chief (Gros Ventre), note 81, 

44, 54. 272. 276 
Eagle Creek, note 247, 140, 166, 281, 

296 
Eagle Ribs, 243 

Earth Woman (Mrs. Jas. Kipp),270 
East, Ernest E., xi 
Eastman, Frank H., 301 
Ebey & Brothers, 105 
Eclipse of moon, 29 
Edgerton County. 263 
Edmonton House, see Fort Edmon- 
ton 
Elk Fork, Saskatchewan R. 270 
Elk Lake, Canada, 253 
Emmells Creek, Yellowstone R., 

note 161. 109, 178, 187, 286, 297 
Emmells Island, Mo. R., 180, 298 
Emmills Prairie, note 256, 175, 184, 

286, 297 
English gentleman, note 276, 192 
E See Tah, 106 
Etlinger, Germany, 278 
Faillant, note 156, 104, 107, 110. 285 
Falls of the Missouri, see Great 

Falls, Mo. R. 
Father of All People, note 112, 63, 

243, 275 
Fatherland, Bill, 298 
Feather, The, see Big Plume 
Featherland's houses, note 266. 181, 

298 
Featherland's Island, 298 
Femmisee, see Sitting Woman 
Fergus County, Montana, 262 
Ferguson, Peter, 303 
Ferguson, William F., 304 
Fine Horse Island, 141 
Fisk Expedition (1863), 295 
Flathead country. 1, 79 
Flathead trader, 3 
Flatheads, 34-35, 43. 47, 68, 75, 78, 

98, 258. 271, 274 
Florida Indian Campaign, 240 
Fontenelle, Mr., 251-252 
Fool Bear, note 196, 136. 155, 291. 

296 
Forchette's Point, note 210, 142, 292 
Fort Alexander, 265, 282. 284. 293 
Fort Alexander Inventories, 195-198, 

236 
Fort Alexander Sarpie. 282 
Fort Belknap, Montana, 242, 253 
Fort Belknap, Texas, note 171, 117, 

287 



318 



INDEX 



Fort Belknap Indian Agencv, 260, 

262 
Fort Benton, note 1, xi, 1, 58, 114, 

118. 132-133, 139-141, 145. 147, 150, 

152, 157, 159, 162, 166, 169, 171, 

179, 194, 239-242, 244-247, 249-250, 

253-256, 261-283, 287-289. 291-292, 

294-296, 298-301 
Fort Benton Inventories, 199-208, 

236 
Fort Benton Journal, ix. 1. 239, 266 
Fort Berthold, note 182, 128-129, 

132, 236. 289-290, 294, 297, 299, 

302 
Fort Boise, 260 
Fort Bouis. 267 
Fort Browning, 253 
Fort Brule, 249. 300 
Fort Buford, 246, 296 
Fort Cambell, see Fort Campbell 
Fort Campbell, note 31, 46, 153, 165, 

263, 265, 280, 303 
Fort Chardon, 240, 249, 269, 289, 

300, 302 
Fort Clark, note 215, 145, 157, 191, 

236, 262, 265-266, 293. 299 
Fort Clark Journal, 239 
Fort Coteau Daurion, 236 
Fort Cotton, 240, 247, 249, 300 
Fort Edmonton, 255, 257, 259-260, 

289, 297 
Fort F. A. C, see Fort Chardon 
Fort Galpin, 293 
Fort Garry, 253, 260 
Fort Hall, 258 
Fort Hawlev. 253. 274-275. 277. 287, 

294-295 
Fort Henry, 247, 300 
Fort Honore, see Fort Henry 
Fort John, 240 

Fort Laramie, 240-241, 270, 295-296 
Fort Laramie Treaty, 283, 287, 291, 

294 
Fort Lewis, 240-241, 263, 269, 292 
Fort Lookout, 244, 290, 302 
Fort McLeod, 273 
Fort McKenzie. note 71. 42. 239-240, 

247, 251, 253-254. 262. 268-269. 272, 

274, 292, 300, 302 

Blood Indian affair at, 1843, 1844, 
247-248, 276 
Fort Madison, Iowa, 280 
Fort Mortimer, 298 
Fort Owen, 267. 269. 211. 280, 299 
Fort Peck, 242 
Fort Piegan, 169 
Fort Pierre. 236, 241, 272. 282, 290, 

293-294. 299-300. 302-303, 305 
Fort Pierre Journal, 257 



Fort Primeau, 265 

Fort Randall, 280 

Fort Rice, 293 

Fort Rolette, see Rolette's ileuses 

Fort Sarpy, note 145, 100-101, 105, 
111-112, 118. 124. 271, 282-285, 
288-289, 299 
burned, 126 

Fort Sarpy Journal, ix, 100, 239 

Fort Stephenson. 290, 297 

Fort Stewart. 298 

Fort Tecumseh, 290, 302 

Fort Tecumseh Journal, 257 

Fort Union, note 4, 1, 8, 13, 23-24, 
32, 42, 44, 51-53, 58, 60, 63, 65. 67, 
70, 11, 80, 89, 105, 110, 113, 117- 
118, 123-124. 127-130, 139-145, 149, 
151, 154-158, 164, 166-167, 171, 
177-179, 182, 184, 186-187. 192, 
194, 240-244, 246-248, 251. 255, 
257, 261-263, 265-266, 270-271. 275, 
277, 279-280, 282-291, 293-302. 305 

Fort Union Inventories. 209-230, 
236 

Fort Van Buren, 284 

Fort Vancouver. 258 

Fort Walla Walla. 258 

Fort William, note 268, 179. 184. 
265, 278, 283, 290-291, 298, 303-304 

Fort William on the Laramie River, 
251 

Fort Yates, N. D., 305 

Fouchette's Point, see Forchette 
Point 

Four Bears, note 222, 147, 270, 294 

Four Dances (Crow Chief), 105. 
111-112, 114, 158-159 

Four Nations, 31 

Four Persons, 274 

Four Rivers, note 173, 120. 287 

Fourth of July, Zl , 82 

Fox, Livingstone & Co., 240, 249 

Fox River, note 269, 184, 298 

Frenchman's Point, note 125, 85. 
162, 180, 182, 277 

Frost, Todd & Company, 265 

Frush, C. W.. 261 

Gaipard. Jean, 99 

Galena, 111., 251 

Gallatin Citv, 252. 287 

Galpin. Charles E.. note 282. 234- 
235. 305 

Gap, The, Big Horn R., 175, 185 

Gardape. note 216, 145. 293 
see also Guardipee 

Garden. Z2>, 130 

Gardipee. Eli, xi 

Garreau. Josette. 266 

Garreau. Pierre, 266 



INDEX 



319 



Garspard, 99 

Gens des Canots, 296 

Gens des Filles, 296 

Gens des Roches. 296 

Gens du Gauche. 296 

Gens du Nord, 296 

Gens Le has Rouge. 29() 

Gentard, A., note 136, 99. 281 

Gentard, Paul, 281 

George, 47 

Gillette, W. C, 272 

Girard, Frederic P., note 190. 133, 

136, 139, 146-148, 290 
Glacier Park, 263, 266 
Glasgow, Montana, 296 
Glendive Creek, 287 
Godin, Antoine, 258 
Goodreau, see Gourdereau, J. 
Gordon (Crow Indian), 106-107, 109, 

114, 176, 186 
Gore, Sir Geo., see Gore, Sir St. 

George 
Gore, Sir St. George, note 252. 174, 

184, 192, 265, 296-297, 299 
Government camp, Missouri R.. 170, 

172 
Government goods, note 56, 2, 31. 

267 
Government men, note 59, 34, 267 
Government wagons, note 56. 34, 

267 
Gourdereau, Joseph, note 141. 99, 

193, 282 
Grand Island, note 209, 292 
Grand River, 305 
Grand Tour, note 249. 168, 296 
Grant, Mrs. John, 278 
Grass Lodge Creek, note 259, 176, 

185, 297 

Great Falls, Mo. R., 245, 279, 303 
Great Falls, Montana City. 278 
Green River, 252 
Grey Chief (Crow Indian), note 

172, 119, 287 
Grey Cloud, steamboat. 288 
Grey Eyes (Blood Indian), 243 
Grey Head (Crow), 158-159, 287 
Grinnell, G. B., 267 
Gros Ventres, note 14, 4-30, 40, 48, 

52, 61-98, 118, 128-129, 145, 147, 

150, 167, 250, 263 
Gros Ventres Treaty, see Blackfoot 

Treaties 
Gros-vents, Grovonts, see Gros 

Ventres 
Guardipee, Alex, 293 
Guardipee, Eli, 260 
Guitard, Paul, 281 



Half breeds, 88-89, 136, 191 
Hamell, Augustin, note 27A, 9, 254. 

281, 298 
Hamell, Ellen, 262 
Hamell, Margaret, 262 
Hamell, Monica, 281 
Hamills Houses, note 21, 261-262 

see also Augustin Hamell 
Hamilton. James A., 280 
Hamilton, Major Joseph V., note 

129, 90, 280 
Hamilton, Major Thomas, 280 
Hamilton. Wm. T., 255, 272, 275, 

285, 287 
Harkness, James, 246, 270-271 
Harkness and La Barge, 293 
Harnev. Gen., note 230, 149. 294. 

297 
Harriott, Mr. J. E., 259 
Harvey, Alexander M., note 281, 

231, 240, 248-249, 263, 265, 269, 

295, 300, 302-304 
Harvey, Edeline, 303 
Harvey, Susan, 303 
Harvey, T. H., 302 
Harvey, Primeau & Co., 231-232, 
263. 265, 267, 293, 298, 304-305 

See also Harvey, Alexander M. 

See also St. Louis Fur Company 
Harvey's Point, note 237, 155-156. 

295 
Hatch, Major E. A. C, note 76. 43. 

50, 53, 55, 57, 65, 88-90, 132. 161. 

250, 255-256. 268, 270, 273. 275- 

276, 279-280. 294 
Havre, Montana. 264, 296 
Hawk Woman. 260 
Hawken, Samuel, 292 
Hawkins, note 203. 141. 292 
Hayden, Dr. F. V., note 189. 132. 

250. 265, 276, 282, 286-287. 289. 

295 
Haystack Butte, 278 
Heart Butte, Montana, 250 
Heart River, 270, 299 
Heavy Runner, 276 
Helena. Montana, xi 
Helena Herald, 246 
Henry, see Mills, Henry 
Henry, Alexander, 256, 262 
Henry's boy born, note 52, 28, 267 
Henry's cache, Yellowstone R., 184 
Henry's cut. 154, 157. 182 
Hermaphrodite cow, 150 
Hermaphrodite keel boat, note 46. 

25. 266 
Hervey's Point, see Harvey's Point 
Hidatsa Indians, see Crow Indians 
High Buttes. 298 



320 



INDEX 



High Pumpkins, note 163, 111, 158. 
186. 287. 

See also Pumpkin 
"High Wood" Creek, 55, 249 
Highwood Mountains, note 13, 247, 

250, 300 
Hilger, David, 264 
Historical Society of Montana, ix, 

263, 266, 271 
Historical Society of Montana Con- 
tributions. 263. 266, 269 
Hodgkins, W. D., note 283. 234-235, 

246. 305 
Hoecken, Rev.. 261. 289 
Hole in the Wall, note 204, 142, 292 
Holy Family Mission, 256, 260, 278 
Horse Guard, note 16, 3, 254 
Horse Guard (Crow), note 165, 113, 

176, 186, 287 
Hosmer Journal, 250, 294 
Howard, Joseph, note 132. 92, 193, 

280 
Howard, Thomas, 280 
Howburg, Mrs. Louise, 278 
Hubbell and Hawley, 253, 301 
Hudson's Bay Company, 253, 255- 

259, 262 
Hunter, note 5. 1, 246 

Idaho, 245 

Immell, Michael E., 286 

Imoda, Rev., 275 

Independence Anniversary, see 
Fourth of July 

Indian agency site, 55 

Indian Outbreak, note 92, 50. 274 

Inventories, see Fort Alexander In- 
ventories, Fort Benton Inven- 
tories, Fort Union Inventories 

Iowa, steamboat, 243 

lowas. Sacs and Foxes, 272 

Iron Boy (Crow Chief), 158-159 

Iron Head (Crow). 176 

Trvin, Louis S.. 245 

Tabots houses, note 167. 115, 127, 
287 

Jabotte, A. D., 287 

Jackson, Thomas, note 53. 28, 31-32, 
35, 40, 43. 45, 267. 269 

Jackson, William, 267 

Jacksonville, 111.. 251 

James River, 299 

Jemmy Jock, Jim Jack, see Bird. 
James, Jr. 

Jesuit Missionaries, 263, 277 

Jesuit priests. 280 

Jones, Rev. D., 293 

lournalist, 45, 274 

Judith Basin, 286-287 



Judith Council, 183, 255, 260, 271- 

274, 289 
Judith Fort, note 205, 142, 147, 179, 

292 
Judith River, 39-40, 43, 49, 90-91, 99, 

179, 240, 247, 249, 256, 268, 270, 

273-274, 280, 300, 302 
Judith Treaty, note 205, 142, 147, 

179. 292 
Kaiser, William, see Keiser, William 
Kalispell, Montana, xi 
Kane, Paul, 259, 268 
Kate Kearney, steamboat, 288 
Keel boat, note 37, 17, 70-71, 264 
Keiser, Wm., note 144, 99. 193, 292 
Keitse Pern Sa, 277 
Kelchiponesta's son. note 124, 76, 

267, 277 
Kennerly, Alziere Menard, 273 
Kennerly, George Hancock, 273 
Kennerly, Henry A., note 84. 45, 

48. 140, 272-273 
Kerr, Mrs., 279 
Kinerly, see Kennerly, H. A. 
King of the Missouri, 266 
Kipp, James, note 75, 43, 132, 142, 

146, 149, 158. 161-162, 234-235. 

240, 245, 251. 257. 270. 293, 300 
Kipp, Joseph, 270, 275 
Kips Point, 91 
Kitch-eepone-istah, 

see Kelchiponesta 
Knees, note 36, 17, 264 
Knife River, 262. 289 
Knot on the Hand (Crow), 110, 183 
Kootenai Indians. 255-256, 274 
Kootenai River, 247 
Kurz, R. E., Journal, 239, 243, 246. 

254, 265, 271, 282, 284-289, 292- 

295, 301 
La Barge, Joseph, 292 
La Barge, Harkness & Co., 267. 301 
La bombarde, Alexis, 295 
La bombarde, Louis, note 232, 151- 

153, 157, 174, 193-194, 295 
LaBreche, Louis. 278 
Lamarche. 104, 108. 112, 119, 121 
Lame Bull, note 80. 44. 48, 53, 60. 

98, 271-272 
Lame Hand. 62-63 
La Motte. Maria Louisa, 

see Hamell. Augustin 
Landreau, Lein, 99 
Lansdale. R. II., note 79, 44, 83-84. 

271 
Lantesco. 99 
Laparche. Joe, 99 
Laramie River. 251-252 



INDEX 



321 



Laramie Treaty, see Fort Laramie 

Treaty 
Largie, note 261, 177-178. 187. 297 
Larock, Joseph, 255 
Larpenteur, Charles, 240, 246. 264, 

271-272, 282-284, 289, 292, 302 
Larpenteur Journals, 284 
Larue, Sophie, 255 
Laugevine, Michael, 253 
Law's Point. 127 
L'eau qui Monte River, 289 
Lee, James, 302 

Le Gras, note 195. 136, 287, 289. 291 
Lemontry, 99 
Lewis. E. A., 298 
Lewis and Clark County. 263 
Lewis and Clark County census. 263 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, 280, 

293 
Little Antelope, 57 
Little Beaver Creek, note 245, 165. 

296 
Little Blackfoot River. 252, 296 
Little Dog, note 20, 6. 14. 45, 55. 

64, 72. 84, 89. 127-129, 255, 266, 

269 
Little Dog's brother died, 93 
Little Dog's son, 125 
Little Gray Head, note 23, 7, 56. 69, 

95. 256. 287 
Little Horn River. 176. 183, 185-187, 

283 
Little Knife River. 289 
Little Missouri River. 265 
Little Muddy. 134, 136. 153-154. 156- 

157. 161-162, 171, 289, 294-295 
Little Pagan. 32 

Little Porcupine, note 250, 169. 296 
Little Powder River. 117. 271 
Little Prickly Pear Canyon. 263 
Little Pricklv Pear Creek, 282, 295 
Little Robe, note 35, 16, 18, 56, 58- 

59, 61, 264 
Little Rocky Creek, 291 
Little Rockv Mountains. 31. 164. 

167 
Little Rockv Mountain Gap. 167, 

296 
Locust Grove, 241 
Lodge Grass Creek 

see Grass Lodge Creek- 
Lone Chief, see Lame Bull 
Lone Tree Cut, note 271. 185. 298 
Long Elk. note 164, 112-114, 287 
Long Horse (Crow chief), note 239. 

158-159, 295 
Long, James L., xi, 291 
Long Lake, 191 
Lophyr, see Rencontre, Zephyr 



Lorian. Jos., note 137, 99, 193, 253, 

281 
Lott, Howard B., xi 
Loud Voice, see Big Snake 
Low Horn, note 98. 56. 65. 69, 274 
Lowman, Mrs. Mary, 257 
Lutheran Missionaries, 286 
McAdow, P. W.. 271 
McClintock, Walter, 274 
McCulloch. Thomas G.. 242 
McDonnell, Mrs. Anne. x. xi, 239 
Alachetetsi Antu, see Bear's Head 
M'Kay. Mr.. 258 
McKenzie. Kenneth, x, 240, 246, 257, 

281, 293 
McKenzie, Owen, note 219, 145, 271, 

293, 295 
McKenzie's old houses, note 236, 

154, 182. 295 
Mackey, Rev. Elkanah, note 128, 

88-89, 174. 279-280 
Mackinaw boat, note 38, 17, 61. 264 
Mackinaw District, Mich.. 261 
McLemore. Clyde, xi 
McLeod, John, 258 
McNeal. E. W.. 298 
Mamells, note 273, 187. 298 
Mandans. 129 
Maria, see Marias River 
Marias River. 14. 16-18, 20, 26, 35- 
36, 46-48. 50. 52, 140-141. 165-166, 

251. 256, 261-262. 268, 275-276, 

300 
Margaret (Indian woman), 280 
Marie Nitchetoaki (Indian woman), 

261 
Marsh. Dr. E. J., 245 
Martin. Dan. 296 
Martin. Pete, note 253. 194, 296 
Matthews. Dr. Washington, 294 
Max Big Man. 285 
Maximilian, Prince of Wied, 240, 

246. 257. 272. 274, 289, 298, 302 
Mavnadier. Lieut. H. E., 264, 283, 

289, 294 
Medal, 122 
Medicine Creek. 267 
Medicine Lake. 294 
Medicine Snake Woman. 

See Culbertson, Mrs. Alexander 
Meldrom. Mr., 

See Meldrum, Robert 
Meldrum, Marv. 284 
Meldrum, Robert, note 153, 103-107, 

109-111, 113-117. 119-124, 126- 

127. 134-135, 139, 146-147. 151. 

246, 282-285 
Meldrum. William, 284 
Meldrum, Mr., brother-in-law. 123 



322 



INDEX 



Menard, note 143, 99, 282 
Menard, Louis, 282 
Menard, Pierre, 273 
Men-es-to'-kos 

See Father of All People 
Mena-es-to-ka, see Mountain Chief 
Menetrev, Rev. Joseph, note 131, 91, 

280 
Mercier. Charles, note 279. 193, 239, 

247, 292, 299-301 
Mercure, L. V., note 138, 99, 193- 

194. 247. 281 
Michel, see Champaigne. Michel 
Milk River, 4-5, 13, 15, 19, 25. 32, 

34, 40-41, 45. 49-50, 62-63, 137- 

139. 143, 152, 162-164, 168-169. 

250. 253-254, 261-262. 264, 271- 

212, 275, 287, 291-293, 296 
Miller, see Muller 
Mills, Dave, note 135, 99, 267 
Mills, Henry, note 135, 47, 99, 193- 

194, 267, 273, 281 
Minister and wife, see Rev. Mackey 
Minnesota Historical Society, xi, 

270 
Minnesota Outfit, 299 
Minnesota Territory, 299 
Missouri Falls, note 96, 55, 274 
Missouri Fur Company. 275, 286 
Missouri Historical Society, xi, 304 
Missouri Republican (newspaper), 

287-288. 295. 304 
Missouri River. 31. 129, 160. 166, 
168-170, 174. 242-247, 250-251, 
253. 261-264, 267. 271. 286. 290- 
291. 294-300. 302 

See. also. Upper Missouri River 
Mitchell. David D.. 240, 257. 268, 

302 
Moakes, note 147, 100. 283 
Momberg, Mrs., 279 
Moncrevie, 260 
Monroe, see Hugh Munro 
Montana, 245, 247 
Montana Legislature, 256. 2T^ 
Montreal. Canada. 255. 282 
Moravian Seminary. 242, 244-245 
Morcau, Morreau. 30, 41 
Morgan, note 231. 151. 181. 295 
Morgan, Charles, 295 
Morgan, John B., 295 
Morgan, Robert, 242, 266, 295 
Mose, note 152, 103-104. 284 
Mosier. Major, note 155, 104-105, 

285. 288 
Motsena. 139 
Moultier. Charles 

See Mercier, Charles 
Mountain, note 13, 2. 



Mountain Chief (Blackfoot), note 

119, xi, 66, 276 
Mountain Tail (Crow), note 175, 

122-124, 186, 288 
Mr. C's b in law 

See Culbertson, Mr. B in Law 
Muddy River, see Bourbeuse River 
Mules, 7, 9 

MuUan, Lieut., John, 249 
Muller, Jacob, note 142, 99, 194, 282 
Muller, Jack, 282 
Muller, Margaret, 279, 282 
MuUor, see Muller, Jacob 
Munro, Amelia, 267 
Munro, Hugh, note 22, 7-8, 19, 22, 

24, 28, 31, 35, 42, 45-49, 140, 194- 

195, 255, 259-260, 267 
Munro, Hugh, Sr., 255 
Munro, Mr., brother-in-law, 80-82 

youngest boy died, 96-97 
Munroe, see Munro, Hugh 
Murray, James, 284 
Murrell, note 150, 102 

See Meldrum, Robert 
Muscleshell River 

See Musselshell River 
Musselshell River. 47, 142, 180. 249, 

265, 274, 277 
Napper, note 197. 136. 139. 155, 157, 

291 
Narbesse, 253 
Natawista 

See Culbertson, Mrs. Alexander 
Neay. W. L., 251 
Nebraska. 245, 303 
Nebraska City, 290 
Nee Ti Nee, see Lame Bull 
Negroes, see Alills. Dave 

See Mills, Henry 

See Mose 

See Reese. Tom 
Nenonesta, 11 
Neubert. John, 287 
New Mexico, 251 
New Orleans, 240. 251 
New Year's party. 58. 153 
New York Citv. 240, 278, 286 
Nez Perce. 121-122. 258. 273 
Ni-na-sta'-ko-i, see Mountain Chief 
Nine Blackfoot Creek. Yellowstone 

R., note 257, 175, 185, 297 
Noh-Ska-stum-ik, see Three Bulls 
Nokes, note 177, 123, 288 
North Blackfeet Indians, see Blood 

Indians 
North Blood, see Blood Indians 
North Dakota, 266 
North Fork of the Platte River. 265. 

294 



INDEX 



2>22, 



North Pagans, see Piegan Indians 
Northwest Company, 240. 257 
Northwest Fur Company, 247, 249, 

262. 301 
Norway House, 268 
Norwood, James H.. 272 
Nute, Grace L., xi 
O'Fallon, Benjamin, 297 
O'Fallon's Creek, note 258, 175, 185, 

297 
O'Hanlon, Tom, 253 
Old Limpy, 121 
Old Peke, 155-156 
Old Sunn (Blackfoot), note 114, 63, 

276 
Olvert, Louis, 99 
Olympia, Wash.. 269. 271 
One of the Fathers 

See Menetrey, Rev. Joseph 
Onistah, see Calf's Shirt 
Onistai Pokuh, see White Calf 
Only Chief, see Lame Bull 
Opposition boats, 29, ii 
Opposition Company, note 41, 22, 

2,2,, 2>7, 39. 44. 64, 70. 136. 150. 160, 

263, 265, 280, 284 

Opposition House, note 31, 15, 25, 

61 
Orleans. Nebraska, 242 
Osage Indian Agency, 272 
Osborne, James, note 170, 117, 126, 

287-288 
Oswego, Montana, xi. 
"Outfit," 299 
Owen, Major John, note 122, 68, 75- 

76, 79, 91-93, 95-96, 193, 249, 261, 

277, 280 

Owen Journals, 299 
Owen's, Mr., man, note 133, 92, 281 
Pablois Island, note 45, 25, 266, 289 
Pablo's Rapids, 266 
Pacific Railroad. 268 
Pack robes, note 54, 28, 267 
Pagan Indians, see Piegan Indians 
Painted Lodge (Piegan Indian), 

25, 27 
Palliscr, Capt. John, 289, 293 
Pambrun, Pierre C. 257 
Pambrun. Thomas. 259-260 
Panther Hills. 296 
Parflesche, note 49. 101. 284 
Paris. Daniel F.. 282 
Paris. F.. note 140. 99. 282 
Parksville. Mo.. 245. 270 
Partizan, note 180. 125. 289 
Paul, note 19. 6, 24. 255 
Paul, Amiel. 253 
Paul, Mrs. Louise. 254 



P. C. Jr. & Co., see Pierre Chou- 
teau, Jr., and Company. 
Peacott, see Picotte, Joseph 
Pearson, W. H., note 72, 43, 269. 

274 
Pecotte, see Picotte, Joseph 
Pehama et Seienike, 261 
Pellew, 253 

Pellot. Paul, note 19, 255 
Pend d'Oreilles. note 88, 48, 269, 

273-274 
Pennsylvania. 241 

Peoria, Illinois, xi, 241-242, 244-245 
Peoria Daily Transcript, 244 
Perault, see Perrault 
Perrault, Charles, 289 
Perrault, Dan, 289 
Perrault, James P., note 179. 99. 

123-124, 135. 145, 262, 289 
Perrow, David, see Perrault 
Perry, note 29, 10, 262 
Perry, Charles, 262 
Pickon, 59 
Picotte, Angus, 193 
Picotte, Emilia. 267 
Picotte, Honore. 240-241. 265. 267, 

302 
Picotte. Toseph. note 50, 28, 70, 94. 

265. 267, 303 
Picotte, Marie. 267 
Picotte. Paul, 267 
Picotte. Suzanna. 267 
Piegan Indian Agency, 255 
Piegans. 7-40. 55-59. 64-98, 127. 141, 

145, 181, 263 
Pierre Chouteau, Tr., and Company, 

note 160, 106, 109, 115, 193-236, 

240-241, 261, 263. 265-267. 271. 

282. 285-286. 289-290. 299, 303, 305 
Pierre's Hole. Battle of. 252-253. 

258 
Pierre. S. D.. 295 
Pig pen, 8 
Platte Outfit. 299 

Platte River. 110. 145. 186. 239-240. 
251. 2-S.3. 271. 298 

See. also. North Fork of the 
Platte River 
Plenty Eagles. 72 
Point. Rev. Nicholas. 240. 261 
Polache. Paul, see Pellot, Paul 
Point Frenchman 

See Frenchman's Point 
Poplar River, see Tremble River 
Porcupine CMo. R.), 162, 170, 172, 

296 
Porcupine (Milk R.). 163. 296 
Potatoes, 146 
Pouderie, note 238. 155. 295 



324 



INDEX 



Powder River, 126, 136, 174 184 

265, 283, 297-298 ' 

Powder Horn River 
See Powder River 
Power, T. C, 278 
Pratte, Bernard, 286 
Pratte. Chouteau and Company 286 
Presbyterian Church, 279-280 
Press, note 55, 28, 267 

See, also. Packs robes 
Primeau, Charles, note 281 A 231 
265, 303, 305 ' 

Princess Mag, 111, 113-114 
Princess May, 106-107 
Princeton University 241 ^79 
Provo, 251-252 

Pumpkins, note 157, 104, 115, 159, 
285 

Quacken Asp, 137 

Quaking Ash, 182 

Quebec, Canada, 247 

Racine, Baptiste, 193-194 

Ramsey, Joseph, note 225, 148 171 

193-194, 289, 294 
Ramuso, Jose, 294 
Rattlesnake, 178 
Ray, see Wray, J. F. 
Raynolds, Wm. F., 283, 285 
Raynolds-Maynadier Expedition, 

290 
Raynolds-Maynadier map, 286 296 
Red Bull, 69 
Red Crow, 243 
Redfield, A. H., 272, 283-284, 287, 

Red Horn, note 100, 58 274 
Red River, 151, 246, 253, 257 

286, 293. 295 
Red River half-breeds, note 

191, 299 
Reese, Tom (negro), 248 
Rencontre, Zephyr, note 192, 

Revais, see Rivet, Louis 
Ricarees, see Arikarees 
Rider, The, note 107, 60, 275 
Rising Head, note 51, 28. 80 98 
267 ' ' 

Ritch, John B., xi, 260, 276 
^'^!^J.' Frederick G., note 185. 130, 



266, 
275, 

136. 



152, 193-194, 



134, 143-144. 148 

246, 289 
Ritter, Fred, 289 
Rivet, Louis, note 15, 2, 4 12-13 IS 

17. 20-24 26-29, 53, 55, 60-62.' 68,' 

96-97, 142, 161. 166. 239. 250 26^ 
Rivet s Houses, 19 
Roberts, George H., 245 



Roberts, Mrs. George H. 

See Culbertson, Julia 
Robson, Henry, 245 
Rocky Mountain Fur Company, 252, 

298 
Rocky Mountain House, 259 
Rocky Mountains, 250-251, 254, 264, 

Rollette. John C, note 229, 149, 151 

153-158, 161-162, 285, 294 
Rolette's houses, note 267, 182, 298 
Rondain, Rondean, Rondin, Charles 

See Charles Mercier 
Rose, Alexander, note 11, 2 9 11-14 
18-19, 21-22. 24, 53, 60, 62, 'SS 99* 
152, 154. 165-166, 193-194 ' 

Rose, Charley, 250 
Rose, Edward, 250 
Rose, William, 250 
Rosebud River, 175-177, 185-187 

282, 284, 286, 297-298 
Rose's, Mr., father-in-law, 96-97 
Rose's, Mr., sister-in-law died, 95 
Rose's, Mr., woman, 59 
Rose's grave, 250 
Rose's Point, 250 
Rotten Belly, note 101, 59 274 
Rotten Hand, 109 
Rotten Tail, note 166, 114, 159, 186, 

287 
Roubideau, 250 
Round Butte, note 211, 143 168- 

169, 181, 292. 296, 298 
Round Iron, see Meldrum, Robert 
Rowand. John. 259 
Rundle, Rev., 258-259 
Sacred Heart Convent. 261 
St. Charles, Mo., 277 
St. Ignatius Mission, 280 
St. Joseph, Mo.. 272. 274 
St Louis, 11, 58. 68. 149-151, 156- 
157, 171. 240-241. 243-244, 247- 
253, 263, 265. 269, 273, 277-282 
285-286. 289. 292, 295-296 299' 
301-304 
St. Louis cathedral, 280 
St. Louis directory, 254, 270 
St- Louis Fur Company, note 41, 

^SJ^°-V4',''4n'^'^^'"' 193-236, 265-266, 

270, 273. 281-282, 285. 294-295. 299 
St. Louis University, xi 
St Mary's Lake. Glacier Nat. Park 

256 
Saint Mary, steamboat, note 188, 

132. 192, 270, 288-290, 297 
St. Mary's Mission, 277 
St. Mary's (village), note 63 37 44 

76. 83. 267 ■ • . 



INDEX 



325 



St. Pauls, 151, 253, 270, 273 

St. Peter's Mission, 278 

St. Peter's River, 240 

St. Valentine's Day, 112 

Salmon River, 281 

Salt Lake City, 247 

Sand Creek, 30, 163, 166 

Sand Butte Lake. 294 

Sand Hills, note 221. 146. 294 

Sandoval, Isadore, 302 

Sandoval, Richard, xi. 

Sarcees, note 244, 164, 259, 277, 296 

Sarci, 296 

Sargeant's Bluff, 288 

Sargeant Hills, 288 

Sarpy, J. B., 282 

Sartair, 277 

Saskatchewan River, 250, 255-256, 

259, 268-270, 277. 282 
Saxton, Lieut., 254 
Scanlon, Rev., 244-245 
Schmidt. Carroll, 279 
Schmidt, George, 279 
Schmidt, Jacob, note 127, 86, 99, 

193-194, 278, 282 
Schmidt, missionary, 286 
Schultz, James W.. xi, 262, 275-276, 

287 
Scotland, 263, 266 
Scott, John, note 272, 186, 298 
Searces, see Sarcees 
Selkirk Settlement, 257 
Sets Every Way, 111. 121 
Shaw, George, 288 
Shayenne River 

See Cheyenne River 
Shell River, 289 
Shelby County, Ky., 284 
Shike, George, 124, 288 
Shonkin coal mines, 281 
Shonkin Creek, 253, 275 
Shouquet, see Chouquette, Charles 
Shreveport, steamboat, 272 
Silver City, Mont., 278 
Silverthorne, John, 247 
Simon, Charles, 281 
Simond, John, note 134, 99, 281 
Simpson, Nelson, note 139, 99, 282 
Sioux, 44. 100-125. 131, 136, 146-147, 

174, 299 
Sioux, attack on men from Ft. 

Union, 123-124, 288 
Sioux City, S. D., 262 
Sioux Outfit, 299 

Sitting Squaw, see Sitting Woman 
Sitting Woman (Gros Ventre), note 

102, 59-61, 274-276 
Six, note 146, 100-101, 103, 107, 112, 

115, 118-119, 122-123, 283 



Skunk (Gros Ventre), note 97, 55, 

58, 70, 274 
Sleepers, note 113, 63, 276 
Smith, Jacob, see Schmidt. Jacob 
Smith River. 273 
Smithsonian Institution. 241 
Smoke House, 35, 97 
Snake Bute, note 224, 148, 294 
Snake Creek, 168 

Snake (Indians), note 66, 39-40, 268 
Snake Point, note 207, 142, 292 
Snake River, 252, 253, 260 
Soldier band, note 117, 65, 276 
Soldiers, 121 
Southesk, Earl of, 297 
Spaniard, a, 174 
Spaniard, old. note 186, 130 
Spaniards, two, 128 
Spanish Island, note 263, 179, 298 
Spotted Calf, 59 
Spotted Cow, 13 
Spotted Eagle, note 99, 57, 274 
Spread Eagle Point, 250 
Spread Eagle, steamboat, 245 
Stanford, Harry, xi 
Stanley, John M., 241 
Stanley Expedition (1874), 294 
Star Robe, note 94, 54, 274 
Stevens' Expedition 

See Stevens, I. I. 
Stevens, Hazard, 274-275 
Stevens, I. I., note 64, arrives at Ft. 

Benton, 37-42; 46-48, 50-51, 140- 

141, 191, 241-250, 254-256, 260- 

262, 267-274, 277, 281, 295-296 
Stevensville, Montana, 277 
Story Post, 287 
Stoup, Michel, 107. 123 
Stuart. Granville, 246, 262, 287 
Stuart, James, 262 
Stuart, Thomas, 262 
Sublette, William, 252, 298, 300 
Sully Expedition, 1864, 294 
Sun River, 38, 93, 272, 277, 282, 295, 

301 
Sun River, Upper, 256 
Sun River, South Fork, 278 
Surround, note 57, 32, 267 
Susnard, T., 193 

Sweetgrass Hills, see Three Buttes 
Switzerland. 280 
Tail That Goes Up the Hill, note 

116, 63, 276 
Tarbois Creek, 287 
Tarbot Creek, 287 
Teton River, 5-6, 16-20, 23-25, 35-36, 

39, 43, 47, 50, 52-53, 57-58, 60, 246, 

291 
Teton Times, 259 



326 



INDEX 



Teton of the Yellowstone, 298 
Tetreau, note 154, 103, 110, 285 
Tevis, Mr., note 17, 4, 9, 14, 254 
Thin Behind (Crow), 176-177, 183, 

186-187 
Thin Hills, 136 
Three Bulls, note 120, 67, 277 
Three Butes, note 12, 2, 40. 48-49, 

250, 268 
Three Cottonwoods, see Cotton- 
wood Creek, Yellowstone R. 
Three Forks, 271 
Three Islands, note 202, 141, 292 
Three Sons (Indian), 255 
Tiger Butes, note 242, 163, 296 
Tobacco Gardens, 245 
Tobacco Pants (Indian), 59 
Tongue River, 107, 110, 112, 114, 

122-123, 286 
Tongues, see Buffalo tongues 
Townsend, John K., 258 
Tramps On Her Foot, Miss, 116 
Treaty, note 130, 49, 91, 192, 280 

See also Blackfoot, Crow and 
Fort Laramie treaties 
Tremble River, note 198, 137, 144, 

162, 170, 172, 182, 277, 291 
Troudelle. Charles, 193-194 
Trudell, C, see Troudelle, Charles 
Tullock, Samuel, 284 
12 Mile Prairie, 175, 178, 184, 187 
Two Elks (Gros Ventre), note 83, 

45, 59, 273 
Two Face (Crow), note 174, 120, 

122-123, 176, 186, 288 
Two Fork, note 116, 62, 164, 183, 

275 
Two Medicine Lodge Creek, 255, 

260 
Two White Weasels, note 223, 147, 

294 
Ulm, Montana, 278 
Union Fur Company, 298 
Upham. H. D., 266, 277 
Upper Bullbers 

See Big Muddy, Mo. R. 
Upper Missouri Outfit, note 277, 

192-236, 240-241, 246, 260, 263, 

267, 281, 295, 299 
Upper Missouri Outfit, Inventories, 

note 284, 195-236, 305 
Upper Missouri River, 240-243, 263, 

265-266, 270-272, 274, 277, 292. 304 
Vaillant, 285 
Valle, 101, 104, 107. 110 
Van Cleve, Mrs. Charlotte W., 263 
Vandenberg, Henry, 276 
Vanderbilt, S. D., 282 



Vaughan, Alfred J., note 82, 44-45, 

100. no, 122, 132-133, 136, 141, 

174, 176, 178. 182, 184-187, 171- 

172. 255, 270, 272-273, 282-283, 

287, 289, 297-298, 301 
Vaughan, Fanny, 272 
Vaughan, young. 272 
Vaughan's, Col. boat, 135-136 
Vaughn's, Robert, "Then and Now," 

268, 271, 298 
Virginia, 272 
Walla Walla, Wash., 256, 289 

See. also. Fort Walla Walla 
Warren. Lieut. G. V., note 254, 174, 

179, 282, 297-298 
Washington, D. C. 241, 262 
Washington Territory, 268-269, 274 
Washington's Birthday, 112 
Water Raises, note 184, 129, 289 
Weasel Calf, 295 
Weippert, George, note 10, 2. 48, 52, 

74, 193-194, 239, 247, 300 
Weippert's, G., wife died, 71 
Wheeler, Col. W. F., 239, 247 
White Bear, 119-120 
White Calf, note 28, 10, 262, 268 
White Calf, young, 69 
White Cow Against the Bank, note 

49, 27. 62, 266 
White Cow in the Middle, 266 
White Dog, 285 
White Eagle (Gros Ventre), note 

118, 65, 276_ 
White man with gold, note 8, 1, 246 
White River, 129, 293 
White Side, see White Thigh 
White Thigh (Crow chief), note 

240, 158-159, 295 
Whoop-up, 275 
Wiggins, Mr., 250-251 
William Brand, steamboat, 288 
Williston, N. D.. 245. 289 
Willow Creek. 163. 187, 278 
Willsen, see Willson, E. S. 
Willson, E. S., note 85, 45, 48, 53- 

55, 65, 141, 161, 273 
Wilson. Mrs., 285 
Wind River, 265. 288 
Winnipeg, Canada, 257, 260. 299 
Winter houses, 151-152 
Wipert, G., see Weippert, George 
Wister, 60 
Wolf Mountain, 76 
Wolf Point, note 251, 162, 170, 172, 

250. 270, 296 
Wolf Skin, 109-111, 115-116 
Wood Mountain. 131 
Woody. F. H., 247 
Woody Mountain, 240 



INDEX 



zn 



Wray, J. F., note 2>2,, 16-17, 37, 42, 
49, 58, 60, 62, 67, IZ, 80-81, 88, 99, 
139, 156-157, 165, 171-172, 179, 
193, 246, 263-264 
Wren, Mrs. John, 278 
Wright, George B., 276 
Wyeth, N. J., 253, 258 
Yanctonias, note 274, 191, 299 
Yankton, S. D., 262 
Yankton Agency, S. D., 267 
Yellow Belly (Crow). 176-177, 186 
Yellow Dog (Crow), 186 



Yellow Fish, see Rose, Charley 
Yellow Hair, note 62, VJ , 267, 277 
Yellow Head, note 123, 69, 75, 267, 

277 
Yellowstone, steamboat, 212, 285, 

299-300 
Yellowstone River, Zl , 39, 42, 44 74 
118, 125, 146, 176, 178, 184-185', 
187, 241-242, 265, 276-277, 282- 
284, 286, 288-289, 297-299, 303-304 
York Factory, Canada, 256 
Zephyr, see Rencontre, Zephyr 



326 

Teto 
Tetr 
Tev 

Thii 
U 
Thi 
Th' 
Th 

Th 



Montana 

State Library Extension CommiMi** 

Missoula. Montana 



DATE DUE 
^'^ 



, Historical sc !• 
'.ons.